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Alternate Names: Arapahoe
Ancestral Homelands: Great Lakes area and northern Minnesota, moving on to North Platte and Arkansas Rivers in Colorado Territory
Cultural Group: Plains Indians
Linguistic Group: Algonkian
Location today: Northern Arapaho in southern Wyoming and northern Colorado and the Southern Arapaho in Oklahoma and southern Kansas
Related Tribes and Groups: The Atsine or Gros Ventre are a branch of the Arapaho.
The population of the tribe in 1990 was estimated at 7,000.
- 1700: migrate from Great Lakes region into the Great Plains
- 1835: the tribe divided into the Northern Arapaho, who settled near the Rocky Mountains (Wyoming), and the Southern Arapaho who settled near the Arkansas River (Colorado).
- 1851: Treaty at Fort Laramie
- 1861: Treaty
- 1864: Sand Creek Massacre, 130 Southern Arapaho and Cheyenne, many women and children, are killed by the U.S. Army, under the direction of Colonel John M. Covington.
- 1865: Treaties
- 1867: Treaty of Medicine Lodge, Southern Arapaho placed on a Reservation in Oklahoma, shared by the Cheyenne
- 1868: Treaty at Fort Laramie -- Northern Arapaho were assigned to the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota with the Sioux but they sought their own lands.
- 1876: Northern Arapaho rejected proposal to rejoin with the Southern Arapho
- 1878: Northern Arapaho assigned to the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, shared with the Shoshone who were former enemies
This tribe is primarily associated with the Wind River Indian Reservation in Wyoming to which they were assigned in 1876, along with the Shoshone .
The Southern Arapaho were removed to a reservation in western Oklahoma in 1867; sharing the reservation with the Cheyenne. That reservation today is known by the combined name of Cheyenne and Arapaho Reservation.
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
- Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Arapaho tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.
- Additional details are given in David Bushnell's Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi.
- For additional history of the tribe, read more....
Northern Arapaho Nation:
Phone: 307.332-.6120 or 307.856.3461
The following agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs had jurisdiction over the Arapaho for the time periods indicated. For details, see the page for the respective agency.
- Upper Platte Agency, 1846-1855
- Upper Platte Agency, 1855-1871
- Red Cloud Agency, 1871-1878
- Pine Ridge Agency, 1878-1888
- Shoshoni Agency, 1885-1937
- Wind River Agency. 1938-present
- Upper Arkansas Agency, 1855-1874
- Cantonment Agency, 1903-1917
- Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, 1874-present
Correspondence and Census
|Tribe||Agency||Location of Original Records||
Pre-1880 Correspondence M234
RG 75 Rolls 962
|FHL Film Number||
Post-1885 Census M595 RG 75 Rolls 693
|FHL Film Number|
|Arapaho||Upper Platte Agency, 1855-74||Washington D.C.||Rolls 889-96||-||-||-|
|Arapaho||Upper Arkansas Agency, 1855-74||Washington D.C.||Rolls 878-82||-||-||-|
|Arapaho||Red Cloud (Pine Ridge) Agency, 1871-1961||Washington D. C. and Kansas City||Rolls 715-26||-||-||-|
|Arapaho||Wind River Agency, 1873-1952||Denver||-||-||Roll 663|
|Arapaho||Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, 1875||Washington D.C and Fort Worth||Rolls 119-26||-||Rolls 27-32||-|
|Arapaho||Shoshoni Agency, 1885-1937||Washington D.C. and Denver||-||-||-Rolls 498-504||-|
|Arapaho||Cantonment Agency, 1903-27||Washington D.C. and Fort Worth||-||-||Rolls 16-17||-|
Seger School, 1903-12, 1914-27
|Washington D.C.||-||-||Roll 479||-|
- 1851 September 17, at Fort Laramie
- 1861 February 18, at Fort Wise
- October 14, 1861, at Little Arkansas River
- 1865 October 17,
- October 28, 1867, at Council Camp
- 1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge
- 1868 April 29, at Fort Laramie
- May 10, 1868, at Fort Laramie
- Cheyenne and Arapaho, M595, Births and Deaths 1925-1934, FHL Film: 574191
Important Web Sites
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published