Arapaho Indians

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The Arapaho (Arapahoe) Tribe is primarily associated with the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming.

Linguistic Group: Algonkian

Cultural Group: Plains Indians

Originaly inhabited: Great Lakes area and northern Minnesota, moving on to North Platte and Arkansas Rivers in Colorado Territory

Atsine or Gros Ventre are a branch of the Arapaho.

Population: 1990  7,000

Location today: Northern Arapho in southern Wyoming and northenr Colorado and the Souther Arapaho in Oklahoma and southern Kansas

History

Brief Timeline

  • 1700: migrate from Great Lakes region into the Great Plains
  • 1835: the tribe diveded in to the Northern Arapaho who settle near the Rocky Mountains (Wyoming) and Southern Arapaho  who settle near Arkansas River (Colorado).
  • 1851: Treaty at Fort Larimie
  • 1861: Treaty
  • 1864: Sand Creek Massacre, 130 Southern Areapho and Cheyenne many women and children are killed by the U.S. Army, under the direction of Colonel John M. Covington 
  • 1865: Treaties
  • 1867: Treaty of Medicine Lodge, Southern Arapaho placed on a Reservation in Oklahoma , shared by the Cheyenne
  • 1868: at Fort Laramie, Treaty Northern Arapho were assigned to the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota with the  Sioux but they sought there own lands.
  • 1876:  Northern Arapaho rejected proposal to rejoin with the Southern Arapho
  • 1878: Northern Arapaho assigned to the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, shared with the Shoshone who were former enemy

Reservations

This tribe is primarily associated with the Wind River Indian Reservation in Wyoming.

Northern Arapaho assigned to the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming in 1876; sharing the reservation with the Shoshone

Southern Arapaho removed to reservation in western Oklahoma in 1867; sharing the reservation with the Cheyenne

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Arapaho tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in David Bushnell's Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi.

For additional history of the tribe, read more....

Tribal Headquarters

Northern Arapaho Nation:

Phone: 307.332-.6120 or 307.856.3461
Fax: 307.332.7543

Records

Agencies

  • Upper Platte Agency
  • Upper Arkansas Agency
  • Pine Ridge Agency
  • Wind River Agency
  • Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency
  • Shoshoni Agency
  • Cantonment Agency

Correspondence and Census

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence M234

RG 75 Rolls 962

Roll Number

FHL Film Number

Post-1885 Census M595  RG 75 Rolls 693

Roll Number

FHL Film Number
Arapaho Upper Platte Agency, 1855-74 Washington D.C. Rolls 889-96 - - -
Arapaho Upper Arkansas Agency, 1855-74 Washington D.C. Rolls 878-82 - - -
Arapaho Red Cloud (Pine Ridge) Agency, 1871-1961 Washington D. C. and Kansas City Rolls 715-26 - - -
Arapaho Wind River Agency, 1873-1952 Denver - - Roll 663
Arapaho Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, 1875 Washington D.C and Fort Worth Rolls 119-26 - Rolls 27-32 -
Arapaho Shoshoni Agency, 1885-1937 Washington D.C. and Denver - - -Rolls 498-504 -
Arapaho Cantonment Agency, 1903-27 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth - - Rolls 16-17 -
Arapaho

Seger School,  1903-12, 1914-27

Washington D.C. - - Roll 479 -


Treaties

  • 1851 September 17, at Fort Laramie
  • 1861 February 18, at Fort Wise
  • October 14, 1861, at Little Arkansas River
  • 1865 October 17,
  • 1865
  • October 28, 1867, at Council Camp
  •  1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge
  •  1868 April 29, at Fort Laramie
  • May 10, 1868, at Fort Laramie

Vital Records:

  • Cheyenne and Arapaho, M595, Births and Deaths 1925-1934, FHL Film: 574191

Important Web Sites

References


Bibliography

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published