Difference between revisions of "Arapaho Indians"

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''[[Indians of Montana|Indians of Montana]] Arapaho Indians''
  
The Arapaho (Arapahoe) Tribe is primarily associated with the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming.
+
To get started in [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]]
  
'''Linguistic Group''': Algonkian
+
'''Alternate Names:''' Arapahoe
  
'''Cultural Group:''' Plains Indians  
+
<br>
 +
 
 +
{{infobox ethnic group
 +
|group = Arapaho
 +
|image = [[Image:Arapaho Indian In a Piegan Lodge3.jpg|232x231px]]
 +
|poptime =
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<table style="background: none; width: 100%;" rules="rows">
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<tr>
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<td>1990</td>
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<td style="text-align: right;">abt 7000</td><td style="width: 2px;">{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}</td>
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</tr>
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<tr>
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<td>???</td>
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<td style="text-align: right;">???</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}</td>
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</tr>
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<tr>
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<td>???</td>
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<td style="text-align: right;">???</td><td>{{resize|0%|&nbsp;}}</td>
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</tr>
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<tr>
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</table>
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<small></small>
 +
|popplace = '''Ancestral Homelands''': Great Lakes area and northern Minnesota, moving on to North Platte and Arkansas Rivers in Colorado Territory<br>
 +
'''Descendants''':<br>
 +
Northern Arapaho -- [[Wind River Indian Reservation (Wyoming)|Wind River Indian Reservation]] in Wyoming and some in southern Wyoming and northern Colorado
 +
Southern Arapaho -- [[Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Cheyenne and Arapaho Reservation]] in Oklahoma and some in Oklahoma and southern Kansas
 +
|status = Federally recognized
 +
|linguistic = Algonkian
 +
|cultural = Plains Indians
 +
|related-c = The [[Grosventre Indians|Atsine or Gros Ventre]] are a branch of the Arapaho
 +
}}
  
Originaly inhabited northern Minnesota, moving on to North Platte and Arkansas rivers in Colorado Territory
+
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
  
Atsine or Gros Ventre are a branch of the Arapaho.
+
'''Northern Arapaho:'''
  
== History  ==
+
Northern Arapaho Nation<br>533 Ethete Road<br>Ethete, WY 82520<br>Phone: 1-307-332-6120 or 1-307-856-3461<br>Fax: 307.332.7543
  
==== Brief Timeline  ====
+
*[http://www.northernarapaho.com/ Northern Arapaho Tribe] Official Website
  
'''1867:''' Treaty of Medicine Lodge, Southern Arapaho placed on Oklahoma Reservaton
+
'''Southern Arapaho:'''  
  
'''1876:''' Northern Arapaho assigned to the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming
+
Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma<br>P. O. Box 38<br>Concho, OK 73022<br>Phone: 1-405-262-0345<br>Fax: 405.422.7424
  
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
==== Brief History ====
+
=== History  ===
 +
 
 +
During the 1700's the tribe migrated from the Great Lakes region into the Great Plains
 +
 
 +
In 1835 conflict with in the tribe caused a division, createting the&nbsp;Northern Arapaho and Southern Arapaho groups. The Northern Arapaho settled in what is now Wyoming near the Rocky Mountians. The Southern group settled in "Colorado" near the Arkansas River.
 +
 
 +
A Treaty in 1861 stated ..."Out of the lands so set apart and retained there shall be assigned to each member of said tribes, without distinction of age or sex, a tract of forty acres, to include in every case, as far as practicable, a reasonable portion of timber and water; ....and one hundred and sixty acres shall also be reserved out of each division of the retained tract for the establishment and support of schools for the education of the youth of the tribe..."
 +
 
 +
During the&nbsp;Sand Creek Massacre, in 1864 130 Southern Arapaho and [[Cheyenne Indians|Cheyenne]] were killed by the U.S. Army.
 +
 
 +
A proposed Treaty October 14, 1865&nbsp;ratified in May of 1866. made an effort to provide for the survivors of the Sand Creek Massacre, and propossed&nbsp; ..."an accurate census of the Indians entitled shall be taken at the time of the annuity payment in the spring of each year by their agent...the census shall be the bases on which the amount to be expended the next ensuing year shall be determined..."
 +
 
 +
The 1865 Treaty at the council-ground on the Little Arkansas in the state of Kansas, proclaimed the&nbsp;[[Cheyenne Indians|Cheyenne]], Arapaho and [[Apache Indians|Apache]] tribe are to be united and recognized as Confederated Tribes.
 +
 
 +
With the signing of the Treaty of Medicine Lodge (1867), the Southern Arapaho were placed on a reservation in Oklahoma sharing with the Cheyenne. The Treaty of Fort Laramie assigned the Northern Arapaho to the [[Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (South Dakota)|Pine Ridge reservation]] in South Dakota to be shared with the [[Sioux Indians|Sioux]], however the Northern Arapaho desired their own lands. Finally in 1878 the Northern Arapaho were assigned to the [[Wind River Indian Reservation (Wyoming)|Wind River Reservation]] in Wyoming sharing with the Shoshone.
 +
 
 +
==== Brief Timeline ====
 +
 
 +
*'''1700:''' migrate from Great Lakes region into the Great Plains
 +
*'''1835:''' the tribe divided into the Northern Arapaho, who settled near the Rocky Mountains (Wyoming),&nbsp;and the Southern Arapaho&nbsp; who settled near the Arkansas River (Colorado).
 +
**[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0594.htm 1851] September 17, at Fort Laramie
 +
*1855-74: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the [[Upper Arkansas Indian Agency|Upper Arkansas Agency]].
 +
**[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/ara0807.htm 1861] February 18, at Fort Wise
 +
*'''1861: '''Treaty at Little Arkansas River
 +
*'''1864: '''Sand Creek Massacre, 130 Southern Arapaho and Cheyenne, many women and children, are killed by the U.S. Army, under the direction of Colonel John M. Covington.
 +
*'''1865:''' Treaty at camp on the Little Arkansas river, in the state of Kansas
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0984.htm 1867] Treaty of Medicine Lodge, Southern Arapaho placed on a Reservation in Oklahoma, shared by the Cheyenne
 +
*1867: Treaty at Council Camp
 +
*'''1868:''' Treaty at Fort Laramie -- Northern Arapaho were assigned to the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota with the Sioux, but they sought their own lands.
 +
*1875-80: The tribe was under the juridiction of the [[Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency]].
 +
*'''1876:''' Northern Arapaho rejected proposal to rejoin with the Southern Arapaho
 +
*'''1878: '''Northern Arapaho assigned to the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, shared with the Shoshone who were former enemies
  
 
==== Reservations  ====
 
==== Reservations  ====
  
This tribe is primarily associated with the [[Wind River Indian Reservation (Wyoming)|Wind River Indian Reservation]] in Wyoming.  
+
Reservations are tacks of land set aside for the occupation and use by American Indians.
  
Northern Arapaho assigned to the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming in 1876  
+
This tribe is primarily associated with the [[Wind River Indian Reservation (Wyoming)|Wind River Indian Reservation]] in Wyoming to which they were assigned in 1876, along with the Shoshone .
  
Southern Arapaho&nbsp;removed&nbsp;to&nbsp;reservation in Oklahoma in 1867  
+
The Southern Arapaho were removed to a reservation in western Oklahoma in 1867; sharing the reservation with the Cheyenne. That reservation today is known by the combined name of [[Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Cheyenne and Arapaho Reservation]].
 +
 
 +
===== See Also  =====
 +
 
 +
The Arapaho Tibe was under the jurisdiction of the following agencies and superintendencies
 +
 
 +
[[Upper Platte Indian Agency|Upper Platte Agency]]
 +
 
 +
[[Upper Arkansas Indian Agency|Upper Arkansas Agency]]
 +
 
 +
[[Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency]]
 +
 
 +
[[Red Cloud Indian Agency (Nebraska)|Red Cloud Agency]](Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming)
 +
 
 +
[[St. Louis Superintendency of Indian Affairs|St. Louis Superintendency]]
 +
 
 +
[[Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Central Superintendency]]
 +
 
 +
[[Dakota Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Dakota Superintendency]]
 +
 
 +
[[Colorado Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Colorado Superintendency]]
 +
 
 +
[[Northern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Northern Superintendency]]
 +
 
 +
[[Wyoming Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Wyoming Superintendency]]
  
 
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe<br> ====
 
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe<br> ====
  
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'', gave a more complete [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/arapaho/arapahohist.htm history of the&nbsp;Arapaho tribe], with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in David Bushnell's ''[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/scripts/data/database.cgi?file=Data&report=SingleArticle&ArticleID=0017310 Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi]''.  
+
*Frederick Webb Hodge, in his ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico'', gave a more complete [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/arapaho/arapahohist.htm history of the&nbsp;Arapaho tribe], with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.  
 +
*Additional details are given in David Bushnell's ''[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/scripts/data/database.cgi?file=Data&report=SingleArticle&ArticleID=0017310 Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi]''.  
 +
*The web page for the Northern Arapaho Tribe includes a [http://www.northernarapaho.com/history history of the tribe].
 +
*For additional history of the tribe, [http://www.colorado.edu/csilw/arapahoproject/contemporary/history.htm read more....]
 +
 
 +
=== Records  ===
 +
 
 +
==== Agencies  ====
 +
 
 +
The following [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs]] had jurisdiction over the Arapaho for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.
 +
 
 +
<u>Arapaho</u>
 +
 
 +
*[[Upper Platte Indian Agency|Upper Platte Agency]], 1846-1855
  
For additional history of the tribe, [http://www.colorado.edu/csilw/arapahoproject/contemporary/history.htm read more....]
+
<u>Northern Arapaho</u>
  
== Tribal Headquarters  ==
+
*[[Upper Platte Indian Agency|Upper Platte Agency]], 1855-1871
 +
*[[Red Cloud Indian Agency (Wyoming)|Red Cloud Agency]], 1871-1878
 +
*[[Pine Ridge Indian Agency (South Dakota)|Pine Ridge Agency]], 1878-1888
 +
*[[Shoshone Indian Agency (Wyoming)|Shoshoni Agency]], 1885-1937
 +
*[[Wind River Indian Agency (Wyoming)|Wind River Agency]]. 1938-present
  
Northern Arapaho Nation:
+
<u>Southern Arapaho</u>
  
Phone: 307.332-.6120 or 307.856.3461 <br>Fax: 307.332.7543
+
*[[Upper Arkansas Indian Agency|Upper Arkansas Agency]], 1855-1874
 +
*[[Cantonment Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Cantonment Agency]], 1903-1917
 +
*[[Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency]], 1874-present
  
== Records  ==
+
==== Census Records  ====
  
==== Agency Records  ====
+
The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, [[American Indian Census Rolls|click here]].
  
'''Correspondence and Census'''
+
The following table lists the census rolls for the Arapaho Indians:
  
 
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
 
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
 
|-
 
|-
! scope="col" | Tribe
 
 
! scope="col" | Agency  
 
! scope="col" | Agency  
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records  
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
Pre-1880 Correspondence M234
+
Post-1885 Census
  
RG 75 Rolls 962
+
M595&nbsp; RG 75 Rolls 693
  
 
Roll Number
 
Roll Number
  
! scope="col" | FHL Film Number  
+
! scope="col" | FHL Film Number
 +
|-
 +
| Wind River Agency, 1873-1952
 +
| Denver
 +
| Roll 663
 +
| &nbsp;583122
 +
|-
 +
| Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, 1875
 +
| Washington D.C and Fort Worth
 +
| Rolls 27-32
 +
| &nbsp;573873-574191
 +
|-
 +
| Shoshoni Agency, 1885-1937
 +
| Washington D.C. and Denver
 +
| Rolls 498-504
 +
| &nbsp;581873-581879
 +
|-
 +
| Cantonment Agency, 1903-27
 +
| Washington D.C. and Fort Worth
 +
| Rolls 16-17
 +
| &nbsp;573862-573863
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Seger School, 1903-12, 1914-27
 +
 
 +
| Washington D.C.
 +
| Roll 479
 +
| &nbsp;581489
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
==== Correspondence Records  ====
 +
 
 +
There are several sets of correspondence between the supervising offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the local offices -- agencies, subagencies, etc. The correspondence is often historical in nature, including reports of the conditions among local groups of Indians, hostilities, plans for building facilities, activities of traders or missionaries, etc. Occasionally, there will be names of individuals but little detail about them. For more information about American Indian correspondence, [[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|click here]].
 +
 
 +
The following table lists some correspondence relating to the Arapaho Indians: <br>
 +
 
 +
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" | Agency
 +
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
Post-1885 Census M595&nbsp; RG 75 Rolls 693
+
Pre- 1880 Correspondence
 +
 
 +
M234 RG 74 Rolls 962
  
 
Roll Number
 
Roll Number
  
! scope="col" | FHL Film Number
+
! scope="col" |  
 +
FHL  
 +
 
 +
Film  
 +
 
 +
Number
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Arapaho
 
 
| Upper Platte Agency, 1855-74  
 
| Upper Platte Agency, 1855-74  
 
| Washington D.C.  
 
| Washington D.C.  
| Rolls 889-96  
+
| Roll 889-96  
|  
+
| ff-1638620
| -  
 
|
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Arapaho
 
 
| Upper Arkansas Agency, 1855-74  
 
| Upper Arkansas Agency, 1855-74  
 
| Washington D.C.  
 
| Washington D.C.  
 
| Rolls 878-82  
 
| Rolls 878-82  
|
+
| -
| -  
 
|
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Arapaho
 
| Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, 1875
 
| Washington D.C and Fort Worth
 
| Rolls 119-26
 
|
 
| Rolls 27-32
 
|
 
|-
 
| Arapaho
 
 
| Red Cloud (Pine Ridge) Agency, 1871-1961  
 
| Red Cloud (Pine Ridge) Agency, 1871-1961  
 
| Washington D.C. and Kansas City  
 
| Washington D.C. and Kansas City  
 
| Rolls 715-26  
 
| Rolls 715-26  
|
+
| -
| -  
 
|
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Arapaho  
+
| Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, 1875
| Cantonment Agency, 1903-27
 
 
| Washington D.C. and Fort Worth  
 
| Washington D.C. and Fort Worth  
| -
+
| Rolls 119-26
|
+
| -
| Rolls 16-17
+
|}
|
 
|-
 
| Arapaho
 
| Wind River Agency, 1873-1952
 
| Denver
 
| -  
 
|
 
| Rolls 663
 
|
 
|-
 
| Arapaho
 
|
 
Seger School,&nbsp; 1903-12, 1914-27
 
  
| Washington D.C.
+
ff=first film of 962 <br>
|
 
|
 
| Roll 479
 
|
 
|-
 
| Arapaho
 
| Shoshoni Agency, 1885-1937
 
| Washington D.C. and Denver
 
|
 
|
 
| Roll 498-504
 
|
 
|}
 
  
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
'''Treaties'''
+
==== Treaties ====
 +
 
 +
During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, [[American Indian Treaties with the United States|click here]].
 +
 
 +
Treaties to which the Arapaho Indians were a part were:
  
*September 17, 1851, at Fort Laramie [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0594.htm http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0594.htm]  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0594.htm 1851] September 17, at Fort Laramie
*February 18, 1861, at Fort Wise [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/ara0807.htm http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/ara0807.htm]
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/ara0807.htm 1861] February 18, at Fort Wise  
 
*October 14, 1861, at Little Arkansas River  
 
*October 14, 1861, at Little Arkansas River  
*Ocotber 17, 1865, [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/apa0891.htm http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/apa0891.htm]  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/ara0807.htm 1861] February 18, at Fort Wise
*1865: [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0887.htm http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0887.htm]  
+
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0887.htm 1865]  
 
*October 28, 1867, at Council Camp  
 
*October 28, 1867, at Council Camp  
*1867: Treaty of Medicine Lodge [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0984.htm http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0984.htm]  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0984.htm 1867] Treaty of Medicine Lodge
*April 29, 1868, at Fort Laramie [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/nor1012.htm http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/nor1012.htm]
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/nor1012.htm 1868] April 29, at Fort Laramie  
 
*May 10, 1868, at Fort Laramie
 
*May 10, 1868, at Fort Laramie
  
'''Vital Records:'''
+
==== Tribal Office Records  ====
 +
 
 +
The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.
 +
 
 +
==== Vital Records ====
 +
 
 +
Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "[[American Indian Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc.|Sanitary Record]] of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "[[American Indian Census Rolls|Indian Census Rolls]]." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  
*Cheyenne and Arapaho (M595) Births and Deaths 1925-1934 FHL Film: 574191
+
Some vital records for the Arapaho Indians include:  
  
== Important Web Sites  ==
+
*Cheyenne and Arapaho, M595, Births and Deaths 1925-1934, FHL Film: 574191
 +
 
 +
=== Important Web Sites  ===
  
 
*[http://www.northernarapaho.com/ Northern Arapaho Tribe] Official Website  
 
*[http://www.northernarapaho.com/ Northern Arapaho Tribe] Official Website  
 
*[http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=wikipedia+arapaho+indians&aq=f&oq=&aqi= Wikipedia] article on the Arapaho
 
*[http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=wikipedia+arapaho+indians&aq=f&oq=&aqi= Wikipedia] article on the Arapaho
  
== References  ==
+
=== References  ===
  
 
<references />
 
<references />
  
==== Bibliography ====
+
=== Bibliography  ===
 +
 
 +
==== Arapaho  ====
 +
 
 +
*Carlson, Paul H. ''The Plains Indians''. College Station, Texas: Texas A&amp;M University Press, c1998. FHL book 970.1 C197p
 +
 
 +
==== General ====
  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1122745&disp=Reference+encyclopedia+of+the+American+I%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 R259e].  
+
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; {{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 R259e}}.  
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=831087&disp=The+Gale+encyclopedia+of+Native+American%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 G131g].
+
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 G131g}}.
  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
Line 180: Line 307:
 
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
 
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
 
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
 
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4].<br>
+
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.<br>
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5].<br>
+
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.<br>
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6].<br>
+
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.<br>
 
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
 
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8].<br>
+
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.<br>
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9].<br>
+
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.<br>
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10].  
+
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11].<br>
+
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.<br>
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12].<br>
+
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.<br>
 
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
 
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15].<br>
+
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.<br>
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
 
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
Line 199: Line 326:
  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1465222&disp=Encyclopedia+of+Native+American+tribes%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006].
+
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; {{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006}}.
  
[[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_North_America]]
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[[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]]

Revision as of 14:46, 24 May 2012

Indians of Montana Arapaho Indians

To get started in American Indian Research

Alternate Names: Arapahoe


{{#if: The Atsine or Gros Ventre are a branch of the Arapaho|
Arapaho
Arapaho Indian In a Piegan Lodge3.jpg
Population
1990 abt 7000 
??? ??? 
??? ??? 

Regions with significant populations
Ancestral Homelands: Great Lakes area and northern Minnesota, moving on to North Platte and Arkansas Rivers in Colorado Territory

Descendants:
Northern Arapaho -- Wind River Indian Reservation in Wyoming and some in southern Wyoming and northern Colorado Southern Arapaho -- Cheyenne and Arapaho Reservation in Oklahoma and some in Oklahoma and southern Kansas

Status

Federally recognized

Linguistic Group

Algonkian

Cultural Group

Plains Indians

Other Related Ethnic Groups

The Atsine or Gros Ventre are a branch of the Arapaho

Tribal Headquarters

Northern Arapaho:

Northern Arapaho Nation
533 Ethete Road
Ethete, WY 82520
Phone: 1-307-332-6120 or 1-307-856-3461
Fax: 307.332.7543

Southern Arapaho:

Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma
P. O. Box 38
Concho, OK 73022
Phone: 1-405-262-0345
Fax: 405.422.7424


History

During the 1700's the tribe migrated from the Great Lakes region into the Great Plains

In 1835 conflict with in the tribe caused a division, createting the Northern Arapaho and Southern Arapaho groups. The Northern Arapaho settled in what is now Wyoming near the Rocky Mountians. The Southern group settled in "Colorado" near the Arkansas River.

A Treaty in 1861 stated ..."Out of the lands so set apart and retained there shall be assigned to each member of said tribes, without distinction of age or sex, a tract of forty acres, to include in every case, as far as practicable, a reasonable portion of timber and water; ....and one hundred and sixty acres shall also be reserved out of each division of the retained tract for the establishment and support of schools for the education of the youth of the tribe..."

During the Sand Creek Massacre, in 1864 130 Southern Arapaho and Cheyenne were killed by the U.S. Army.

A proposed Treaty October 14, 1865 ratified in May of 1866. made an effort to provide for the survivors of the Sand Creek Massacre, and propossed  ..."an accurate census of the Indians entitled shall be taken at the time of the annuity payment in the spring of each year by their agent...the census shall be the bases on which the amount to be expended the next ensuing year shall be determined..."

The 1865 Treaty at the council-ground on the Little Arkansas in the state of Kansas, proclaimed the Cheyenne, Arapaho and Apache tribe are to be united and recognized as Confederated Tribes.

With the signing of the Treaty of Medicine Lodge (1867), the Southern Arapaho were placed on a reservation in Oklahoma sharing with the Cheyenne. The Treaty of Fort Laramie assigned the Northern Arapaho to the Pine Ridge reservation in South Dakota to be shared with the Sioux, however the Northern Arapaho desired their own lands. Finally in 1878 the Northern Arapaho were assigned to the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming sharing with the Shoshone.

Brief Timeline

  • 1700: migrate from Great Lakes region into the Great Plains
  • 1835: the tribe divided into the Northern Arapaho, who settled near the Rocky Mountains (Wyoming), and the Southern Arapaho  who settled near the Arkansas River (Colorado).
    • 1851 September 17, at Fort Laramie
  • 1855-74: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Upper Arkansas Agency.
    • 1861 February 18, at Fort Wise
  • 1861: Treaty at Little Arkansas River
  • 1864: Sand Creek Massacre, 130 Southern Arapaho and Cheyenne, many women and children, are killed by the U.S. Army, under the direction of Colonel John M. Covington.
  • 1865: Treaty at camp on the Little Arkansas river, in the state of Kansas
  • 1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge, Southern Arapaho placed on a Reservation in Oklahoma, shared by the Cheyenne
  • 1867: Treaty at Council Camp
  • 1868: Treaty at Fort Laramie -- Northern Arapaho were assigned to the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota with the Sioux, but they sought their own lands.
  • 1875-80: The tribe was under the juridiction of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency.
  • 1876: Northern Arapaho rejected proposal to rejoin with the Southern Arapaho
  • 1878: Northern Arapaho assigned to the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, shared with the Shoshone who were former enemies

Reservations

Reservations are tacks of land set aside for the occupation and use by American Indians.

This tribe is primarily associated with the Wind River Indian Reservation in Wyoming to which they were assigned in 1876, along with the Shoshone .

The Southern Arapaho were removed to a reservation in western Oklahoma in 1867; sharing the reservation with the Cheyenne. That reservation today is known by the combined name of Cheyenne and Arapaho Reservation.

See Also

The Arapaho Tibe was under the jurisdiction of the following agencies and superintendencies

Upper Platte Agency

Upper Arkansas Agency

Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency

Red Cloud Agency(Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming)

St. Louis Superintendency

Central Superintendency

Dakota Superintendency

Colorado Superintendency

Northern Superintendency

Wyoming Superintendency

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Records

Agencies

The following agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs had jurisdiction over the Arapaho for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.

Arapaho

Northern Arapaho

Southern Arapaho

Census Records

The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, click here.

The following table lists the census rolls for the Arapaho Indians:

Agency Location of Original Records

Post-1885 Census

M595  RG 75 Rolls 693

Roll Number

FHL Film Number
Wind River Agency, 1873-1952 Denver Roll 663  583122
Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, 1875 Washington D.C and Fort Worth Rolls 27-32  573873-574191
Shoshoni Agency, 1885-1937 Washington D.C. and Denver Rolls 498-504  581873-581879
Cantonment Agency, 1903-27 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth Rolls 16-17  573862-573863

Seger School, 1903-12, 1914-27

Washington D.C. Roll 479  581489


Correspondence Records

There are several sets of correspondence between the supervising offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the local offices -- agencies, subagencies, etc. The correspondence is often historical in nature, including reports of the conditions among local groups of Indians, hostilities, plans for building facilities, activities of traders or missionaries, etc. Occasionally, there will be names of individuals but little detail about them. For more information about American Indian correspondence, click here.

The following table lists some correspondence relating to the Arapaho Indians:

Agency Location of Original Records

Pre- 1880 Correspondence

M234 RG 74 Rolls 962

Roll Number

FHL

Film

Number

Upper Platte Agency, 1855-74 Washington D.C. Roll 889-96 ff-1638620
Upper Arkansas Agency, 1855-74 Washington D.C. Rolls 878-82 -
Red Cloud (Pine Ridge) Agency, 1871-1961 Washington D.C. and Kansas City Rolls 715-26 -
Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, 1875 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth Rolls 119-26 -

ff=first film of 962


Treaties

During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, click here.

Treaties to which the Arapaho Indians were a part were:

  • 1851 September 17, at Fort Laramie
  • 1861 February 18, at Fort Wise
  • October 14, 1861, at Little Arkansas River
  • 1861 February 18, at Fort Wise
  • 1865
  • October 28, 1867, at Council Camp
  • 1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge
  • 1868 April 29, at Fort Laramie
  • May 10, 1868, at Fort Laramie

Tribal Office Records

The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.

Vital Records

Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "Indian Census Rolls." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Some vital records for the Arapaho Indians include:

  • Cheyenne and Arapaho, M595, Births and Deaths 1925-1934, FHL Film: 574191

Important Web Sites

References


Bibliography

Arapaho

  • Carlson, Paul H. The Plains Indians. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, c1998. FHL book 970.1 C197p

General

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published