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The Apache Tribe is primarily associated with Spanish Southwest and the state of Oklahoma. See the Bands and Groups below for at least a partial listing of federally-recognized the subdivisions of the tribe, with their locations and reservations.
Linguistic Group: Athabascan
Cultural Group: Plains
Ancestral Homeland: Texas, Arizona and Mexico
- 1 Leaders: Cochise, Geronimo, Victorio
- 2 Tribal Headquarters
- 3 History
- 4 Bands and Groups of the Tribe and Their Reservations
- 5 Records
- 6 Important Web Sites
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
Apache Eastern: Lipan, Jicarilla, Mescalero, Chiricahua, and Kiowa Apache.
Apache Western: Chiricahua, Tonto, Pinal, Coyotero, Arivaipa, San Carlos, and White Mountain Apache
Population: 1990: 30,000
There is no single tribal headquarters for all parts of the Apache Indian Tribe in the United States. Each part of the tribe has their own tribal offices and headquarters. For information on those offices, see the individual pages for each part of the tribe. .
The Apache could not be suppressed by the Spanish or the Mexicans.
- 1540: Francisdo Vasquez de Coronado's expedition
- 1786: Presidio Ration Program, the Spanish distributed food and alcohol free to all Apache
- 1835: Sonora post reward for Apache scalps
- 1841: Jiarilla Apache deprived of land by a Mexican land grant
- 1846: homeland became New Mexico Territory
- 1848: Apache land ceded by Mexico to the United States
- 1852 July 1, Treaty at Santa Fe
- 1853 July 27, Treaty at Fort Atkinson, with the Comanche and Kiowa
- 1861: The Chiricahuz under leadership of Cochise went to war with the United States
- The Coyotero and Lipan were nearly exterminated
- 1861: Cochise mistakenly arrested, beginning the Apache Wars
- 1863: The Mescalero surrendered
- 1863: Treaty
- 1864: The Territorial Legislature of Arizona passed a resolution legalizing the killing of all Apache people.
- 1865 October 14, with the Cheyenne and Arapaho
- 1865 October 17, with the Cheyenne and Arapaho
- 1867] October 21, at Council Camp with the Kiowa andComanche
- 1868: Jicarilla surrendered
- 1870: Reservations established
- 1871: White Mountain Reservation
- 1871: Tularosa Reservation - Mimbreno Apache
- 1871: 125 Aravaipa killed at Camp Grant
- 1872: Cochise and the Chiricahua made peace with the United States. A number of Chiricahua led by Geronimo rejected peeace and left the reservations to raid.
- 1873: Mescalero Reservation is established
- 1874: Cochise dies
- 1875: Tonto Apache moved to San Carlos Apache Reservation
- 1875: Yavapai Apache(1,000) settle on the San Carlos Reservation
- 1877: Mimbreno Apache forced to move to San Carlos Reservation
- 1886: Geronimo surrendered
- 1887: a group of children sent to Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania
- 1887: Jicarilla Reservation established
- 1890's: Government mission schools established
- 1897: White Mountain Reservation is divided into Fort Apache and San Carlos Reservations
- 1903: Fort McDowell Reservation - Yavapai Apache
- 1907: Jicarilla Reservation enlarged
- 1913: Chiricahua Apache resettle on Mescalero Reservation
- 1914: land near Camp Verde, Arizona is reserved for the Yavapai and Tonto Apache
- 1937: Jicarilla Apache - constitution
- 1938: White Mountain Apache - constitution
Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Bands
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Apache tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.
White Mountain Reservation
San Carlos Resrvation
Arizona: Camp Verde, Fort Apache, White Mountain, San Carlos
New Mexico: Fort Sill
Apaceh/Kiowa - Federal Trust land
Apache/Mojave/Yavapai - Fort McDowell
Apache/Yavapai - Camp Verde
Arapaho/ Shoshone - Wind River
Apache/Yavapai - Payson Community
Bands and Groups of the Tribe and Their Reservations
Apache Tribe of Oklahoma
Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma
Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico (formerly Jicarilla Apache Tribe) -- Jicarilla Apache Reservation
Mescalero Apache Tribe -- Mescalero Reservation (New Mexico)
Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona
Yavapai-Apache Nation -- Camp Verde Reservation (Arizona)
San Carlos Agency
Correspondence and Census
|Tribe||Agency||Location of Original Records||
M234 RG 75 Roll 962
Post-1885 Census M595 RG 75 Roll 693
|Apache||Kiowa Agency, 1881-1962||Fort Worth||-||-||Rolls 211-223||5766900-576912|
|Apache||Fort Apache Agency, 1875-1955||
WashingtonD.C. and Los Angeles
|Apache||Phoenix Area Office, 1928-37||Washington D.C. and Los Angeles||-||-||Rolls 344-346||-|
|Apache||Truxton Canyon Agency 1895-1951||Los Angeles||-||-||Roll 581||-|
|Apache||San Carlos Agency, 1900-52||Los Angeles||-||-||Rolls 461-470||-|
Abiquiu and Cimarron Agencies, 1869-82
Jicarilla Agency, 1890-1942
Mescalero Agency, 1874-1942
|Apache Kiowa||Upper Platte Agency,1846-55||Washington D.C.||Rolls 889-096||-||-||-|
|Apache Kiowa||Uper Arkansas Agency, 1855-67||Washington D.C.||Rolls 878-82||-||-||-|
Kiowa Agency /
|Washington D.C. and Fort Worth||Rolls 375-86||-||Rolls 211-223||576900-576912|
|Apache Mescalero||Mescalero Agency, 1874-1946||Denver||-||-||Rolls 254-256||579664-579666|
|Apache Mojave||Camp McDowell (Pima) Agency, 1901-51||Washington D.C.||-||-||Roll 15||573861|
|Apache White Mountain||
Fort Apache Agency, 1875-1955
Washington D.C. and Los Angeles
|Apache Chiricahua||Arizona Superintendency, 1863-80||Washington D.C.||Rolls 3-28||-||-||-|
New Mexico Superintendency, to 1877
Arizona Superintendency, 1877-80
|Apache,Lipan||Texas Agency, 1847-59||Washington D.C.||Rolls 858-61||-||-||-|
|Apache, Lipan||Central Superintendencey, 1876-80||Washington D.C.||Rolls 67-70||-||-||-|
|Apache, Mimbreno||New Mexico Superintendency, to 1877||Washington D.C.||Rolls 546-82||-||-||-|
|Apache, Mimbreno||Arizona Superintendency, 1877-80||Washington D.C.||Rolls 3-28||-||-||-|
|Apache, Mogollon||New Mexico Superintendency, t0 1877||Washington D.C.||Rolls 546-72||-||_||-|
|Washington D.C.||Rolls 3-28||-||-||-|
|Apache,-Mojave||Camp McDowell (pima Agency) 1901-51||Los Angeles||-||-||Roll 15||573861|
|Apache-Mojave||Phoenix Area Office, 1907-74||Los Angeles||-||-||Rolls 344-45||-|
- 1852 July 1, at Santa Fe
- 1853 July 27, at Fort Atkinson, with the Comanche and Kiowa
- 1865 October 14, with the Cheyenne and Arapaho
- 1865 October 17, with the Cheyenne and Arapaho
- 1867 October 21, at Council Camp with the Kiowa andComanche
- Kiowa Agency, M595, Births and Deaths 1924-1932, FHL Film: 576909, 1930-1936 FHL film: 576911
- Truxton Canon Agency, M595, Births and Deaths 1924-1939, FHL Film: 583040
- Jicarilla Agency, M595, Births and Deaths 1924-1929, FHL Film: 576887
Important Web Sites
- Constitution and By-laws of the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma
- Constitution and By-laws of the Yavapai-Apache Nation
- White Mountain Apache Tribe Official Website
- Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Federal Register, Vol. 67, No. 134, 12 July 2002 Available online
- Carlson, Paul H. The Plains Indians. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, c1998. FHL book 970.1 C197p
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published