American Indians in the Civil War

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United States  Gotoarrow.png  U.S Military  Gotoarrow.png  U.S. Civil War  Gotoarrow.png  American Indians in the Civil War

Cherokee Confederates Reunion


Introduction

During the Civil War, 28,693 American Indians served in the Union and Confederate armies.[1] They served in various regiments in Oklahoma as well as in military units of other states. "Many Native American tribes fought in the war including: the Delaware, Creek, Cherokee, Seminole, Kickapoo, Seneca, Osage, Shawnee, Choctaw, Lumbee, Chickasaw, Iroquois, Powhatan, Pequot, Ojibwa, Huron, Odawa, Potawatomi, Catawba, and Pamunkey. The Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminole, Catawba, and Creek tribes were the only tribes to fight on the Confederate side."[1]

Union General Ely S. Parker, of the Seneca tribe, was the military secretary for Ulysses S. Grant and a lawyer.  He wrote the articles of surrender signed by Robert E. Lee.[2]

To determine where a tribe is/was, see the map showing locations of tribes in the early 1800s

For help with American Indian genealogical research, see the Wiki article, American Indian Genealogy.

The following is not a complete list.

Confederate Regular Troops 

Cherokee

  • 1st Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles, CSA (Confederate)
    Organized at Old Fort Wayne, Delaware District, Cherokee Nation, in July, 1861.
    Surrendered on June 23, 1865.
    Commanders: Colonels James M. Bell and Stand Watie; Lieutenant Colonels Robert C. Parks, Thomas F. Taylor, Joseph F. Thompson, and Clem N. Vann; and Majors E.C. Bondinot and E.J. Howland.
Sources

Chickasaw

Choctaw

  • 1st Regiment, Choctaw Mounted Rifles, CSA (Confederate)
    Completed organization during the early spring of 1862 where Atoka now stands in the Choctaw Nationa.
    Surrendered in June, 1865 at Doaksville.
    Field officers: Colonel Sampson Folsom, Lieutenant Colonel David F. Harkins, and Major Sylvester Durant.
  • 3rd Regiment, Choctaw Cavalry, CSA (Confederate)
    Organized during the fall of 1863 using McCurtain's 1st Choctaw Cavalry Battalion as its nucleus.
    Surrendered at Doaksville on June 23, 1865.
    Commanders were Colonel Jackson McCurtain, Lieutenant Colonel (acting) Tom Lewis, and Major John Page.

Creek

  • 1st Regiment Creek Mounted Volunteers, CSA(Confederate)
    1st Creek Infantry Regiment was organized near Eufaula, Creek Nation, in August, 1861, and served as mounted infantry. During May, 1862, about 900 officers and men were present, and for a time the unit was assigned to the Department of Indian Territory. It then was attached to D.H. Cooper's, and Watie's Brigade in the Trans-Mississippi Department. The regiment saw action at Elkhorn Tavern and Old Fort Wayne, and later raided the Federals in the Indian Territory. In September, 1864, about 125 men fought at Cabin Creek and on June 23, 1865, surrendered with the other Indian troops. Its commanders were Colonel D.N. McIntosh, Lieutenant Colonels Samuel Chekote and W.R. McIntosh, and Majors J. Derrysaw and James McHenry.
  • 2nd Regiment, Creek Mounted Volunteers, CSA (Confederate)
    2nd Creek Infantry Regiment completed its organization in September, 1861, near Eufaula, Creek Nation, and served as mounted infantry. It was formed as the 1st Creek Battalion and in May, 1862, totalled about 400 officers and men. New companies were added and within a year it was brought up to regimental strength. The unit was assigned to duty in the Department of the Indian Territory, then was placed in General D.H. Cooper's and Watie's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department. It raided and skirmished in the Indian Territory and surrendered in June, 1865. The field officers were Colonels Timothy Barnett and Chilly McIntosh, and Lieutenant Colonel Pink Hawkins.

Osage

  • 1st Osage Battalion, CSA (Confederate)
    Osage Battalion was organized during the spring of 1863 with four companies. It was assigned to General D.H. Cooper's and Watie's Brigade in the Trans-Mississippi Department. This unit participated in various conflicts in the Indian Territory and surrendered in June, 1865. Major Broke Arm was in command.

Seminole

  • 1st Regiment, Seminole Mounted Volunteers, CSA (Confederate)
    1st Seminole Cavalry Battalion completed its organization in September, 1861, and for a time served in the Department of the Indian Territory. During May, 1862, it had 380 men present for duty. Later the unit was assigned to D.H. Cooper's and Watie's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department. It served as scouts and raided the Federals in the Indian Territory and along the border. In September, 1864, the battalion took 130 officers and men into the fight at Cabin Creek, but few surrendered in June, 1865. Lieutenant Colonel John Jumper and Major George Cloud were in command.

Florida

Mississippi

Missouri

Oklahoma

Confederate - First Indian Cavalry Brigade

Created early 1864 when Major General Samuel B. Maxey reorganized Confederate troops in Indian Territory. Colonel Stand Watie was its commander.[3]

Confederate - Second Indian Cavalry Brigade

Created early 1864 when Major General Samuel B. Maxey reorganized Confederate troops in Indian Territory. Colonel Tandy Walker was its commander. It was mostly composed of veteran soldiers from various Choctaw and Chickasaw units.[4]

Union - Indian Home Guard

  • 2nd Regiment, Indian Home Guard (Oklahoma) (Union)
    Organized on Big Creek and at Five-Mile Creek, Kansas, June 22 to July 18, 1862.
    Commanded by Colonel John Ritchie
    Consisted of one company each of Delaware, Kickapoo, Quapaw, Seneca, and Shawnee, two companies of Osage, and two of Cherokee.[5]

Confederate Sources

Service Records

  • Index to Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers who Served in Organizations Raised Directly by the Confederate Government...and Nonregimental Enlisted Men, 26 films starting with FHL film 1205310
- First Cherokee Mounted Rifles (1st Arkansas Cherokee Mounted Rifles) A-L FHL Film 880283
- First Cherokee Mounted Rifles (1st Arkansas Cherokee Mounted Rifles) M-Y FHL Film 880284
- First Cherokee Mounted Volunteers (Watie's Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles, Arkansas; 1st Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles or Riflemen) A-K FHL Film 880285
- (Watie's Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles, Arkansas; 1st Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles or Riflemen), L-Y First Squadron, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers (Holt's Squadron, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers.) FHL Film 880286
- First Chickasaw Infantry (Hunter's Regiment, Indian Volunteers) FHL US/CAN Film 880287
- First Choctaw Mounted Rifles FHL Film 880288
- First Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, A-G FHL Film 880289
- First Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, H-N FHL Film 880290
- First Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, O-Y FHL Film 880291
- First Creek Mounted Volunteers (1st Regiment, Creek Mounted Rifles or Riflemen; Creek Regiment, Mounted Indian Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Arkansas Creeks) A-H FHL Film 880292
- (1st Regiment, Creek Mounted Rifles or Riflemen; Creek Regiment, Mounted Indian Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Arkansas Creeks), I-S FHL Film 880293
- (1st Regiment, Creek Mounted Rifles or Riflemen; Creek Regiment, Mounted Indian Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Arkansas Creeks), T-Z First Osage Battalion, C.S.A. First Seminole Mounted Volunteers, A-C FHL Film 880294
- First Seminole Mounted Volunteers, D-Y FHL Film 880295
- Second Cherokee Mounted Volunteers (2d Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles or Riflemen) FHL Film 880296
- Second Creek Mounted Volunteers Cherokee Regiment (Special Service) Deneale's Regiment, Choctaw Warriors (Deneale's Confederate Volunteers) Shecoe's Chickasaw Battalion, Mounted Volunteers) Washington's Squadron of Indians, C.S.A. (Reserve Squadron of Cavalry) Capt. of Wilkins' Co., Choctaw Infantry Miscellaneous Indian Records. FHL US/CAN Film 880297

Union Records

Other Sources

Internet Sites

  • Oklahoma Historical Society, Civil War Era, article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed 15 August 2011). This article discusses how the Civil War impacted the Five Civilized Tribes.
  • Oklahoma Historical Society, Civil War Refugees, article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed 15 August 2011). 
  • Oklahoma Historical Society, Free Companies, article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed 15 August 2011). Free companies were irregular soldiers. They sometimes included partisans, renegades, bandits, and bushwhackers. Such groups infested the Indian Territory (Oklahoma).
  • Wikipedia contributers, Indian Home Guard (American Civil War), (accessed 28 April 2011).
  • Wikipedia contributers, Native Americans in the American Civil War, (accessed 15 August 2011).

Books

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wikipedia contributors, Native Americans in the American Civil War, (accessed 12 August 2011).
  2. Wikipedia contributors, Native Americans in the United States, an article in Wikipedia.com (accessed 15 August 2011)
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 Oklahoma Historical Society, First Indian Cavalry Brigade, article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed 4 August 2011) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "OHS" defined multiple times with different content
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Oklahoma Historical Society, Second Indian Cavalry Brigade, article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed 4 August 2011)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Wikipedia contributers, Indian Home Guard (American Civil War) article (accessed 5 August 2011).