Difference between revisions of "American Indians in the Civil War"

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*[[4th Regiment, Indian Home Guard (Oklahoma) (Union)|4th Regiment, Indian Home Guard&nbsp;(Oklahoma)&nbsp;(Union)]]<br>Organization commenced but not completed. Men transferred to other organizations.<ref name="Wikipedia" />
 
*[[4th Regiment, Indian Home Guard (Oklahoma) (Union)|4th Regiment, Indian Home Guard&nbsp;(Oklahoma)&nbsp;(Union)]]<br>Organization commenced but not completed. Men transferred to other organizations.<ref name="Wikipedia" />
  
=== Confederate Records  ===
+
=== Confederate Sources  ===
 +
 
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==== Service Records  ====
 +
 
 +
*''Index to Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers who Served in Organizations Raised Directly by the Confederate Government...and Nonregimental Enlisted Men'', {{FHL|108709|title-id|disp=26 films starting with FHL film 1205310}}<br>
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*''Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers who Served in Organizations Raised Directly by the Confederate Government (1861-1865)'', {{FHL|313823|title-id|disp=123 microfilms starting with film 880207}}
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::- First Cherokee Mounted Rifles (1st Arkansas Cherokee Mounted Rifles) A-L FHL Film 880283
 +
::- First Cherokee Mounted Rifles (1st Arkansas Cherokee Mounted Rifles) M-Y FHL Film 880284
 +
::- First Cherokee Mounted Volunteers (Watie's Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles, Arkansas; 1st Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles or Riflemen) A-K FHL Film 880285
 +
::- (Watie's Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles, Arkansas; 1st Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles or Riflemen), L-Y First Squadron, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers (Holt's Squadron, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers.) FHL Film 880286
 +
::- First Chickasaw Infantry (Hunter's Regiment, Indian Volunteers) FHL US/CAN Film 880287
 +
::- First Choctaw Mounted Rifles FHL Film 880288
 +
::- First Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, A-G FHL Film 880289
 +
::- First Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, H-N FHL Film 880290
 +
::- First Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, O-Y FHL Film 880291
 +
::- First Creek Mounted Volunteers (1st Regiment, Creek Mounted Rifles or Riflemen; Creek Regiment, Mounted Indian Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Arkansas Creeks) A-H FHL Film 880292
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::- (1st Regiment, Creek Mounted Rifles or Riflemen; Creek Regiment, Mounted Indian Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Arkansas Creeks), I-S FHL Film 880293
 +
::- (1st Regiment, Creek Mounted Rifles or Riflemen; Creek Regiment, Mounted Indian Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Arkansas Creeks), T-Z First Osage Battalion, C.S.A. First Seminole Mounted Volunteers, A-C FHL Film 880294
 +
::- First Seminole Mounted Volunteers, D-Y FHL Film 880295
 +
::- Second Cherokee Mounted Volunteers (2d Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles or Riflemen) FHL Film 880296
 +
::- Second Creek Mounted Volunteers Cherokee Regiment (Special Service) Deneale's Regiment, Choctaw Warriors (Deneale's Confederate Volunteers) Shecoe's Chickasaw Battalion, Mounted Volunteers) Washington's Squadron of Indians, C.S.A. (Reserve Squadron of Cavalry) Capt. of Wilkins' Co., Choctaw Infantry Miscellaneous Indian Records. FHL US/CAN Film 880297
  
 
=== Union Records  ===
 
=== Union Records  ===

Revision as of 22:10, 15 August 2011

United States  Gotoarrow.png  U.S Military  Gotoarrow.png  U.S. Civil War  Gotoarrow.png  American Indians in the Civil War

Cherokee Confederates Reunion


Introduction

During the Civil War, 28,693 American Indians served in the Union and Confederate armies.[1] They served in various regiments in Oklahoma as well as in military units of other states. "Many Native American tribes fought in the war including: the Delaware, Creek, Cherokee, Seminole, Kickapoo, Seneca, Osage, Shawnee, Choctaw, Lumbee, Chickasaw, Iroquois, Powhatan, Pequot, Ojibwa, Huron, Odawa, Potawatomi, Catawba, and Pamunkey. The Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminole, Catawba, and Creek tribes were the only tribes to fight on the Confederate side."[1]

Union General Ely S. Parker, of the Seneca tribe, was the military secretary for Ulysses S. Grant and a lawyer.  He wrote the articles of surrender signed by Robert E. Lee.[2]

To determine where a tribe is/was, see the map showing locations of tribes in the early 1800s

For help with American Indian genealogical research, see the Wiki article, American Indian Genealogy.

The following is not a complete list.

Confederate Regular Troops 

Cherokee

  • 1st Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles, CSA (Confederate)
    1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles was organized at Old Fort Wayne, Delaware District, Cherokee Nation, in July, 1861. For a time it served in the Department of the Indian Territory, then was assigned to D.H. Cooper's and Watie's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department. The unit was active in the engagements at Elkhorn Tavern, Old Fort Wayne, Prairie Grove, Elk Creek, and Mazzard Prairie. About 200 officers and men saw action at Cabin Creek in September, 1864, then surrendered on June 23, 1865. Its commanders were Colonels James M. Bell and Stand Watie; Lieutenant Colonels Robert C. Parks, Thomas F. Taylor, Joseph F. Thompson, and Clem N. Vann; and Majors E.C. Bondinot and E.J. Howland.
  • 2nd Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers, CSA (Confederate)
    2nd Cherokee Mounted Rifles was organized near Fort Gibson, Cherokee Nation, in September, 1861. It served in the Department of the Indian Territory, then was assigned to D.H. Cooper's and Watie's Brigade in the Trans-Mississippi Department. The unit skirmished and raided the Federals in the Indian Territory and in September, 1864, fought at Cabin Creek with 150 officers and men. Later it surrendered at Doaksville with the other Indian forces. The field officers were Colonel William P. Adair; Lieutenant Colonel O.H.P. Brewer; and Majors Porter Hammock, J.R. Harden, and John Vann.
Sources

Chickasaw

  • 1st Battalion, Chickasaw Cavalry, CSA (Confederate)
    1st Chickasaw Cavalry Battalion was organized in the fall of 1862 with five companies. It served in T. Walker's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department, and skirmished in the Indian Territory and along the border. The unit was included in the surrender on June 23, 1865, with about 75 officers and men. Lieutenant Colonel J.D. Harris and Major L.M. Reynolds were in command.
  • 1st Regiment, Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, CSA (Confederate)
     1st Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, formed at Scullyville, Choctaw Nation, in July, 1861, contained 1,085 men. During May, 1862, it had 27 officers and 707 men present for duty. This unit contained six companies of Choctaws, three of Chickasaw, and one of half-breeds. It reported 12 casualties at Newtonia, then was assigned to D.H. Cooper's and T. Walker's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department. The regiment skirmished and raided the Federals in the Indian Territory and in April, 1863, had 3 men disabled in the fight at Poison Spring. It was included in the surrender on June 23, 1865. The field officers were Colonel Douglas H. Cooper; Lieutenant Colonels James Riley and Tandy Walker; and Majors Willis J. Jones, Mitchell LeFlore, and Stephen Loering.
  • 1st Regiment, Chickasaw Infantry, CSA (Hunter's Indian Volunteers) (Confederate)
    1st Chickasaw Cavalry Regiment was formed during the spring of 1863, but was always undermanned. It was attached to General D.H. Cooper's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department, and participated in various conflicts in the Indian Territory. The unit disbanded late in 1864. Lieutenant Colonel S.H. Martin and Major Abram B. Hays were its commanders.

Choctaw

  • 1st Regiment, Choctaw Mounted Rifles, CSA (Confederate)
    1st Choctaw Cavalry Regiment completed its organization during the early spring of 1862 where Atoka now stands in the Choctaw Nationa. In May there were 31 officers and 686 men present for duty. It sustained 9 casualties in the fight at Newtonia, then saw action at Old Fort Wayne. Later the unit was assigned to T. Walker's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department, and skirmished in the Indian Territory and along the border. In June, 1865, it was included in the surrender at Doaksville. The field officers were Colonel Sampson Folsom, Lieutenant Colonel David F. Harkins, and Major Sylvester Durant.
  • 1st Regiment, Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, CSA (Confederate)
     1st Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, formed at Scullyville, Choctaw Nation, in July, 1861, contained 1,085 men. During May, 1862, it had 27 officers and 707 men present for duty. This unit contained six companies of Choctaws, three of Chickasaw, and one of half-breeds. It reported 12 casualties at Newtonia, then was assigned to D.H. Cooper's and T. Walker's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department. The regiment skirmished and raided the Federals in the Indian Territory and in April, 1863, had 3 men disabled in the fight at Poison Spring. It was included in the surrender on June 23, 1865. The field officers were Colonel Douglas H. Cooper; Lieutenant Colonels James Riley and Tandy Walker; and Majors Willis J. Jones, Mitchell LeFlore, and Stephen Loering.
  • 2nd Regiment, Choctaw Cavalry, CSA (Confederate)
    1st Choctaw Cavalry War [also called 2nd Choctaw Regiment] was organized during the summer of 1862. Formerly Battice's 1st Choctaw Cavalry Battalion which in May contained 216 effectives. Assigned to the Department of the Indian Territory, the unit skirmished and raided the Federals. Later it lost 4 killed and 4 wounded at Poison Spring and surrendered in June, 1865. Colonel Simpson N. Folsom was in command.
  • 3rd Regiment, Choctaw Cavalry, CSA (Confederate)
    3rd Choctaw Cavalry Regiment was organized during the fall of 1863 using McCurtain's 1st Choctaw Cavalry Battalion as its nucleus. It was assigned to T. Walker's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department, and skirmished in the Indian Territory. The regiment surrendered at Doaksville on June 23, 1865. Its commanders were Colonel Jackson McCurtain, Lieutenant Colonel (acting) Tom Lewis, and Major John Page.

Creek

  • 1st Regiment Creek Mounted Volunteers, CSA(Confederate)
    1st Creek Infantry Regiment was organized near Eufaula, Creek Nation, in August, 1861, and served as mounted infantry. During May, 1862, about 900 officers and men were present, and for a time the unit was assigned to the Department of Indian Territory. It then was attached to D.H. Cooper's, and Watie's Brigade in the Trans-Mississippi Department. The regiment saw action at Elkhorn Tavern and Old Fort Wayne, and later raided the Federals in the Indian Territory. In September, 1864, about 125 men fought at Cabin Creek and on June 23, 1865, surrendered with the other Indian troops. Its commanders were Colonel D.N. McIntosh, Lieutenant Colonels Samuel Chekote and W.R. McIntosh, and Majors J. Derrysaw and James McHenry.
  • 2nd Regiment, Creek Mounted Volunteers, CSA (Confederate)
    2nd Creek Infantry Regiment completed its organization in September, 1861, near Eufaula, Creek Nation, and served as mounted infantry. It was formed as the 1st Creek Battalion and in May, 1862, totalled about 400 officers and men. New companies were added and within a year it was brought up to regimental strength. The unit was assigned to duty in the Department of the Indian Territory, then was placed in General D.H. Cooper's and Watie's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department. It raided and skirmished in the Indian Territory and surrendered in June, 1865. The field officers were Colonels Timothy Barnett and Chilly McIntosh, and Lieutenant Colonel Pink Hawkins.

Osage

  • 1st Osage Battalion, CSA (Confederate)
    Osage Battalion was organized during the spring of 1863 with four companies. It was assigned to General D.H. Cooper's and Watie's Brigade in the Trans-Mississippi Department. This unit participated in various conflicts in the Indian Territory and surrendered in June, 1865. Major Broke Arm was in command.

Seminole

  • 1st Regiment, Seminole Mounted Volunteers, CSA (Confederate)
    1st Seminole Cavalry Battalion completed its organization in September, 1861, and for a time served in the Department of the Indian Territory. During May, 1862, it had 380 men present for duty. Later the unit was assigned to D.H. Cooper's and Watie's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department. It served as scouts and raided the Federals in the Indian Territory and along the border. In September, 1864, the battalion took 130 officers and men into the fight at Cabin Creek, but few surrendered in June, 1865. Lieutenant Colonel John Jumper and Major George Cloud were in command.

Florida

Mississippi

Missouri

Oklahoma

Confederate - First Indian Cavalry Brigade

Created early 1864 when Major General Samuel B. Maxey reorganized Confederate troops in Indian Territory. Colonel Stand Watie was its commander.[3]

Confederate - Second Indian Cavalry Brigade

Created early 1864 when Major General Samuel B. Maxey reorganized Confederate troops in Indian Territory. Colonel Tandy Walker was its commander. It was mostly composed of veteran soldiers from various Choctaw and Chickasaw units.[4]

Union - Indian Home Guard

  • 2nd Regiment, Indian Home Guard (Oklahoma) (Union)
    Organized on Big Creek and at Five-Mile Creek, Kansas, June 22 to July 18, 1862.
    Commanded by Colonel John Ritchie
    Consisted of one company each of Delaware, Kickapoo, Quapaw, Seneca, and Shawnee, two companies of Osage, and two of Cherokee.[5]

Confederate Sources

Service Records

  • Index to Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers who Served in Organizations Raised Directly by the Confederate Government...and Nonregimental Enlisted Men, 26 films starting with FHL film 1205310
- First Cherokee Mounted Rifles (1st Arkansas Cherokee Mounted Rifles) A-L FHL Film 880283
- First Cherokee Mounted Rifles (1st Arkansas Cherokee Mounted Rifles) M-Y FHL Film 880284
- First Cherokee Mounted Volunteers (Watie's Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles, Arkansas; 1st Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles or Riflemen) A-K FHL Film 880285
- (Watie's Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles, Arkansas; 1st Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles or Riflemen), L-Y First Squadron, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers (Holt's Squadron, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers.) FHL Film 880286
- First Chickasaw Infantry (Hunter's Regiment, Indian Volunteers) FHL US/CAN Film 880287
- First Choctaw Mounted Rifles FHL Film 880288
- First Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, A-G FHL Film 880289
- First Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, H-N FHL Film 880290
- First Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, O-Y FHL Film 880291
- First Creek Mounted Volunteers (1st Regiment, Creek Mounted Rifles or Riflemen; Creek Regiment, Mounted Indian Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Arkansas Creeks) A-H FHL Film 880292
- (1st Regiment, Creek Mounted Rifles or Riflemen; Creek Regiment, Mounted Indian Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Arkansas Creeks), I-S FHL Film 880293
- (1st Regiment, Creek Mounted Rifles or Riflemen; Creek Regiment, Mounted Indian Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Arkansas Creeks), T-Z First Osage Battalion, C.S.A. First Seminole Mounted Volunteers, A-C FHL Film 880294
- First Seminole Mounted Volunteers, D-Y FHL Film 880295
- Second Cherokee Mounted Volunteers (2d Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles or Riflemen) FHL Film 880296
- Second Creek Mounted Volunteers Cherokee Regiment (Special Service) Deneale's Regiment, Choctaw Warriors (Deneale's Confederate Volunteers) Shecoe's Chickasaw Battalion, Mounted Volunteers) Washington's Squadron of Indians, C.S.A. (Reserve Squadron of Cavalry) Capt. of Wilkins' Co., Choctaw Infantry Miscellaneous Indian Records. FHL US/CAN Film 880297

Union Records

Other Sources

Internet Sites

  • Oklahoma Historical Society, Civil War Era, article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed 15 August 2011). This article discusses how the Civil War impacted the Five Civilized Tribes.
  • Oklahoma Historical Society, Civil War Refugees, article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed 15 August 2011). 
  • Oklahoma Historical Society, Free Companies, article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed 15 August 2011). Free companies were irregular soldiers. They sometimes included partisans, renegades, bandits, and bushwhackers. Such groups infested the Indian Territory (Oklahoma).
  • Wikipedia contributers, Indian Home Guard (American Civil War), (accessed 28 April 2011).
  • Wikipedia contributers, Native Americans in the American Civil War, (accessed 15 August 2011).

Books

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wikipedia contributors, Native Americans in the American Civil War, (accessed 12 August 2011).
  2. Wikipedia contributors, Native Americans in the United States, an article in Wikipedia.com (accessed 15 August 2011)
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 Oklahoma Historical Society, First Indian Cavalry Brigade, article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed 4 August 2011) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "OHS" defined multiple times with different content
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Oklahoma Historical Society, Second Indian Cavalry Brigade, article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed 4 August 2011)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Wikipedia contributers, Indian Home Guard (American Civil War) article (accessed 5 August 2011).