Wind River Indian Reservation (Wyoming)

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United States Gotoarrow.png American Indians Gotoarrow.png Wyoming Gotoarrow.png Indians of Wyoming Gotoarrow.png Wind River Indian Reservation (Wyoming)

The Wind River Indian Reservation is a federally-recognized reservation, located in west-central (Fremont and Hot Springs Counties)  Wyoming.

Established -- 1868
Agency (BIA) -- Wind River Indian Agency located at Fort Washakie, Wyoming
Principal tribes -- Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone
Population -- 5,759 according to the 2010 census for the settlements in the southern portion of the Reservation. However, it is over 6,000 when including the areas in the southern portion of the Reservation which are not a part of the Indian settlements in the southern portion of the Reservation. Indians make up nearly 90% of the population in the southern portion of the Reservation. For the entire Reservation (that includes the northern portion),it is 7,798 Arapaho and Shoshone.(2010 census). Total Reservation population is 26,490 (2010 census)[1] 1969: Tribal enrollment 4,594 [2]

History

In 1868, the war being fought in northeastern Wyoming, southeastern Montana, southern Idaho, southwestern Montana, and western Wyoming was negotiated to a peaceful end. In southern Idaho, southwestern Montana, and western Wyoming, the war is known as the Snake River War. In northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana, it is known as Red Clouds War. Both conflicts were the same war. On July 3, 1868 a treaty was signed which ended the Snake River War and established the Wind River Reservation. The Shoshone settled down to live on the large Reservation. The Shoshone are really Chippewas. Click this link http://books.google.com/books/about/History_of_the_Ottawa_and_Chippewa_India.html?id=bX8CAAAAYAAJ to read Andrew Blackbirds 1887 book "History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan." On pages 89 and 90, Blackbird wrote that the Chippewa or Anishinabe Language, was extensively spoken among the Shoshone. The Arapaho continued to fight white settlers up to 1878, when they were forced to relocate to the Wind River Reservation.

Originally, the Reservation was considerably larger but the United States refused to honor treaty agreements. Through unscrupulous dealings, the United States used Reservation leaders to reduce the size of the large Reservation. Arapaho leaders strongly opposed ceding Reservation land, while Ute leaders agreed to the land acts. The land cession agreement of 1904 led to the Arapaho murdering their leader George Terry, who signed the land cession agreement.

The August 15, 1906 Land Act

On August 15, 1906, by President Roosevelt's Proclamation, Wind River Reservation lost 1.5 million acres. Present day maps confirm the land losses. The 1.5 million acres is located north of Big Wind River or Wind River. All Indian settlements are located within the 1,200 sq. mi. or 768,000 acres that remained after the 1.5 million acres was ceded. It is south of Big Wind River or Wind River. Riverton is located within the 1.5 million acres that was ceded.

Once Chippewa leaders learned about the loss of their Reservation, they reacted by following prophecy. The leaders tended to follow ancient prophesies. Beginning in the spring or early summer of 1906, they began to move off the Reservation, heading back to Montana.

The 1896 Great Falls Deportations

In June of 1896, the United States forced several thousand Chippewas living in the Great Falls, Montana region and north central Montana, to leave for other locations. Many were sent to Alberta and Saskatchewan, while most were sent to the Blackfeet Reservation and Flathead Reservation. Many were also sent to Leech Lake Reservation and Red Lake Reservation in Minnesota, and Bad River Reservation and Lac Courte Oreilles Reservation in Wisconsin. Many were sent to the Wind River Reservation of Wyoming.

In newspapers, they referred to the Chippewas as Crees. The Cree are the northern Chippewa people known as the Muskegowalk which means Swamp or Swampy People. In 1896, the Great Falls region and the rest of north central Montana, still had a very large Chippewa population. This is the reason the United States relocated them.

Creation of the Chippewa Hot Springs Reservation

In 1896, Indian Inspector James McLaughlin negotiated an agreement with leaders of the Shoshone Reservation (they changed the name to Wind River Reservation in the 1930s) in which they supposedly agreed to set aside about 100 sq. mi. to be a park or Reservation. Shoshone Reservation leaders agreed to have land set aside to be either a park or Reservation, especially since they knew it was land they would continue to control.

However, the United States did not honor the agreements. Instead, the United States refused to accept the land. Frank Mondell, who was a Wyoming congressman at the time, made a proposal without consulting with Shoshone Reservation leaders in which the federal government would buy the land. He proposed that 1 sq. mi. would become Hot Springs State Park and the remaining 99 sq. mi. would be opened to white settlement.

The 1906 Exodus

In the summer of 1906, the Chippewas became very alarmed after learning that their Reservation was ceded on August 15, 1906. It was a time of confusion and anger. They killed George Terry for his part in what they considered to be deception. Chippewa leaders began to gather those Chippewas who wanted to leave the Reservation to go back to Montana. Historians refer to this event as the 1906 Ute Exodus. However, it was the Chippewas who left the Shoshone Reservation. Nearly 1,000 left on the exodus. It alarmed the whites of Wyoming which then caused governor Brooks of Wyoming to request for federal support on August 25, 1906.

In northeastern Wyoming, a detachment of American soldiers had stopped the Chippewas on October 22, 1906. Unsuccessful negotiations followed. Chippewa leaders told the American representatives they were going to the Black Hills of Montana. More American soldiers were instructed to leave Fort Keough (Miles City, Montana) to stop the Chippewas if they continued to move into southeastern Montana.

On November 2, 1906, the Chippewas were stopped again in southeastern Montana. Negotiations were again conducted. This time Chippewa leaders agreed to the American demands that they turn around and go to Fort Meade in South Dakota. A promised Reservation within the Cheyenne River-Standing Rock Reservation enticed them. To read about these events click this link http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sdshspress.com%2Findex.php%3F%26id%3D1547%26sub_action%3D1%26mmgzwwjn%3Dmmgzwwjn%26action%3D960&ei=6BEUVOL-CpPC8gHGmYDYDQ&usg=AFQjCNFCS8VF5bIZaycuQVpDfYmR-hmMaQ&sig2=ko3IEpRhFnY6CD_a0XZ6TQ&bvm=bv.75097201,d.b2U.

Those Chippewas who stayed at the Shoshone Reservation, moved south to the southern portion of the Shoshone Reservation. The Algonquin's make up 70% of the Reservations Indian population and the Utes make up 30% of the Reservations Indian population. In 1902, it was 50% for each people. Very few Indians live in the northern portion of the Wind River Reservation. Click this link http://www.anishinabe-history.com/reservations/wind-river-open.jpg to view the map of the northern portion of the Wind River Reservation. It is the Chippewa Reservation that is recognized as being a part of the present day Wind River Reservation.

Communities

There are several Indian communities located throughout the southern portion of the Reservation. There are no Indian communities in the northern portion of the Reservation. There are many small areas where housing units are located and not connected to the major settlements but are classified as being a part of the major settlements.

  • Arapahoe: According to the 2010 census, the population of Arapahoe is 1,656. Arapahoe covers 27.8 sq. mi.
  • Little Shield: It is a part of Arapahoe. However, it is 4.3 miles to the northeast of the main part of Arapahoe.
  • North Arapahoe: It is a part of Arapahoe. However, it is 1.9 miles to the north of the main part of Arapahoe. It's population is included with that of Arapahoes.
  • St. Stevens: It is a part of Arapahoe. However, it is 3.9 miles to the northeast of the main part of Arapahoe. It's population is included with that of Arapahoes.
  • Ethete: According to the 2010 census, the population of Ethete is 1,553. Ethete covers 32.5 sq. mi.
  • Chief Friday: It is a part of Ethete. However, it is located 1.2 miles to the south of the main part of Ethete. It's population is included with that of Ethete's.
  • Trosper: It is a part of Ethete. However, it is located 3.6 miles to the southeast of Ethete. It's population is included with that of Ethetes.
  • White Hawk: It is a part of Ethete. However, it is located 3.2 miles to the southeast of Ethete. It's population is included with that of Ethete's.
  • Yellow Calf: It is a part of Ethete. However, it is located 2.5 miles to the east of the main part of Ethete. It's population is included with that of Ethete's.
  • Fort Washakie: According to the 2010 census, the population of Fort Washakie is 1,759. Fort Washakie covers 20.9 sq. mi.
  • Noseep: It is a part of Fort Washakie. However, it is located 2.5 miles to the northwest of Fort Washakie. It's population is included with that of Fort Washakie's.
  • Boulder Flats: According to the 2010 census, the population of Boulder Flats is 408. Boulder Flats covers 18.2 sq. mi.
  • Plunkett: It is a part of Boulder Flats. However, it is 1.9 miles to the northeast of Boulder Flats. It's population is included with that of Boulder Flats.
  • South Boulder Flats: It is a part of Boulder Flats. However, it is located 0.6 miles from the main part of Boulder Flats. It's population is included with that of Boulder Flats.
  • Crow Heart: According to the 2010 census, the population of Crowheart is 141. Crowheart covers 31.4 sq. mi. That is a large area Reservation leaders need to address.
  • Johnstown: According to the 2010 census, the population of Johnstown is 242. However, much of Johnstown is located off the south portion of the Reservation and has a large white population. Johnstown covers 31.1 sq. mi.
  • Wind River: Is is located adjacent to Fort Washakie but is a distinct community.
  • Alkali Lake: It is located just south of Wind River and north and east of Alkali Lake.
  • Roy Lake: It is located to the southeast of Alkali Lake. It's housing units are located to the east and southeast of Roy Lake.

Brief Timeline

A.D. 1851

The Fort Laramie Treaty established the territories of the various tribes under Algonquin subjugation. The area where the Wind River Reservation is located is within the territory of the Gros Ventre (the Crow who are an admixture of Algonquin and Lakota) who are a sub-tribe of the Algonquin's and are the northern most Arapahoes. In North Dakota, the Crow are known as the Hidatsa. The Hidatsa Tribe is also known as the Gros Ventre. The Gros Ventre are Algonquin.

A.D. 1868

On July 3, 1868 the Fort Bridger Treaty ended the Snake River War and set aside the Wind River Reservation for the Arapaho and other Indians who agreed to live there.

A.D. 1897

An agreement is reached with the Arapaho in which Arapaho leaders agreed to set aside a 100 sq. mi. area for a tribal park. It is known as the Big Horn Hot Springs State Park. The United States did not honor the agreement with the Arapaho. The park is managed by the State of Wyoming.

A.D. 1904

An agreement was reached with non Arapaho leaders in which the Reservation was significantly reduced in size. The leader who signed the agreement was murdered by the Arapaho. The 1904 Wind River Reservation Land Act coincides with the United States ratifying the infamous Chippewa 10 cent an acre treaty.

A.D. 1906

On August 15, 1906, the northern portion of Shoshone Reservation was opened to white settlement. Up to 1,000 Chippewas left the Reservation.

Tribal Headquarters

Northern Arapaho Tribe
533 Ethete Road
Ethete, Wyoming, 82520

Shoshone Tribe
P.O. Box 158
Fort Washakie, Wyoming 82514

Records

Many of the records of individual Indians living on the Wind River Reservation were kept by the Wind River Agency of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Others are kept by the Tribal Office.

Land Records

Tribal land: 1,776,136 acres.Allotted land 109,344 acres

Websites

Wind River Reservation -- description and history

www.northernarapaho.com/

www.shoshoneindian.com/wind_river_reservation.htm

www.windriverhistory.org/archives/treaty_docs/docs/1904-agreement.pdf

References

  1. Census 2000 Tribal Entity Counts for American Indian Reservations and Off-Reservation Trust Lands. U.S. Census Bureau, Geography Division. Available online. {Note: This census figure only accounts for tribal members living on the reservation or trust lands. Other enrolled tribal members may live off-reservation.)
  2. Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2

Bibliography

  • Confederation of American Indians. Indian Reservations: A State and Federal Handbook. Jefferson, North Caroline: McFarland & Co., c1986. WorldCat 14098308; FHL book 970.1 In2.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30, 1906. This publication lists the 22 states which had reservations in 1908. Available online.
  • Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1902. 7 volumes. WorldCat 74490963; FHL book 970.1 K142iAvailable online.
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  • Prucha, Francis Paul. Atlas of American Indian Affairs. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1991 WorldCat 257331735; FHL book 970.1 P95aa
  • Prucha, Francis Paul, ed. Documents of United States Indian Policy. 3rd Edition. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 2000. WorldCat 50416280; FHL book 970.1 P95d.
  • Prucha, Francis Paul. Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 1789-1895. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, c1964. WorldCat 522839; FHL book 973 M2pf.
  • Schmeckebier, Laurance F. The Office of Indian Affairs: Its History, Activities, and Organization. Service Monographs of the United States Government; no. 48. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1927. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1972.  WorldCat 257893; FHL book 973 B4b v. 48.
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published
  • Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. American Indian Reservations and Trust Areas. [Washington, DC]: Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1996. WorldCat 35209517; FHL book 970.1 T463a.
  • United States Department of Commerce, Frederick B. Dent, Secretary. Federal and State Reservations and Trust Areas. 1974. FHL book 970.1 Un3fe/1974.
  • United States Department of the Interior. Executive Orders Relating to Indian Reservations. Washington: [United States] Government Printing Office, 1912 (v. 1), 1922 (v. 2). Vol. 1 – May 14, 1855 to July 1, 1912. Vol. 2 – July 1, 1912 to July 1, 1922. FHL film 1440543 Items 8-9.
  • United States Federal and State Indian Reservations, Map. Available online.
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