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United States War of 1812 Navy and Marine Units

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United States War of 1812 Navy and Marine Units

Introduction[edit | edit source]

In 1812, U.S. Navy was 18 years old and only had 22 commissioned warships, while there where more than 80 British vessels off the American seaboard.[1]

United States Navy Units[edit | edit source]

Ships[edit | edit source]

  • Alert (ship) - Lieutenants Walter Stewart and Joseph Wragg[2]
  • Boxer (brig) - Lieutenants John Porter and Charles T. Clarke[2]
  • Chippewa (brig) - Lieutenants George C. Read, Matthew C. Perry, and Stephen Champlin[2]
  • Congress (frigate) - Captain Charles Morris[3]
  • Constellation (frigate) - Captain Charles Gordon[3]
  • Constitution[3] (Old Ironsides) - Captain Isaac Hull[1]
  • Cyane - Lieutenant Beekman V. Hoffman[2]
  • Enterprise[3] (brig) - Lieutenants Lawrence Kearny and James M'Gowan[2]
  • Epervier (Brig)- Master Commandant John Downes[4]
  • Erie (sloop) - Captain Charles G. Ridgeley[3]
  • Firefly (brig) - Lieutenants George W. Rodgers, David Geisinger, Mervine Mix, Paul Zantzinger[2]
  • Flambeau (brig) - Lieutenants William H. Allen and Henry Gilliam[2]
  • Franklin - Captain John Smith[3]
  • Guerriere (frigate) - Captain Stephen Decatur[3], Master Commandant William Lewis[4]
  • Hornet (sloop) - Captain James Biddle[3]
  • Independence - Captain William Bainbridge, Captain William Crane[3]
  • Java (frigate) - Captain Oliver Hazard Perry[3]
  • John Adams (corvette) - Master Commandant Edw. Trenchard[4]
  • Macedonian (frigate) - Captain Jacob Jones[3]
  • Nonsuch (schooner) - Lieutenant William Laughton[2]
  • Ontario (sloop) - Master Commandant Jesse D. Elliott[4]
  • Peacock (sloop) - Captain Lewis Warrington[3]
  • Prometheus (brig) - Lieutenants Alexander S. Wadsworthand William D. Salter[2]
  • Saranac (brig) - Lieutenants John H. Elton, William Lowe, John H. Aulick, and George Hamersley[2]
  • Spark (brig) - Lieutenants Thomas Gamble, Wm. H. Cocke, and Silas H. Stringham[2]
  • Spitfire (schooner) - Lieutenants Alexander J. Dallas and Robert F. Stockton[2]
  • Torch (schooner) - Lieutenants Wolcott Chauncey, Bladen Dulaney, and William Elliott[2]
  • United States (frigate) - Captain John Shaw[3]
  • Washington - Captain Isaac Chauncey[3]
  • Wasp (sloop) - Captain Johnston Blakeley[3]

Officers[edit | edit source]

[edit | edit source]

  • FamilySearch. United States, Muster Rolls of the Marine Corps, 1798-1892. Images of muster rolls of the United States Marine Corps located at the National Archives. The records are arranged chronologically by month, then by post, station or ship. This is part of Record Group 127 Records of the U.S. Marine Corps. This is NARA film publication T1118.

Sea Fencibles[edit | edit source]

Sea Fencibles Officers, has a list of the officers with name and rank.  The date by a name appears to be the date achieved that rank.  4 Aug. 13 means August 4, 1813.[5]

"Sometimes known more formally as the Corps of Sea Fencibles of the United States, these servicemen were special volunteer naval artillery militia that served on both land and floating batteries to protect ports, harbors, and other vital coastal areas (since most Fencibles came from some type of maritime background, they already knew these areas intimately, making them very effective in a defensive capacity). Patterned after contemporary British units in the Napoleonic wars, the Sea Fencibles were established by an act of Congress on July 26, 1813 and served until disbanded on June 15, 1815. Eventually 10 companies of Fencibles fought during the war."

"Because the Sea Fencibles were considered U.S. Volunteers, they fell under the immediate authority of the War Department despite the unique seaborne aspect of their duties. Therefore, their service information is located in Record Group 94, Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1780′s-1917. Information about compiled service records are included in the series “Carded Records, Volunteer Organizations: War of 1812″ (ARC ID 300392). Related muster and payrolls are located in the series “Muster Rolls of Volunteer Organizations: War of 1812″ (ARC ID 654644). "

eNotes, Sea Fencibles

The United States Corps of Sea Fencibles, 1813-1815

Wikipedia article, Sea Fencibles

 Privateers[edit | edit source]

About 500-600 privateers were sanctioned by the U.S. government to harrass and detain British merchant ships during the War of 1812.

War of 1812: Privateers has lists of the privateers by nationality. This gives the name of the ship, the captain, and the home port. The & (ampersand) by the name of the ship links to a page giving information about the privateers and the ships they conquered. The links in "Out of" column go to pages with information about the privateers that were captured.[6]

  • Good, Timothy S. American Privateers in the War of 1812: the Vessels and their Prizes as Recorded in Niles' Weekly Register (Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, c2012). 209 pages. FHL book 973 B38g

Battles[edit | edit source]

War of 1812: Privateers, Naval Actions gives information about the The information comes from the writings of William James (1780-1827), a British naval historian.

  • Constitution, in action with HMS Guerriere, 19 August 1812[7]
  • Capture of HMS Detroit and Caledonia on the Niagara River, 8 October 1812 [7]
  • Wasp, in action with HMS Frolic, 18 October 1812 [7]
  • United States, in action with HMS Macedonian, 25 October 1812 [7]
  • Constitution, in action with HMS Java, 29 December 1812 [7]
  • Hornet, in action with HM brig Peacock, 24 February 1813 [7]
  • Enterprise, in action with HM brig Boxer, 5 September 1813 [7]
  • Battle of Lake Erie, 10 September 1813 [7]
  • Peacock, in action with HMS Epervier, 29 April 1814 [7]
  • Wasp, in action with HMS Reindeer, 28 June 1814 [7]
  • Battle of Lake Champlain, 11 September 1814 [7]
  • Constitution, in action with HMS Cyane and Levant, 20 February 1815 [7]
  • Hornet, in action with HMS Penguin, 23 March 1815 [7]

Records[edit | edit source]

  • Naval History and Heritage Command, War of 1812, has links to many interesting sites, some with lists of soldiers names.

Histories[edit | edit source]

  • Dudley, William S. The Naval War of 1812: a Documentary History. (Washington, District of Columbia, Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy 1985-2002). FHL Book 973 M3
  • Emmons, George F., Lieutenant, The Navy of the United States From the Commencement, 1775 to 1853; with a Brief History of Each Vessel's Service and Fate as Appears Upon Record ... To Which is Added a List of Private armed Vessels, Fitted Out Under the American Flag, Previous and Subsequent to the Revolutionary War with Their Services and Fate; ... (Washington: Gideon, 1853). Internet Archives.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Department of the Navy, Naval History and Heritage Command, Officers of the War of 1812, Constitution, America's Ship of State, (accessed 15 May 2012).
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 Department of the Navy, Naval History and Heritage Command, Officers of the War of 1812, Lieutenants, (accessed 15 May 2012).
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 Department of the Navy, Naval History and Heritage Command, Officers of the War of 1812, Captains, (accessed 15 May 2012).
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Department of the Navy, Naval History and Heritage Command, Officers of the War of 1812, Masters Commandant, (accessed 15 May 2012).
  5. William A. Gordon, A Compilation of Registers of the Army of the United States, from 1815 to 1837, (Washington: James C. Dunn, Printer, 1837), p. 46. The first part includes information about War of 1812.
  6. The information about the U.S. privateers in the War of 1812 Privateers web site comes from The Navy of the United States, from the Commencement, 1775 to 1853; with a brief history of each vessel’s service and fate ... Comp. by Lieut. George F. Emmons ... under the authority of the Navy Dept. To which is added a list of private armed vessels, fitted out under the American flag ... . ( Washington: Gideon & Co., 1853.) Internet Archives.
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 Department of the Navy, Naval History and Heritage Command, Officers of American Naval Victories in the War of 1812, (accessed 15 May 2012)].