United States Occupational Information in the 1880 Census Population, Agricultural, Manufacturer, Mortality Schedules, and Defective, Dependent, Delinquent Classes (National Institute)

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The original content for this article was contributed by The National Institute for Genealogical Studies in June 2012. It is an excerpt from their course US: Occupational Records  by Beverly Rice, CG. The Institute offers over 200 comprehensive genealogy courses for a fee ($).

The Schedules by Year:
Population and Non-Population Schedules


The schedules for 1880 included more detailed information on the Manufactures and Agriculture schedules. The Social Statistics schedule was discontinued and the Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes were added.

Population Schedule

The 1880 census removed the occupation-related information about the value of real and personal estate of each individual.

Questions from the 1880 Population Schedule related to occupations:

  • Name of Person
  • Profession, Occupation, or Trade of each person, male or female
  • Education
  • Cannot read
  • Cannot write

Agriculture Schedule

This schedule almost doubled the data recorded about each farm. The questions on Tenure will identify the farm occupier as owner, fixed money rental or rental for share of product. This will create a more complete picture of the individual, their occupation as a farmer, as well as the possible status in the community.

The questions for the southern states broke down the information on labor by white and black labor. Also some of the crops were altered for the southern states.

Questions from the 1880 Agriculture Schedule related to occupations:

  • Of the Person Who Conducts this farm
  • The Name
  • Tenure
  • Owned
  • Rents for fixed money rental
  • Rents for share of products
  • Acres of Land-Improved
  • Tilled (including fallow and grass in rotation, whether pasture or meadow), number of acres
  • Permanent meadows, permanent pastures, orchards, vineyards, number of acres
  • Acres of Land-Unimproved
  • Woodland and forest, number of acres
  • Other unimproved including old fields not growing wood, number of acres
  • Farm Values
  • Of farm including land, fences and building, in dollars
  • Of farming implements and machinery, in dollars
  • Of Live Stock, in dollars
  • Fences, cost of building and repairing in 1879, in dollars
  • Cost of fertilizer purchased in 1879, in dollars
  • Labor
  • Amount paid for wages for farm labor during 1879, including value of board, in dollars
  • Weeks hired labors in 1879 upon farm (and dairy) excluding housework, in dollars
  • Estimated value of all farm production (sold, consumed, or on hand for 1879), in dollars
  • Grassland: of 1879, in acres
  • Mowed, in acres
  • not mowed, in acres
  • Grassland: Products harvested in 1879
  • hay, in tons
  • clover seed,in bushels
  • grass seed,in bushels
  • Horses of all ages on hand June 1, 1880, in numbers
  • Mules and asses on hand, June 1, 1880, in numbers
  • Meat Cattle and their products
  • On hand June 1, 1880
  • Working oxen, in numbers
  • Milch cows, in numbers
  • Other, in numbers
  • Movement, 1879
  • Calves dropped, in numbers
  • Movement, 1879 Cattle of all ages
  • Purchased, in number
  • Sold living, in number
  • Slaughtered, in numbers
  • Died, strayed, and not recovered, in numbers
  • Milk sold or sent to butter and cheese factories in 1879, in gallons
  • Butter made on the farm in 1879, in pounds
  • Cheese made on the farm in 1879, in pounds
  • Sheep
  • On hand June 1, 1880, in numbers
  • Movement, 1879
  • Lambs dropped, in numbers
  • Sheep and lambs
  • Purchased, in numbers
  • Sold living, in numbers
  • Slaughtered, in numbers
  • Died of Disease, in numbers
  • Died of stress of weather, in numbers
  • Clip, spring 1880, shorn and to be shorn
  • Fleeces, in numbers
  • Weight, in pounds
  • Swine, on hand June 1, 1880, in numbers
  • Poultry on hand June 1, 1880
  • Barnyard, in numbers
  • Other, in numbers
  • Eggs produced in 1879, in dozens
  • Cereals
  • Barley in 1879, in acres and bushels
  • Buckwheat in 1879, in acres and bushels
  • Indian corn in 1879, in acres and bushels
  • Oats in 1879, in acres and bushels
  • Rye in 1879, in acres and bushels ú Wheat in 1879, in acres and bushels
  • Wheat in 1879, in acres and bushels
  • Pulse
  • Canada Peas (dry) in 1879, in bushels
  • Beans (dry) in 1879, in bushels
  • Fibers
  • Flax in 1879
  • Area in crop, in acres
  • Seed in bushels
  • Straw in tons
  • Fiber in pounds
  • Hemp, in acres and tons
  • Sugar
  • Sorghum in 1879
  • Area in crop, acres
  • Sugar in pounds
  • Molasses in gallons
  • Maple in 1879
  • Sugar in pounds
  • Molasses in gallons
  • Broomcorn in 1879
  • Area, in acres
  • Harvested, in pounds
  • Hops in 1879
  • Area, in acres
  • Crop in pounds
  • Potatoes (Irish) in 1879
  • Area, in acres Crop,in bushels
  • Potatoes (sweet) in 1879
  • Area,in acres
  • Crop,in bushels
  • Tobacco in 1879
  • Area, in acres
  • Crop, in pounds
  • Orchards in 1879
  • Apple
  • Acres, in numbers
  • Bearing trees,in numbers
  • Bushels,in numbers
  • Peach
  • Acres, in numbers
  • Bearing trees, in numbers
  • Bushels, in numbers
  • Total value of orchard products or all kinds sold or consumed
  • Nurseries
  • Acres, in numbers
  • Value of produce sold in 1879
  • Vineyards
  • Acres, in numbers
  • Grapes sold in 1879, in pounds
  • Wine made in 1879, in gallons
  • Market Gardens
  • Value of produce sold in 1879, in dollars
  • Bees in 1879
  • Honey, in pounds
  • Wax, in pounds
  • Forest products
  • Amount of wood cut in 1879, in cords
  • Value of wood sold in 1879, in dollars

Manufacture Schedule

The 1880 Manufacture changed by more than its name, previously known as the Industry schedule. Instead of one schedule for all industries, the schedules were broken down in to the twelve different industries. :*Agricultural implements Ÿ

  • Paper Mills

Ÿ:*Boots and shoes

  • ŸLeather and tanning and curing
  • Flourmills and gristmills

Ÿ:*Cheese, butter and condensed milk factories Ÿ

  • Slaughtering and meatpacking Ÿ
  • Salt
  • Ÿ Lumber mills and sawmills
  • Brickyards and tile works Ÿ
  • Coal mines
  • Quarries

The data is similar to the 1850-1870 schedules with question such as: Ÿ

  • Name of the corporation, company, or individual with the annual value of over $500.
  • Ÿ Capital value
  • Ÿ Wages and Hours of labor, male and female
  • Ÿ Power used in manufacturer
  • Raw materials used in production
  • Products Ÿ
  • Months in operation

Each schedule reports specific information depending on the industry to be reported. I have not included the break down for each of the twelve schedules, except for the basic question listed above.

Mortality Schedule

Similar to the previous Mortality Schedules.

Questions from the 1880 Mortality Schedule related to occupations:

  • Name of person
  • Professional, Occupation, or Trade
  • Disease or Cause of Death (significant if related to occupation)
Defective, Dependent, Delinquent Classes

This schedule was only issued in 1880. There are seven supplements to this schedule that include: Ÿ

  • Insane Inhabitants
  • Idiots
  • Deaf-Mutes Ÿ
  • Blind Inhabitants Ÿ
  • Homeless Children in Institutions
  • Inhabitants in Prison
  • Pauper and Indigent Inhabitants

These individuals were also listed on the population schedule with cross-reference to the DDD schedule.

Questions related to occupations are limited on these schedules, however any information about the individual will add to their ability to complete a full view of an individual’s occupation.

Was the individual deaf or blind because of a work-related accident? The prison inhabitant’s schedule speaks to a person’s “not too legal” occupations or possibly a variation of their regular occupation.


Information in this Wiki page is excerpted from the online course US: Occupational Records offered by The National Institute for Genealogical Studies. To learn more about this course or other courses available from the Institute, see our website. We can be contacted at wiki@genealogicalstudies.com

We welcome updates and additions to this Wiki page.