United States Census, 1870 - FamilySearch Historical Records
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United States Census, 1870
|This article describes a collection of records at FamilySearch.org.|
|Flag of the United States of America|
|US Flag 1867-1877 (37 stars)|
|National Archives and Records Administration Logo|
|Record Type||Population Schedules|
|Record Group||RG 29: Records of the Bureau of the Census|
|Microfilm Publication||M593. Ninth Census of the United States, 1870. 1748 rolls.|
|Arrangement||Arrange alphabetically by state, and by county, by city, township.|
|National Archives Identifier||2353570|
|National Archives and Records Administration|
- 1 What is in This Collection?
- 2 What Can These Records Tell Me?
- 3 Collection Content
- 4 How Do I Search This Collection?
- 5 What Do I Do Next?
- 6 Known Issues
- 7 Citing This Collection
What is in This Collection?[edit | edit source]
The collection consists of an index and images of population schedules listing inhabitants of the United States from the ninth decennial census taken in 1870. NARA microfilm publication M593 Ninth Census of the United States from Record Group 29 Records of the Bureau of the Census.
The U.S. federal census was conducted each decade from 1790-present. This information pertains to censuses conducted in 1850, 1860, and 1870.
Federal census takers were asked to record information about all those who were in each household on the census day, which was 1 June. A census taker might have visited a house on a later date, but the information he collected was supposed to be about the people who were in the house on the census day. The basic census enumeration unit was the county. Each county was divided into enumeration districts, one for each enumerator. The completed forms were sent to the Census Office in the Commerce Department in Washington D.C.
The U.S. federal census was taken at the beginning of every decade to apportion the number of representatives that a state could send to the House of Representatives in Congress. In the absence of a national system of vital registration, many vital statistics and personal questions were asked to provide a statistical profile of the nation and its states.
Population schedules consisted of large sheets with rows and columns. The schedules were arranged by place, such as township or post office. The places were not filed in any particular order. The arrangement of families on a schedule is normally in the order in which the enumerator visited the households.
Federal censuses are usually reliable, depending on the knowledge of the informant and the care of the census enumerator. Information may have been given to a census taker by any member of the family or by a neighbor. Some information may have been incorrect or deliberately falsified.
- Related Collections
- United States Census Records County Copies, 1850-1880
- United States Census Records Nonpopulation Census Schedules-1820,1850-1880
Image Visibility[edit | edit source]
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For additional information about image restrictions see Restrictions for Viewing Images in FamilySearch Historical Record Collections.
To Browse This Collection[edit | edit source]
|You can browse through images in this collection using the waypoints on the Collection Browse Page for United States Census, 1870.|
What Can These Records Tell Me?[edit | edit source]
The following information may be found in these records:
- Town/township, county and state where census was taken
- Date of enumeration and name of post office
- Dwelling number and family number
- Name of each person in household
- Age of each person in household (can be used to approximate birth year)
- Sex of each person in household
- Race of each person in household
- Occupation of each person in household
- Value of any real estate
- Value of personal property
- Was father foreign born
- Was mother foreign born
- Indicate month born if child born during past year
- Indicate month married if person married during past year
- Indicate if person attended school during past year
- Is person able to read and write
- Is person "deaf and dumb, blind, insane or idiotic"
- Male citizens of United States of 21 years of age and upwards
- Male citizens of United States of 21 years of age and upwards, whose right to vote is denied or abridged on other grounds than rebellion or other crime
Collection Content[edit | edit source]
Sample Image[edit | edit source]
How Do I Search This Collection?[edit | edit source]
Before searching this collection, it is helpful to know:
- The name of your ancestor
- The age and birth place of your ancestor
- The names of other family members and associates who lived nearby
- The state and county where your ancestors lived
Search the Index[edit | edit source]Search by name on the Collection Details Page.
- Fill in the search boxes in the Search Collection section with the information you know
- Click Search to show possible matches
View the Images[edit | edit source]
View images in this collection by visiting the Browse Page
- Select State
- Select County
- Select Locality to view the images
|More images are available in the FamilySearch Catalog at United States Census, 1870. Some catalog records link to multiple references. Some catalog records link to multiple references. In this case, click on a reference to find a camera icon to see images.|
How Do I Analyze the Results?[edit | edit source]
Compare each result from your search with what you know to determine if there is a match. This may require viewing multiple records or images. Keep track of your research in a research log.
What Do I Do Next?[edit | edit source]
I Found the Person I Was Looking For, What Now?[edit | edit source]
- Add any new information to your records
- Use the estimated age to calculate a birth date
- Use the age and residence to locate the family in church and land records
I Can't Find the Person I'm Looking For, What Now?[edit | edit source]
- Look for variant spellings of the names. You should also look for nicknames and abbreviated names
- Search the indexes and records of nearby localities
- Try alternative search methods such as only filling in the surname search box (or the given name search box) on the landing page leaving the other box empty and then click on search. This should return a list of everyone with that particular name. You could then browse the list for individuals with the same family number
- There is also the possibility that a family was missed in the census
Research Helps[edit | edit source]
The following articles will help you in your research for your family in the United States.
Related Family History Library Holdings[edit | edit source]
- Population schedules of the ninth census of the United States, 1870
- Descriptions of census geographic subdivisions, 1870
- Federal census Returns for Georgia, 1870. Georgia Dept. of Archives and History
- Federal census of New York City, 1870
- Virginia 1870 Census Virginia State Library
Related FamilySearch Historical Records Collections[edit | edit source]
- Kansas, 1875
- Minnesota, 1875
- New York, 1875
- Wisconsin, 1875
- United States Census, 1860
- United States Internal Revenue Assessment Lists, 1862-1874
- United States Census (Slave Schedule), 1860
- Illinois, Non-Population Census Schedules, 1850-1880
- Iowa Mortality Schedules, 1850-1880
- Massachusetts, Federal Census Mortality Schedule, 1870
- Michigan Mortality Schedules, 1850-1880
- Pennsylvania Mortality Schedules, 1850-1880
Related Digital Books[edit | edit source]
- The history and growth of the United States census : prepared for the Senate Committee on the Census
Known Issues[edit | edit source]
Citing This Collection[edit | edit source]
Citations help you keep track of places you have searched and sources you have found. Identifying your sources helps others find the records you used.
The citation for this collection can be found on the Collection Details Page in the section Citing this Collection.
When looking at a record, the citation can be viewed by clicking the drop-down arrow next to Document Information.
When looking at an image, the citation is found on the Information tab at the bottom left of the screen.