United States, Records of Confederate Prisoners of War (FamilySearch Historical Records)

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United States Records of Confederate Prisoners of War, 1861-1865 .
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This article describes a collection of records at FamilySearch.org.
United States
United States flag.png
Flag of the United States of America
NARA seal300.jpg
Seal of the National Archives
Record Description
Record Type Civil War
Collection years 1861-1865
FamilySearch Resources
Related Websites
Archive
National Archives and Records Administration


What is in This Collection?

This collection consists of an explanation of the records (which is listed as an index) and 429 volumes of Confederate Prisoners of War records. Most of the records are from the War Department's Office of the Commissary General of Prisoners. Others are from the Surgeon General's Office, a few Army commands, and individual prison camps. These records are for the years 1861 to 1865. National Archives microfilm publication M598, Selected Records of the War Department Relating to Confederate Prisoners of War,1861-1865.

This collection consists of the following lists and registers:

  • Prisoners
  • Prisoners deaths and burials
  • Applications for release and released prisoners
  • Prisoners paroled, transferred, escaped, sentenced, and exchanged
  • Confederate deserters
  • Political prisoners
  • Passes issued to visitors
  • Prisoners released for employment on public works
  • Prisoners enlisting in United States service
  • Clothing issued
  • Prisoners' possessions, accounts, ledgers, articles and money received
  • Account of checks and packages received for prisoners
  • Letters sent and received
  • Receipts for letters containing money
  • Morning reports of patients and attendants in the prison hospital
  • Oaths of allegience
  • Roll call books
  • Statistical reports
  • Miscellaneous reports
  • Correspondence of the Office of the Commissary General of Prisoners

The collection is divided into the following levels of search:

1. AIDE: Index to Volumes - This search is not a name index. It lists the full description given by the National Archives and Records Administration of the individual lists.

2. The lists arranged by locality. Many of these localities are further divided by individual lists. These lists may be have any of the following:

  • Alphabetical arrangement
  • Chronological arrangement
  • Name index at the beginning of the list
  • Name index at the end of the list

This collection includes prisoner lists from the following locations:

AR, Little Rock, Military Prison MO, St. Louis, Gratiot & Myrtle Streets Prisons
DC, Washington, Old Capitol Prison MO, St. Louis, Gratiot & Myrtle Streets Prisons
DE, Ft. Delaware, Military Prison MS, Ship Island NY, Elmira, Military Prison
Department of Missouri NY, Ft. Columbus, Military Prison
Department of the Gulf NY, Ft. Lafayette, Military Prison
Department of Ohio NY, Hart Island, Prison Camp
District of West Tennessee, Provost Marshal's Office OH, Camp Chase, Military Prison
Division of West Mississippi OH, Cincinnati, McLean Barracks
IL, Alton, Military Prison OH, Johnson's Island, Military Prison
IL, Camp Butler, Military Prison Records of Several Prisons
IL, Camp Douglas, Military Prison Records relating to all prisoners
IL, Rock Island Barracks, Military Prison SC, Hilton Head, Prison Camp
IN, Camp Morton, Military Prison TN, Knoxville
KY, Louisville, Military Prison TN, Memphis, Military Prison
LA, New Orleans TN, Nashville, Department of the Cumberland
MA, Ft. Warren, Military Prison VA, Bowling Green, Provost Marshal's Office
MD, Ft. McHenry, Military Prison VA, Newport News, Military Prison
MD, Point Lookout, Military Prison VA, Richmond

"The War Department appointed Lt. Col. William Hoffman to be Commissary General of Prisoners in October 1861. Col. Hoffman was responsible for overseeing the handling and treatment of Confederate prisoners of war. In July 1862, the War Department established the Office of the Commissary General of Prisoners, an independent agency within the Department, which was responsible for the supervision of Confederate prisoners of war and political prisoners confined in Union prisons. The Office of the Commissary General of Prisoners was abolished and the Confederate records eventually became part of the Collection of Confederate Records in the War Department. That collection now comprises National Archives Record Group 109, War Department Collection of Confederate Records." 

Opposing armies kept an account of war prisoners so as to effectively trade them for their own soldiers. Prisoners were exchanged on the following basis:

  • 1 general = 46 privates
  • 1 major general = 40 privates
  • 1 brigadier general = 20 privates
  • 1 colonel = 15 privates
  • 1 lieutenant colonel = 10 privates
  • 1 major = 8 privates
  • 1 captain = 6 privates
  • 1 lieutenant = 4 privates
  • 1 noncommissioned officer = 2 privates

Union and Confederate Prisoner of War Camps

Record accuracy depends largely on the accuracy of the document authors and may be subject to inaccuracies.

To Browse This Collection

You can browse through images in this collection by visiting the browse page for United States, Records of Confederate Prisoners of War, 1861-1865.

Collection Content

Sample Image

What Can These Records Tell Me?

Information in these records generally include the following:

  • Name of prisoner
  • Name of prison
  • Date of entry in the report, list, or ledger
  • Reason for entry in the repost, list, or ledger

Depending on the list, the following information may also be included:

  • Birth date and place
  • Death date and place
  • Burial date and place
  • Cause of death
  • Age
  • Physical description
  • Names of relatives or friends
  • Enlistment date and place
  • Last residence prior to enlistment
  • Monies exchanged
  • Release or transfer date

How Do I Search This Collection?

To begin your search you will need to know:

  • The full name of the soldier.
  • The location of the prison.
  • The states where the soldier's regiment served.

View the Images

View images in this collection by visiting the Browse Page

  1. Select Prisoner or Prison/Station Records
  2. Select Document Type to view the images.

Keep in mind:

  • There may be more than one person in the records with the same name.
  • You may not be sure of your own ancestor’s name.
  • Your ancestor may have used different names or variations of their name throughout their life.

How Do I Analyze the Results?

Compare each result from your search with what you know to determine if there is a match. This may require viewing multiple records or images. Keep track of your research in a research log.

What Do I Do Next?

When you have located your ancestor’s prisoner of war record, carefully evaluate each piece of information given. These pieces of information may give you new biographical details that can lead you to other records about your ancestors. Add this new information to your records of each family. This information will often lead you to other records.

I Found the Person I Was Looking For, What Now?

  • Use the age to calculate an approximate birth date.
  • Use the birth date or age along with the prior residence, enlistment place, or place of birth to locate census, church, and land records.
  • Death dates may lead to death certificates, mortuary, or burial records.
  • Place of enlistment or previous residence may lead to other military or pension records. Be aware that Confederate pensions were awarded by the individual states.
  • Prisoners who enlisted in the United States military may have service records or pensions from the United States.
  • Compile a list of other prisoners with the same surname. If the surname is uncommon, they may be relatives.
  • When looking for a person who had a common name, look at all the entries for the name before deciding which is correct.

I Can't Find the Person I'm Looking For, What Now?

  • Look for variant spellings of the names. You should also look for alias names, nicknames and abbreviated names.
  • Look for an index. Local genealogical and historical societies often have indexes to local records.

Citing This Collection

Citations help you keep track of places you have searched and sources you have found. Identifying your sources helps others find the records you used.

Collection Citation
"United States, Records of Confederate Prisoners of War, 1861-1865" Images. FamilySearch. http://FamilySearch.org : accessed 2017. Citing NARA microfilm publication M598. Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.
Image Citation:
When looking at an image, the citation is found on the Information tab at the bottom left of the screen.

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