Tonkawa Tribe

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United States Gotoarrow.png American Indians Gotoarrow.png Oklahoma Gotoarrow.png Indigenous Peoples of Oklahoma Gotoarrow.png Tonkawa Tribe

Tonkawa chiefs 1898.jpg

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Various spellings: Tonkawa, Tonkaway

Ancestral homeland: central Texas

Tribal Headquarters[edit | edit source]

Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma
1 Rush Buffalo Road
Tonkawa, OK 74653-4449
Phone: 1.580.628.2561
Fax: 1.580.628.3375

Population: 1984: Total enrollment 181. [1]

History[edit | edit source]

Brief History[edit | edit source]

Brief Timeline[edit | edit source]

1530's: First contact with Spanish explorers: Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca

1540's: Francisco Vasquez de Coronado

1682: Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle's Expedition

1847-59: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Texas Agency

1846: Treaty with the Comanche, Aionai, Anadarko, Caddo, Etc.,

1855: The tribe assigned to a reservation in Texas.

1857: The Tribe moved to Oklahoma settled near Anadarko.

Tonkawa scouts served with the Texas Rangers against the Comanche.

1859: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Wichita Agency

1861-65: Tonkawa braves served as scouts for the Confederate Army

1862: raiding party attacked the Tonkawa killin 167 men, women, and children. Settled on the Oakland reservation near Ponc City.

1859: The tribe was relocated to Washita River in Indian Territory

1865: Some members of the Tribe fled to Texas until 1884

1876-80: In Texas the tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Central Superintendency.

1884: Those who had fled to Texas removed to Indian Territory.

1887: Tonkawa land were allotted

1938: Adoped a onstitution. .

Agency[edit | edit source]

Pawnee Agency  (Nebraska and Oklahoma)

Texas Agency

Wichita Agency

Reservations[edit | edit source]

Superintendency[edit | edit source]

Southern Superintendency

Central Superintendency

Additional References to the History of the Tribe[edit | edit source]

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Tonkawa tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.

Records[edit | edit source]

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Agency Records[edit | edit source]

Tonkawa Records(Allotment,School,and Vital)1895-1952. FHL|Films: 1205529 and 1204634

Correspondence and Census[edit | edit source]

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence

M234 RG 75 Rolls 962

Roll Number




Post 1885-Census

M595 RG 75 Rolls 693

Roll Number




Tonkawa Pawnee Agency, 1871-1964 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth Rolls 661-68 - Rolls 338-43, 386-91



Tonkawa Texas Agency, 1847-59 Washington D.C. Rolls 857-61 - - -
Tonkawa Wichita Agency, 1859-78 Washington D.C. Rolls 927-30 - - -

Land and Property[edit | edit source]

Tribally owned 160.00 acres. Allotted land: 238.24 acres [2]

Treaty[edit | edit source]

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

Important Websites[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2 page 242
  2. Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2 page 242

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published