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The river’s north-flowing lower course was strategically important during the American Civil War, for its valley offered an invasion route into the western Confederacy. Part of the course downstream is paralleled by the Cumberland River. The Confederate forts Henry (on the Tennessee) and Donelson (on the Cumberland) were only 12 miles (19 km) apart. General Ulysses S. Grant’s Federal army, accompanied by gunboats, struck southward in the Tennessee River valley in February 1862. The Confederate forces fell back to Corinth, Mississippi, and the Federal troops moved almost to Tennessee state’s southern boundary, where the Battle of Shiloh (Pittsburgh Landing) was fought (April 6–7, 1862).
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