Spanish Genealogical Word List

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Spanish Genealogical
Word List
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This list contains Spanish words with their English translations. The words included here are those that you are likely to find in genealogical sources. If the word you are looking for is not on this list, please consult a Spanish-English dictionary. (See the "Additional Resources" section below.)

Spanish is a Romance language derived from Latin. It is the national language of Spain as well as of most Latin American countries. Spanish is spoken in many parts of the United States, in regions which once were part of Mexico as well as areas where Hispanic immigrants have settled.

Language Characteristics

Spanish words for persons, places, and things (nouns) are classified as masculine or feminine. El (the masculine form of the) is used with masculine words. La (the feminine form of the) is used with feminine words. Masculine words generally end in o, r, l, and ma. Feminine words generally end in a, ión, tad, dad, tud, and umbre. Nouns which end in or are masculine; an a is added to indicate the feminine version.

Most adjectives used to describe nouns are masculine or feminine. Adjectives which end in o are masculine. Feminine adjectives end in a. For example, the married son would be translated as el hijo casado, while the married daughter would be translated as la hija casada.

Variant Forms of Words

In Spanish, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in a sentence. Who—whose—whom or marry—marries— married are examples of words in English with variant forms. This word list gives the standard form of each Spanish word. As you read Spanish records, you will need to be aware that some words vary with usage.

Plural forms of Spanish words usually add s to the singular noun as well as to the article and adjective. Thus, el abuelo materno (the maternal grandparent) become los abuelos maternos (the maternal grandparents).

Abbreviations

The use of abbreviations is very common in Spanish handwriting. They can be used for words and names. To view some common abbreviations click on the following links:

Spanish Name Abbreviations

Script.BYU.edu Abbreviations Page

Alphabetical Order

Written Spanish uses three letters in addition to the 26 letters used in the English alphabet. These are ñ and the letter combinations ch and ll, which are considered single letters. The letter w, although not part of the Spanish alphabet, is included since it is found in a few names of foreign origin. The following list shows the letters in alphabetical order:

a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, ll, m, n, ñ, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z

This word list follows the standard English alphabetical order.

In Spanish indexes of surnames, it is important to note that prefixes (such as De la Torre) may be ignored in alphabetization. Be sure to search under both parts of a name, for example, De la Torre and Torre, de la.

Click on the words Spanish Alphabet Chart to download a chart showing the Spanish alphabet and illustrations showing how each letter might be written.

Accent Marks

Vowels in Spanish can carry an accent mark: á, é, í, ó, and ú. Accent marks do not affect alphabetical order.

Spelling

Although Spanish spelling was standardized in the mid-1700s, scribes usually spelled words the way they sounded. Generally, variations between old and modern spellings should not cause too much trouble for the researcher. In Spanish, the following variations are common:

ch  used for  c
e  used for  i
j  used for  g
j  used for  x
j  used for  i
y  used for  i
the addition or removal of an h
the doubling of letters

Examples:


chrisma
excrebir
lejítimo
Méjico
domjngo
yndio
Henrique
religiosso

now written as
now written as
now written as
now written as
now written as
now written as
now written as
now written as

crisma
escribir
legítimo
México
domingo
indio
Enrique
religioso


Additional Resources

This word list includes only the words most commonly found in genealogical sources. For further help, use a Spanish-English dictionary. Several Spanish-English dictionaries are available at the Family History Library. These are in the European collection. The call numbers begin with 463.21.

The following dictionary may be helpful in your research:

Additional dictionaries are listed in the Subject section of the FamilySearch Catalog under SPANISH LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES. Most bookstores also carry inexpensive Spanish-English dictionaries.

Numbers

The following list gives the cardinal (1, 2, 3, etc.) and the ordinal (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) versions of each number. In actual usage, days of the month are almost never written in ordinal form. Ordinal numbers end in o or a depending on the gender of the thing described. Ordinal numbers above 31 are rarely seen in genealogical sources.

Note: Numbers such as 16, 22, and 31 are compound numbers joined by y (and). These numbers can also be written as a single word:

16:
22:
31:
diez y seis
veinte y dos
treinta y uno
or
or
or
dieciseis
veintidos
treintiuno




1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
101
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Cardinal
un, uno, una
dos
tres
cuatro
cinco
seis
siete
ocho
nueve
diez
once
doce
trece
catorce
quince
diez y sies
diez y siete
diez y ocho
diez y nueve
veinte
veinte y uno
veinte y dos
veinte y tres
veinte y cuatro
veinte y cinco
veinte y seis
veinte y siete
veinte y ocho
veinte y nueve
treinta
treinta y uno
cuarenta
cincuenta
sesenta
setenta
ochenta
noventa
ciento
ciento uno
doscientos
trescientos
cuatrocientos
quinientos
seiscientos
setecientos
ochocientos
novecientos
mil
Ordinal
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
11th
12th
13th
14th
15th
16th
17th
18th
19th
20th
21st
22nd
23rd
24th
25th
26th
27th
28th
29th
30th
31st
40th
50th
60th
70th
80th
90th
100th
101th
200th
300th
400th
500th
600th
700th
800th
900th
1000th

primero(a)
segundo
tercero
cuarto
quinto
sexto
séptimo
octavo
nono, noveno
décimo
undécimo
duodécimo
décimotercero
décimocuarto
décimoquinto
décimosexto
décimoséptimo
décimooctavo
décimonono
vigésimo
vigésimo primero
vigésimo segundo
vigésimo tercero
vigésimo cuarto
vigésimo quinto
vigésimo sexto
vigésimo séptimo
vigésimo octavo
vigésimo nono
trigésimo
trigésimo primero
cuadragésimo
quincuagésimo
sexagésimo
septuagésimo
octogésimo
nonagésimo
centésimo
centésimo primo
ducentésimo
tricentésimo
cuadringéntesimo
quingentésimo
sexcentésimo
septingentésimo
octingentésimo
noningentésimo
milésimo

Dates and Time

In Spanish records, dates are usually written out. Although English uses ordinal numbers, such as the tenth of July, or July 10th, in Spanish the cardinal numbers are almost always used for the days of the month: for example, el diez de Julio (the ten of July). The one exception is the first of the month, for which the ordinal number primero is almost always used instead of the cardinal number uno.

For example: A los veinte y tres dias de marzo del año de nuestro Señor de mil ochocientos y treinta y seis. (On the twenty-three day of the month of March in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred thirty six.) To understand Spanish dates, use the following lists as well as the preceding “Numbers” section.

Months

English Spanish Abbreviation
January enero enro, eno
February febrero febo
March marzo mzo
April abril abl
May mayo
June junio
July julio
August agosto ago, agto
September septiembre septe, 7bre
October octubre ote, otue, octue, 8bre
November noviembre novbre, 9bre
December diciembre dice, 10bre


Days of the Week

English Spanish
Sunday domingo
Monday lunes
Tuesday martes
Wednesday miércoles
Thursday jueves
Friday viernes
Saturday sábado


Numbers for Days

Day Day in Spanish
1 un, uno, una, primero (a)
2 dos, segundo
3 tres
4 cuatro
5 cinco
6 seis
7 siete
8 ocho
9 nueve
10 diez
11 once
12 doce
13 trece
14 catorce
15 quince
16 diez y seis, dieciseis
17 diez y siete, diecisiete
18 diez y ocho, dieciocho
19 diez y nueve, diecinueve
20 veinte
21 veinte y uno, veintiuno
22 veinte y dos, veintidos
23 veinte y tres, veintitres
24 veinte y cuatro, veinticuatro
25 veinte y cinco, veinticinco
26 veinte y seis, veintiseis
27 veinte y siete, veintisiete
28 veinte y ocho, veintiocho
29 veinte y nueve, veintinueve
30 treinta
31 treinta y uno

Key Words

To find and use specific types of Spanish records, you will need to know some key words in Spanish. This section gives key genealogical terms in English and the Spanish words with the same or similar meanings.

For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriage. In the second column you will find Spanish words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, legitimate, joined, and other words used in Spanish records to indicate marriage. Variant endings of Spanish words are given in parentheses.

English Spanish
archive archivo
baptism bautismo, bauticé, bautizado (a), bautismo, crisma
birth nacimiento, nació, nacido (a)
burial entierro, sepultura, entierrado (a), sepultado (a)
Catholic church Iglesia Católica
census censo, padrón
child niño (a), hijo (a), párvulo (a), expósito
christening See baptism
church records registros parroquiales
civil registry Registro Civil
confirmation confirmación, crisma
day día 
death muerte, defunción, fallecimiento, óbito, muerto(a), difunto(a), fallecido(a)
father padre
husband esposo, marido, cónyuge
index índice
marriage matrimonio, casamiento, casé, casado (a)
military militar, ejército
month mes
morning mañana
mother madre
name, given nombre de pila, nombre de bautismo
name, surname nombre, apellido
parents padres
parish parroquia
wife esposa, marida, mujer, cónyuge
year año

Racial Terminology

In colonial Latin America, racial classification was often recorded in the Catholic parish registers and government documents, often with no degree of accuracy. The meaning of some of these terms may vary in some Spanish-speaking countries.

Classification Racial Composition
Albarazado Cambujo and Mulato
Albino Spanish and Morisco
Allí te estás Chamizo and Mestizo
Barcino Albarazado and Mulato
Barnocino Albarazado and Mestizo
Calpamulato Zambaigo and Lobo
Cambujo Indian (¾) and Negro (¼)
Cambur Negro (½), Spanish (¼), and Indian (¼)
Castizo In Puerto Rico: Mestizo and Spanish. In Guatemala: Spanish and Indian (1/128)
Chamizo Coyote and Indian
Chino In Peru: Mulato and Indian
Cholo In Peru: Mestizo and Indian
Cimarrón In Mexico and Guatemala: Negro (½), Spanish (¼), and Indian (¼)
Coyote Spanish (½), Indian (3/8), and Negro (1/8)
Cuarteado Spanish (½), Indian (¼), and Negro (¼)
Cuarterón Spanish (¾) and Negro (¼)
Cuarterón de Chino In Peru: Spanish and Chino
Cuarterón de Mestize In Peru: Spanish and Mestizo
Cuarterón de Mulato In Peru: Spanish and Mulato
Cuatrero Indian (¾) and Spanish (¼)
Español Spanish
Español Criollo Colonial-born Spaniard
Indio Indian
Jíbaro Lobo and Indian
Ladino Spanish (¾) and Indian (¼)
Lobo Indian (¾) and Negro (¼)
Mestizo Spanish (½) and Indian (½)
Moreno Spanish (½), Indian (¼), and Negro (¼)
Morisco Spanish and Mulato. In Spain: a baptized Moor
Mulato Spanish (½) and Negro (½). In Chile and Colombia: can be Indian and Negro
Negro African Black
Negro fino Negro (¾) and Spanish (¼)
No te entiende Tente en el aire and Mulato
No me toques Mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Negro
Ochavado Spanish (7/8) and Negro (1/8)
Pardo Indian (½), Spanish (¼), and Negro (¼)
Prieto Negro (7/8) and Spanish (1/8)
Quartarón See Cuarterón
Quinterón In Peru: Spanish and Cuarterón
Requinterón In Peru: Spanish and Quinterón
Salta atrás Spanish and Albino
Tente en el aire Calpamulato and Cambujo
Torna atrás No te entiende and Indian
Tresalvo Spanish (¾) and Negro (¼)
Zambaigo Spanish and Chino
Zambo In Peru: Negro and Mulato. In Venezuela: Indian (½) and Negro (½)
Zambo de Indio In Peru: Negro (½) and Indian (½)

General Word List

This general word list includes words commonly seen in genealogical sources. Numbers, months, and days of the week are listed both here and in separate sections prior to this list. Racial terminology is listed separately.

In this list, optional versions of Spanish words or variable endings (such as adjectives and some plural or feminine endings) are given in parentheses. Parentheses in the English column clarify the definition.

Click the letter below to get to the words starting with that letter.
Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Y Z

A

Spanish English
a to, in, into, on
Aa.M. = abuela materna maternal grandmother
Aa.P. = abuela paterna paternal grandmother
abogado lawyer
abril April
absceso abscess
abuela grandmother
abuelo grandfather
abuelos grandparents
acre acre
acta document, record
acuerdo agreement
administración administration
adoptado (a) adopted
adulterio adultery
adúltero (a) adulterer
agosto August
agricultor farmer
ahí there
ahogamiento drowning
albacea executor of estate
albañil stonemason
alcalde mayor
aldea village
alemán (a) German
alfarero potter
algodón cotton
algún (o, a) some, someone
alma soul, inhabitant
alquiler, renta rent
alto (a) high, tall
altura height
allá there
allí there
amanuense scribe, clerk
amarillo (a) yellow
ambos (as) both
amigo (a) friend
amo master, owner
amonestaciones marriage banns
anciano (a) elderly
aniversario anniversary
antepasado (a) ancestor
anterior former, previous
antes before
antiguo (a) old, ancient
anual annual
anuario yearbook
año year
aparecer to appear
apellido surname
apéndice appendix
apodo nickname
apostólico (a) apostolic
aprendiz apprentice
aproximado (a) approximate
aquel (la) that
aquí here
árbol tree
árbol genealógico genealogical tree
archivo archive
arrendamiento rent
arzobispo archbishop
ascendiente ancestor
asilo asylum, shelter
asma asthma
aún still
auto de fé sentence given by the Inquisition
ayer yesterday
ayuntamiento city hall, town government
azúcar sugar
azul blue

B

Spanish English
bajo (a) low
barco ship
barrio city ward
bautismo baptism
bautizar to baptize
bebé baby
bendición blessing
biblioteca library
bien good, well
bienes property, goods, fee
bisabuela great-grandmother
bisabuelo great-grandfather
bisabuelos great-grandparents
bisnieta great-granddaughter
bisnieto great-grandson
bisnietos great-grandchildren
blanco (a) white
boca mouth
boda marriage, wedding
brazo arm
bueno (a) good
búsqueda research

C

Spanish English
caballero nobleman, gentleman
cabeza head
cabildo town council
calle street
camino road
campesino (a) peasant
campo field
cáncer cancer
caña de azúcar sugarcane
capilla chapel
cara face
cárcel jail
carnicero butcher
carpintero carpenter
carretera road
casa house
casado (a) married
casamiento marriage
casar, casarse to marry
casta caste, racial lineage
castillo castle
catastro land census
catedral cathedral
católico (a) Catholic
catorce fourteen
cazador hunter
c.c. = casado con married to
cédula royal decree
cementerio cemetery
censo census
centenario centennial
cerca near, approximate
cerrajero locksmith
certificado certificate
cervecero brewer
ciego (a) blind
ciento one hundred
cinco five
cincuenta fifty
ciudad city
ciudadano (a) citizen
clérigo clergyman
c.m.c.=contrajó matrimonio con contracted marriage with
cofradía religious brotherhood, guild
cojo (a) lame
colina hill
colonia colony or neighborhood or suburb
colorado (a) red
comerciante merchant
comercio business, commerce
como as, how
comunión communion
con with
concejal councilman
concerniente concerning
concilio council
concilio tridentino Council of Trent
condado county
conocido (a) known, acquaintance
conocido (a) como known as
consanguinidad blood relationship, kinship
consejo council
consorte spouse, partner
constipación constipation
consumimiento consumption
contenido contents
contra against
contrayente contracting party in a marriage
conversión conversion
convulsión convulsion
cónyuge spouse
cordelero rope maker
corriente current
cosecha harvest
criada maid
criatura infant, child
cristiano (a) Christian
cuál which
cuándo when
cuarenta forty
cuarto room
cuarto (a) fourth
cuate twin
cuatro four
cuatrocientos four hundred
cuenta account
cumpleaños birthday
cuñada sister-in-law
cuñado brother-in-law
cura clergyman
curato parish
curia ecclesiastical tribunal
curtidor tanner
cuyo (a) whose

D

Spanish English
data data (sometimes may be date - see fecha)
de of, from, belonging to
debilidad weakness, disability
década decade
décimo (a) tenth
décimoctavo (a) eighteenth
décimocuarto (a) fourteenth
décimonono (a) nineteenth
décimoquinto (a) fifteenth
décimo séptimo (a) seventeenth
décimosexto (a) sixteenth
décimotercero (a) thirteenth
declaración declaration
declarado (a) declared, stated
dedo finger
defunción death
dentición teething
dentro within
denuncia accusation, denunciation
departamento district, department
derecho law
derrame stroke
desacuerdo disagreement
desavenencia rift
descendiente descendant
desconocido (a) unknown
descripción description
desde since
después after
detrás after, behind
diario daily
diarrea diarrhea
diccionario dictionary
diciembre December
dicho (a) stated, said, mentioned
diecinueve nineteen
dieciocho eighteen
dieciseis sixteen
diecisiete seventeen
diente tooth
diez ten
diezmo tithing
difo. = difunto deceased
difunto (a) deceased
digno (a) worthy
diócesis Diocese
disenteria dysentery
dispensa exemption, permission
divorciado (a) divorced
doce twelve
documento document
domicilio dwelling
domingo Sunday
don Mr.
donación donation
donde where
doña Mrs.
dos two
doscientos two hundred
d.s.p. = defunctus sine prole died without issue
dueño (a) owner
duodécimo twelfth

E

Spanish English
eclesiástico (a) ecclesiastical
edad age
ejército army, military
él he
el the (masculine)
ella she
ellos they
embarazada pregnant
emigración emigration
emigrante emigrant
empleado (a) employee
encomienda patronage, land grant
enero January
enfermedad disease
entierrado (a) buried
entierro burial
entre between, among
envejecido (a) elderly
epidemia epidemic
epilepsia epilepsy
era (I, you, he, she, it) was/were
éramos (we) were
eran (you, they) were
eras (you) were
eres (you) are
es (you, he, she, it) are/is
escarlata scarlet fever
esclavitud slavery
esclavo slave
escribiente scribe
escuela school
ese (esa) that
esposo (a) husband, spouse (spouse)
espurio (a) illegitimate
está (you, he, she, it) are/is
estación season
estado state, status
estamos (we) are
están (they, you) are
estar to be
este east
este (a, o) this
estómago stomach
estoy (I) am
evangélico (a) evangelical
expósito (a) foundling
extracto extract
extranjero (a) foreigner
extraño (a) stranger

F

Spanish English
fábrica factory
fallecer to die
fallecido (a) deceased
familia family
certificate, faith
febrero February
fecha date
feligrés (a) parishioner, resident
feligresía parish
femenino (a) feminine
ferrocarril railroad
feudo fee
fichero card file
fiebre tifoidea typhoid fever
filiación relationship, military register
finado (a) deceased
firma signature
flaqueza weakness
floresta forest, grove
fondos funds
fortaleza fortress, strength
francés (a) French
frente front, in front of
frontera border
fue (you, he, she, it) were/was
fuego fire, hearth
fuente fountain, source
fueron (you, they) were
fui (I) was
fuimos (we) were
futuro future

G

Spanish English
gacetero gazetteer
ganado cattle
gemelo (a) twin
gemelos (as) twins
genealogía genealogy
gente people
gota gout
grande great, large
gremio brotherhood, guild
gripe influenza
guarda guard, warden
guía directory, guidebook

H

Spanish English
h. = hijo son
hacienda estate, farm
hecho (a) completed, done
hembra female
hemorragia bleeding
heráldica heraldry
heredero (a) heir
herencia inheritance
hermana sister
hermandad fraternity
hermano brother
hermanos brothers, siblings
herrero blacksmith
hidalgo nobleman
hidropesía dropsy
hija daughter
hijastra stepdaughter
hijastro stepson, stepchild
hijo on, child
hijodalgo nobleman
hijos sons, children
hinchazón swelling
historia history
h.l. = hijo legítimo legitimate child
h.n. = hijo natural illegitimate child
hogar home
hoja page
hoja de lámina plate (book)
holandés (a) Dutch
hombre man, husband
honesto (a) honest
hora hour
hospedero innkeeper
huérfano (a) orphan

I

Spanish English
I and
i. = ilegítimo illegitimate
ictericia jaundice
idioma language
iglesia church
Iglesia Católica Catholic Church
ilegítimo (a) illegitimate
ill. = ilegítimo illegitimate
impedimento impediment
imperio empire
impuesto tax
incógnito (a) unknown
índice index
indígena indigenous, native, Indian
indigente indigent
información matrimonial papers relating to a marriage, including banns, declarations, baptismal records, consents, etc.
infrascrito (a) undersigned
inglés (a) English
inmigración immigration
inmigrante immigrant
inmoble real estate
inmueble real estate
ino. = indio Indian
intendente mayor
intestado (a) intestate
intestinos intestines
invierno winter
italiano (a) Italian

J

Spanish English
jardinero gardener
jesuita Jesuit
jornalero journeyman
jubilado retired
judío (a) Jewish
jueves Thursday
julio July
junio June
junto together
jurado juryman
juros annuities, pensions

L

Spanish English
l., leg. = legítimo legitimate
la the (feminine)
labrador farmer, peasant
ladrillero brick mason, bricklayer
lago lake
lechero dairyman
legajo bundle of related documents
legal legal
legítimo (a) legitimate
lengua language, tongue
levante east
ley law
liberto (a) freed slave
libro book
licencia permission
lícito (a) legal
limosna alms
limpieza de sangre purity of blood, indicating pure Catholic ancestry
lugar place
lunes Monday

M

Spanish English
macho male
madrasta stepmother
madre mother
madrina godmother
maestro master, teacher
maíz corn
mano hand
mañana morning
mapa map
marido (a) husband (wife)
marina navy
marinero sailor
martes Tuesday
marzo March
más more
masculino (a) masculine
más joven youngest
más viejo (a) eldest
materno (a) maternal
matrimonio marriage
mayo May
mayor larger, elder
media noche midnight
médico doctor
mendigo (a) beggar
menonita Mennonite
menor smaller, younger
menos less
mercadería wares, goods
mercado market
mercante merchant
mes month
mestizo mixture of Spanish and Indian
mi my
miembro member
miércoles Wednesday
mil one thousand
milla mile
mina mine
minero miner
ministro minister
mío (a) my
mismo (a) same
mitad half
m.n. = more novo according to the new manner of dating (the Gregorian calendar)
molino mill
montaña mountain
monte hill
montero hunter
morada dwelling
morador (a) resident
morar to live (location)
morir to die
mozo (a) youth, young
muchacho (a) boy, (girl)
muchas veces often
mucho (a) many, very
mudo (a) dumb
muebles furniture, household
muerte death
muerto (a) deceased
mujer woman, wife
mulato (a) mulatto
municipio municipality

N

Spanish English
n. = nació, nacido born
n. = nombre name
nac. = nacido born
nacer to be born
nacido (a) born
nacido (a) muerto (a) stillborn
nacimiento birth
nariz nose
natural natural, illegitimate
natural de native of
nave ship
navio ship
negocio business
negro (a) black
nene baby
nieta granddaughter
nieto grandson
nietos grandchildren
ningún (o, a) none, not one
niño (a) child
no no
no. = número number
noble noble
nobleza nobility
noche night
nombre name
nombre de pila given or Christian name
nono (a) ninth
norte north
nosotros we
notario notary
novecientos nine hundred
noveno (a) ninth
noventa ninety
novia bride, fiancée
noviembre November
novio groom, fiancé
novios betrothed
nuera daughter-in-law
nuestro (a) our
nueve nine
nuevo (a) new
num. = número number
número number
nunca never
nupcias marriage, wedding

O

Spanish English
o or
obispado bishopric
obispo bishop
óbito death
obligación obligation
obrero worker, laborer
observaciones comments, marginal notes
occidente west
octavo (a) eighth
octubre October
ochenta eighty
ocho eight
ochocientos eight hundred
oeste west
oferta offering
oficio office
ojo eye
óleo oil
once eleven
onomástico (a) onomastic (referring to names)
operario worker, laborer
oración prayer
oreja ear
orfanato orphanage
oriente east
original de native of
oro gold
o.s.p. = obiit sine prole died without issue
otoño autumn
otro (a) other, another

P

Spanish English
padrasto stepfather
padre father, priest
padres parents
padrino godfather
padrinos godparents
padrón census, list of persons
pag. = página page
país country
palacio palace
panadero baker
para for, to
pardo (a) dark, mulatto
parentesco kinship
pariente relative
párroco priest
parroquia parish
parroquiano (a) parishioner
partera midwife
partida act, certificate
parto birth
párvulo (a) small child
pasado past
pastor pastor, minister, shepherd
paterno (a) paternal
patrimonio inheritance
patrón master, employer
pd. = padre father
penitenciaria penitentiary
periódico periodical, newspaper
permiso permission
pero but
pescador fisherman
peso weight
peste plague
pie foot
pierna leg
plaga plague
plata silver
plaza public square
plazo term
pleitos lawsuit, court action
población population, town, village
poblado town, village
polaco (a) Polish
por by, for
por qué why
porque because
portugués Portuguese
posada hostel, shelter
posadero innkeeper
preñada pregnant
presente present
primavera spring
primero (a) first
primo (a) cousin
prisión prison
proceso trial, lawsuit
profesión profession
profesor (a) teacher
progenitor progenitor
prole progeny
propiedad property, land
propietario proprietor, owner
protestante Protestant
protocolos notarial books
provincia province
próximo (a) next
pueblo town, village, people
puente bridge
puerto port
pulmón lung
pulmonia pneumonia

Q

Spanish English
que that, what
quien who, whom
quince fifteen
quinientos five hundred
quinto (a) fifth
quizás maybe

R

Spanish English
rancho ranch
real royal
rebusca research
reconocimiento recognition, acknowledgment
regidor alderman, prefect
registro civil civil registry
registros records, registers
registros civiles civil records, vital records
reina queen
reino kingdom
religión religion
renta rent
residencia residence
residente resident
retirado (a) retired
retiramiento retirement
retrato portrait
rey king
rezo recited prayer
río river
rito rite
rojo (a) red
rostro face
ruso (a) Russian

S

Spanish English
s. = señor sir, mister
sábado Saturday
sacerdote priest
sacristán sexton
sagrado (a) sacred, holy
sala room
san saint
sangradura bleeding
santo (a) holy, sacred, saint
santos óleos holy oil
sarampión measles
sastre tailor
segundo (a) second
seis six
seiscientos six hundred
semana week
separado (a) separate
septiembre September
séptimo (a) seventh
sepulcro grave, sepulcher
sepultado (a) buried
sepultura grave, sepulcher
ser to be
servicio service, donations
sesenta sixty
setecientos seven hundred
setenta seventy
sexo sex, gender
sexto (a) sixth
yes
si if, whether
siempre always
sierra mountain range
siete seven
siglo century
sirviente servant
sitio place, site
sn. = san saint
sobre about, above, concerning
sobrenombre surname, nickname
sobreviviente surviving
sobrina niece
sobrino nephew
sociedad society
solar manor house
soldado soldier
solemnemente solemnly
solo only
soltero (a) single
somos (we) are
son (they, you) are
sordo (a) deaf
soy (I) am
su (suyo, suya) your, his, her, their
sud south
sueco (a) Swedish
suegra mother-in-law
suegro father-in-law
suizo (a) Swiss
sur south

T

Spanish English
talabartero leather worker
tal vez maybe
también also
tarde afternoon, late
tejedor weaver
temprano early
tenemos (we) have
tener to have
tengo (I) have
tercero (a) third
terreno tract of land, field
testamento will
testigo witness
testimonio testimony
tía aunt
tiempo time
tiene (you, he, she, it) has
tienen (you, they) have
tintorero dyer
tío uncle
título title
todavía still
todos (as) all, everyone
tomo volume
tonelero cooper
tos cough
tos ferina whooping cough
trabajador worker, laborer
trece thirteen
treinta thirty
treinta y uno thirty-one
tres three
trescientos three hundred
tribunal court
trigésimo (a) thirtieth
trigésimo primero (a) thirty-first
trigo wheat
tuberculosis tuberculosis
tumba tomb, grave
tumor tumor
tutela guardianship
tutelas records of orphans

U

Spanish English
último (a) last
un (uno, una) one
undécimo (a) eleventh

V

Spanish English
valle valley
varón male
vecindad neighborhood
vecino (a) neighbor, citizen
veinte twenty
veinte y cinco twenty-five
veinte y cuatro twenty-four
veinte y dos twenty-two
veinte y nueve twenty-nine
veinte y ocho twenty-eight
veinte y seis twenty-six
veinte y siete twenty-seven
veinte y tres twenty-three
veinte y uno twenty-one
veinticinco twenty-five
veinticuatro twenty-four
veintidos twenty-two
veintinueve twenty-nine
veintiocho twenty-eight
veintiseis twenty-six
veintisiete twenty-seven
veintitres twenty-three
veintiuno twenty-one
velación veiling ceremony of bride and groom
vender to sell
verano summer
verde green
vez time, turn, occasion
viejo (a) elderly
viernes Friday
vigésimo twentieth
vigésimo cuarto (a) twenty-fourth
vigésimo nono (a) twenty-ninth
vigésimo octavo (a) twenty-eighth
vigésimo primero (a) twenty-first
vigésimo quinto (a) twenty-fifth
vigésimo segundo (a) twenty-second
vigésimo séptimo (a) twenty-seventh
vigésimo sexto (a) twenty-sixth
vigésimo tercero (a) twenty-third
villa village, town
viña vineyard
viñedo vineyard
viruelas smallpox
viudo (a) widower, widow
vivir to live
vivo (a) alive
volumen volume

Y

Spanish English
y and
yerno son-in-law
yo I

Z

Spanish English
zapatero shoemaker