Slovak Genealogical Word List

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Slovak Genealogical
Word List
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Slovak Genealogical Word List

Language Characteristics

Variant Forms of Words

In Slovak, the forms of most words will vary according to how they are used in a sentence. Who--whose--whom, or marry--marries--married are examples of words in English with variant forms. In Slovak any word may change, depending on usage. This word list gives the standard form of each Slovak word. As you read Slovak records, you will need to be aware that most words vary with usage. The endings of Slovak words in a document will often differ from what you find in this list.

The plural form may change the basic word, for example:

dieťa
brat
child
brother
"deti"
bratia
children
brothers

Female surnames are feminized with the basic endings: -ová or -á. For example:

Novák
Pleva
Novotný
Nováková
Plevová
Novotná

Gender

Slovak words for persons, places, and things (nouns) are classified as masculine, feminine, or neuter. Adjectives used to describe the singular and plural forms of Slovak words must have the proper masculine, feminine, or neuter endings. For example:

starý muž
stará žena
staré mesto
old man
old woman
old city
"starí muži"
staré Ženy
staré mestá
old men
old women
old cities

This word list gives only the singular masculine form of adjectives. Thus, starý, stará, staré, starí (old) is listed as starý.

The endings of past tense verbs also change depending on the gender of the person or thing being described or performing the action and number of its subjects. For example:

narodil sa
narodila sa
narodilo sa
narodili sa
he was born
she was born
it (the child) was born
they were born

This word list gives only the narodil sa (he was born) form of the past tense verb. You can conclude that narodila sa means she was born, etc.

Plurals

Plural forms of Slovak words usually change the singular word as follows: Words ending in -a change to -y

žena
wife
ženy
wives

Words ending in -o change to

mesto
city
mestá
cities

Words ending in a consonant add -y, a few words add -i, -e to form the plural

list
muž
zámok
page
husband
palace
listy
muži
zámky
pages
husbands
palaces

Grammatical Use

The endings of Slovak words can also vary depending on the grammatical use of the words. Slovak grammar requires a specific type of ending for a word used as the subject of the sentence, used in the possessive, used as the object of a verb, or used with a preposition. Slovak words fall into several classes, each with its own set of grammatical endings. Certain possessive endings give the meaning (of) to a word.

Nouns change the endings to show possession as follows

Nouns ending with consonant add -a, -e

brat
muž
brother
husband
brata
muža
of brother
of husband

Nouns ending with -a add -y

sestra
sister
sestry
of sister

Nouns ending with -o add -a

mesto
city
mesta
of city

Plural (masculine nouns) change to -ov

muži
husband
mužov
of husbands

Plural (feminine/neuter nouns) change -e to -ie

ženy
wife
žien
of wives

Adjectives change the endings to show possession as follows:

adjectives ending in change to -ého

narodený
born
narodeného
of the born

adjectives ending in change to -ej

krstená
baptized
krstenej
of the baptized

adjectives ending in -e change to -eho

neznáme
unknown
neznámeho
of the unknown

plural adjectives ending in -ý, -é add -ch

zosnulý
erbové
deceased
heraldic
zosnulých
erbových
of the deceased
of the heraldic

These examples show some endings in contex:
Syn zosnulého Josefa Nováka a Anny Plevovej means a son of the deceased Josef Novák and of Anna Plevová (Pleva).
Manželstvo medzi Karlom Václavom Havlom a Barborou Máriou Kozárovou means a marriage between Karol Václav Havel and Barbora Mária Kozárová (Kozár).

Alphabetical Order

Written Slovak uses several letters in addition to the 26 letters used in the English alphabet. These are á, ä, č, é, í, Í, ľ, ň, ó, ô, ŕ, š, ť, ú, ý, ž. The letter combinations dz, dž, and ch are also considered as single letters, dz and dž is alphabetized after d and ch is alphabetized after h. Letters q, w, x are used only in words of foreign origin. Slovak dictionaries and indexes use the following alphabetical order:

a,á,ä b č d,ď dz,dž e,é f g h ch i,í j k l,Í,,ľ m n,ň o,ó,ô p (q) r,ŕ s š t,ť u,ú v (w) ( x) y,ý z ž

This word list follows the standard English alphabetical order. However, when working with alphabetized Slovak records, use the Slovak alphabetical order.

Spelling

Spelling rules were not standardized in earlier centuries. In Slovak, the following spelling variations are common:
i, y and j used interchangeably
s and z used interchangeably
w used for v
rz used for r
sz used for š
cz used for č
Slovak is a phonetic language, which means words are pronounced as they are written.

Additional Resources

This word list includes the words most commonly found in genealogical sources. For further help, use a Slovak-English dictionary. Several Slovak-English dictionaries are available at the Family History Library in the European collection. The call numbers begin with 491.87321.

Key Words

In order to find and use specific types of Slovak records, you will need to know some key words in Slovak. This section gives key genealogical terms in English and the Slovak words with the same or similar meanings.

For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriage. In the second column you will find Slovak words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, legitimate, joined, and other words used in Slovak records to indicate marriage.

English Slovak
baptism, baptisms krst, krsty, krstný, krstíť, krstil, pokrstil
birth, births narodenie, narodený, rodné, narodil sa
burial, burials pohreb, pohreby
Catholic rímsko-katolícky
census sčítanie ľudu
child dieťa, dieťatko
christenings (see baptism)
civil registry štátna matrika
death, deaths úmrtie, smrť, úmrtný, umrel, zomrieť, zomrel, zosnul, skonal
father otec, otcovia, otca, tatko, tatinko
husband manžel, muž
index zoznam, register, index
Jewish židovský
marriage, marriages sobáš, sobáše sobášiť manželstvo, svadba, brat’si oženil sa (man), vydala sa (woman)
military vojsko, vojenský
month mesiac
mother matka, matky, mama, mamka, maminka
name, given (krstné) meno
name, surname priezvisko, pôrodné meno, vlastné meno
parent, parents rodič, rodičia
parish farnosť, fara
Protestant protestant
wife manželka, žena
year rok

Numbers

In some genealogical records, numbers are written out. This is especially true with dates. The following list gives the cardinal (1, 2, 3) and the ordinal (1st, 2nd, 3rd) versions of each number. In actual usage, days of the month are written in ordinal form with a possessive grammatical ending. In the following list, the ordinal number in its standard form is given first, followed by the possessive form (in some cases only the possessive ending is listed), for example:

a and
piaty the fifth
na piaty on the fifth (of the month)


Cardinal
Ordinal
1 jeden, jedna, jedno 1st prvý
2 dva, dve 2nd druhý
3 tri 3rd tretí
4 štyri 4th štvrtý
5 pät 5th piaty
6 šesť 6th šiesty
7 sedem 7th siedmy
8 osem 8th ôsmy
9 devät 9th deviaty
10 desať 10th desiaty
11 jedenásť 11th jedenásty
12 dvanásť 12th dvanásty
13 trinásť 13th trinásty
14 štrnásť 14th štrnásty
15 pätnásť 15th pätnásty
16 šestnásť 16th šestnásty
17 sedemnásť 17th sedemnásty
18 osemnásť 18th osemnásty
19 devätenásť 19th devätnásty
20 dvadsať 20th dvadsiaty
21 dvadsať jeden, 21st dvadsiaty prvý
22 dvadsať dva 22nd dvadsiaty druhý
23 dvadsať tri 23rd dvadsiaty tretí
24 dvadsať štyri 24th dvadsiaty štvrtý
25 dvadsať pät 25th dvadsiaty piaty
26 dvadsať šesť 26th dvadsiaty šiesty
27 dvadsať sedem 27th dvadsiaty siedmy
28 dvadsať osem 28th dvadsiaty ôsmy
29 dvadsať deväť 29th dvadsiaty deviaty
30 tridsať 30th tridsiaty
40 štyridsať 40th štyridsiaty
50 päťdesiat 50th päťdesiaty
60 šesťdesiat 60th šesťdesiaty
70 sedemdesiat 70th sedemdesiaty
80 osemdesiat 80th osemdesiaty
90 deväťdesiat 90th deväťdesiaty
100 jednosto, sto 100th stý
200 dvesto 200th dvestý
300 tristo 300th tristý
400 štyristo 400th štyristý
500 päťsto 500th päťstý
600 šesťsto 600th šesťstý
700 sedemsto 700th sedemstý
800 osemsto 800th osemstý
900 devät’sto 900th devätstý
1000 jeden tisíc, tisíc 1000th tisíci

Dates and Time

In Slovak records, dates are occasionally written out. Dates are usually given with possessive grammatical endings. For example:
dvadsiateho ôsmého augusta jeden tisíc osemsto päťdesiat dva - [on the twenty-eighth of August one thousand eight hundred fifty and two, 28 August 1852]
To understand Slovak dates, use the following lists as well as the preceding "Numbers" section.

Months

Slovak dates are always given in day-month-year order. Also months are often abbreviated using a Roman numeral. For example, 25 February 1848 could be written as:

25. február 1848 25. 2. 1848
25. II. 1848

The months listed below are shown in their standard form and in the possessive form used in writing dates.

Roman Numeral English Slovak
I January január
II February február
III March marec
IV April april
V May máj
VI June jún
VII July júl
VIII August august
IX September september
X October október
XI November november
XII December december

Times of Days

Slovak records may indicate the exact time when the birth, marriage or death occurred. This is usually written out.

Slovak English
o desiatej at 10 o’clock
ráno in the morning
dopoludnie forenoon
poludnie / na poludnie noon
popoludnie afternoon
večer in the evening
v noci at night
polnoc / o polnoci midnight

Days of the Week

English Slovak
Sunday nedel’a
Monday pondelok
Tuesday utorok
Wednesday streda
Thursday štvrtok
Friday piatok
Saturday sobota

General Word List

Click the letter below to get to the words starting with that letter.
Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

A

Slovak English
a and
adoptovaný adopted
adresár directory
ako how, as
ako, podobne as, like
aký what kind of
ale but
alebo or
apríl April
archív archive
asi perhaps, about, maybe, circa
atď. and so forth
august August

B

Slovak English
babička, babka grandmother
bádateľ researcher
bakalár student
baník coalminer
bieloruský Belorussian
bez without
bezdetný childless
birmovanie confirmations
biskup bishop
blízky near
Boh the Lord
bol, bola, bolo was
boli were
bolesť pain
Boží, Božia, Božie the Lord=s
brat, bratia brother, brothers
brat(r)anec cousin (male)
bude he/she/it will
budú they will
bydlisko residence
byť to be
bývajúci residing
bývalý former, the late (deceased)

C

Slovak English
č. (číslo) number
čas time
časť part, portion
cech guild
čeľadník farm worker
celý entire
census, sčítanie ľudu census
český Czech, Bohemian
cesta road
cestovný pas passport
chalupár cottager, poor peasant
chalupník, domkár cottager
chce he wants
chlap, sedliak, roľník peasant, country fellow chlapec
chlapec boy
choroba, nemoc disease
cigáň gypsy
cintorín cemetery
cirkev church
cisársky imperial
cisárstvo empire
čižmár shoemaker
člen member
čo what
cudzí foreign, strange
cukrovka diabetes

D

Slovak English
ďalší next
dane taxation
dar donation
dátum date
dcéra, dcéry daughter, daughters
december December
dieťa child
starý otec, dedko, grandfather, old man dedo, starec
dedo, starec Grandpa, man
dedič heir
dedičstvo, pozostalosť heritage, inheritance dedina
dedina village
dejiny history
dekanát deanery, division of a diocese
deň day
desať ten
desiatok tithing
desiaty tenth
deti children
deväť nine
deväťdesiat(y) ninety (ninetieth)
devätnásť(devätnástý) nineteen (nineteenth)
deväťsto nine hundred
deväťstý nine hundredth
deviaty ninth
dieťa child
dietaťa of the child
dieťatko little child
diel portion, share, volume
dievča girl
diecéza diocese
dievka, dievčina girl
dňa on the day
dnešok today
dnešný today's
do to, into
doba time period
dobrý good
dôchodca pensioner
dodatok supplement, addition
dojča infant
dôkaz proof
doklad document
dolný lower
dom house
doma at home
domkár cottager
domovský list residency certificate
druhého on the second
druhopis duplicate
druhý second
duplikát, kópia duplicate
dva two
dvadsať twenty
dvadsiaty twentieth
dvadsaťštyri twenty-four
dvadsaťdeväť twenty-nine
dvadsiaty deviaty twenty-ninth
dvadsiaty druhý twenty-second
dvadsaťdva twenty-two
dvadsať-jeden twenty-one
dvadsať-osem twenty-eight
dvadsiaty ôsmy twenty-eighth
dvadsiaty piaty twenty-fifth
dvadsaťpäť twenty-five
dvadsiaty prvý twenty-first
dvadsať-sedem twenty-seven
dvadsiaty siedmy twenty-seventh
dvadsiaty šiesty twenty-sixth
dvadsiaty štvrtý twenty-fourth
dvadsiaty tretí twenty-third
dvadsať-šesť twenty-six
dvadsac-tri twenty-three
dvanásť(dvanásty) twelve (twelfth)
dva two
dvesto two hundred
dvestý two hundredth
dvojča, dvojčatá twin, twins
dvor court

E

Slovak English
emigrácia, vysťahovalectvo emigration
erb coat of arms
erbový heraldic
erbovníctvo heraldry
evanjelický Evangelical, Lutheran,
Protestant evanjelický A.V. Lutheran, of the Augsburg denomination

F

Slovak English
fabrikant factory owner
fara parish
farár pastor, parish priest
farbiar dyer
farmár farmer farnosť
farský úrad parish office
február February

G

Slovak English
gazda farmer
gazdovstvo farm
genealógia genealogy genealogický strom, family tree rodokmeň
grunt family property
gruntovné knihy land records
gruntovník farmer, land holder
gubernia Russian province

H

Slovak English
hajník, horár forester
heraldika heraldry
história history
hlavný main
hnačka diarrhea
ho him
hodina hour
hoden, ctihodný worthy
holič barber
hora mountain, hill
horný upper
horúčka fever
hospodár farmer (self sustaining)
hospodárstvo farm
hostinský, krčmár innkeeper
hrad castle
hranica border, boundary
hrnčiar potter
hrob grave

I

Slovak English
ich their
imigrácia, immigration
inak tiež alias
informácia (-e) množné information
inokedy at another time
iný other, different

J

Slovak English
jazero lake
jazyk language
je he/she/it is
jeden, -na, -no a, an, one
jedenásť (jedenásty) eleven (eleventh)
jedináčik, jediné dieťa the only child
jeho his, its
jej her
jemu to him
jutro acre
júl July
jún June
január January

K

Slovak English
k, pre to, for
kalendár calendar
kam to where
kamenár, murár mason
kaplnka chapel
katolícky Catholic
kazateľ preacher
každý each, every
kiahne small pox
kašeľ cough
klampiar tinsmith
kláštor convent, monastery
kmotor, krstný otec godfather
kmotra, krstná mama godmother
kmotri godparents
kňaz priest
kniha, knihy book, books
knižnica library
koho whom
kojenec, dojča suckling
kominár chimney sweep
konečný, posledný final, last
koniec end
konto, účet account
konvertovanie conversion
kostol church
kováč smith
koželuh, garbiar tanner
kraj region, area
krajčír tailor (male)
krajčírka seamstress
kráľ king
kráľovná queen
kráľovský royal
kráľovstvo kingdom
times
kŕče cramps, convulsions
(po) krvný blood-related
kronika, kroniky chronicle, chronicles
krst christening, baptism
krstné meno given name
krstný list christening (baptismal) certificate
krstenec the one christened, baptized
krstu of the christening
krsty christenings, baptisms
krvácanie bleeding, hemorrhage
kto who
ktorý who, which
kumšt, obchod trade, occupation
kupec shopkeeper, merchant
kúpele spa, spring, bath
kúpil he bought

L

Slovak English
lán a measure of land
latinský Latin
lekár physician
les forest, woods
list letter, correspondence
letopoč-et date
tento rok this year
ľavoboček illegitimate child
list certificate, page
listina legal document
loď ship, boat
legitímne legitimate
nelegitímne illegitimate
ľudia people

M

Slovak English
he/she/it has
macocha stepmother
maďarský Hungarian
máj May
majetný wealthy, property owning
majetok property
majster master craftsman
majú they have
mal, -a, -o he (she, it) had
maliar painter
malý small, little
matka, mama, mamka, mother
maminka, mamička mum
manžel husband
manželia married couple
manželka wife
manželský, zákonný legitimate
manželstvo marriage
mapa map
marec March
mäsiar butcher
mať to have
matrika, matriky vital records, church records
matrika narodených birth register
matrika zosobášených marriage register
matrika zomrelých death register
medzi between
meno name
menovite that means, namely
menší lesser, smaller, shorter
mesiac month
mešťan, občan burgher, citizen
mesto town, city
miestny local
miesto place, locality
miesto bydliska place of residence
miestopisný slovník gazetteer
mládenec youth
mladý young
mlyn mill
mlynár miller
ml. (mladší) younger,
modlitba prayer
moravský Moravian
most bridge
mŕtvo narodený stillborn
mŕtvy dead
murár bricklayer
muž man, husband
mužský male

N

Slovak English
na on, at, around
náboženstvo religion
nad on the, above, upon
nádenník day worker, day laborer
náhrobný kameň gravestone
najmladší youngest
nájomník renter
najstarší oldest, eldest
nájdenec, najdúch foundling
nám to us
nar. see narodil and narození
narodenie birth
(na) rodený born
narodil sa was born
národný national
nás us
náš (naše) our
nasledujúci, budúci next
nazvaný called, also known as, alias, named
nie (nie-) no, not
nebožtík, zosnulý the deceased
neďaleko not far from
nedeľa Sunday
nedostatok lack of
nekatolík non-Catholic
nemanželský, illegitimate nezakonný
nemecký German
nemenovaný unnamed, nameless
nemoc disease
neter niece
neuvedené not mentioned
nevesta daughter-in-law
nevesta bride
nevlastný step- (as in step-mother step-sister, and so forth)
nevoľník vassal, serf
nevyskytuje sa does not appear
neplnoletý not of legal age, minor
neznámy unknown
nič nothing
nie je is not
nikdy never
nízky low, short
nižší lower
noc night
november November
novomanželia newlyweds
novorodenec newborn
nový new

O

Slovak English
o about, concerning
oba (obaja), obe both
občan citizen
obchodník merchant
občianstvo citizenship
obdržal received
obec, obce community, communities
oblastný archív regional archive
obrad rite, ceremony
obrezanie (obriezka) circumcision
obsah content
obuvník shoemaker
obyvateľ inhabitant, resident, citizen
obyvateľstvo population
od from, since
sobášna matrika marriage register
zosobášený married
oddať, vydať sa, to marry oženiť sa
sobáš marriage
odkiaľ from where
odpovedať to reply
ohlásený, oznámený announced, published
ohlášky banns
okolo about, around
okres district, county
október October
on, -a, -o, -i, -y he, she, it, they
osada, obec community
osem(ôsmy) eight (eighth)
osmdesiat(y) eighty (eightieth)
osemstý eight hundredth
osmnásť(osemnásty) eighteen (eighteenth)
osem sto eight hundred
osoba person
osobný personal
osýpky measles
otec, oco, ocko father
otčim stepfather
otec, otcovia father, fathers
ovdovená, -ý widowed
vdovec widower
oženený married (man)
oženil sa married a woman

P

Slovak English
paholok farm servant
pán sir, Mr., Lord
pani lady, Mrs.
panna maiden, Miss, virgin [stará panna (dievka) = old maiden, spinster]
pastier herdsman
pastier shepherd
päť five
päť sto five hundred
päťdesiat(y) fifty (fiftieth)
pätnásť(pätnásty) fifteen, fifteenth
patrimoniálné knihy patrimonial books
päťstý five hundredth
pečať seal
pekár baker
pestúnka foster mother
pestún foster father
pevnosť fortress
piatok Friday
piaty fifth
pisár scribe
písať to write
plnoletý of legal age
plný full, complete
po (potom) after
pobyt residence
pochovaný buried
pochovať bury
pokrstený christened, baptized
pokrstil have christened, baptized
pod under
poddaný, nevoľník serf
podľa according to
podobný similar
podpis signature
podpísaný the undersigned
podpora assistance
podruh??? farm laborer
pohlavie gender, sex
pohreb, pohreby burial, burials
pohrobok posthumous child
pokrstený christened
(po) krstil have christened, baptized
pokrvný blood-related
pol, polovica half
polnoc midnight
poľovník hunter
poľský Polish
poludnie noon
pomoc help
pondelok Monday
popálenina burn
popis description
poplatok fee, cost
popoludnie in the afternoon
populácia population
pôrod childbirth, labor
pôrodná baba midwife
poručník guardian
posledná vôľa last will, testament
posledné pomazanie last rites
posledný final, last
potok stream
potomok descendant
pôvod origin, parentage
povolanie occupation, profession
povolenie permission
požehnanie blessing
pozemkové knihy land books
poznámky remarks
pozostalý left behind, surviving
pra- great-
prastará mama, (prababka) great-grandmother
pracovný diligent, hard working
prastarý otec, dedo (pradedko) great-grandfather
prarodičia grandparents
prateta great aunt
praujec great uncle
právny legal
právo law
pravoverný orthodox
pravý right, true
pre for
pred before, in front of
predchádzajúci former
predok ancestor
predošlý previous
predtým before
predvčerom day before yesterday
presne exactly
pretože because
priateľ friend (male)
priateľka friend (female)
približný approximate
príbuzný related, relative
príčina cause, reason
priezvisko surname
prímenie surname, last name
príbuzenstvo relationship
prisťahovalectvo immigration
prítomnosť presence
prehlásenie statement
prosba, žiadosť request
prosíme, žiadame we request
protestantský Protestant
proti against
pruský Prussian
prvorodený firstborn
prvý first

R

Slovak English
r. (roku) year
radnica city hall
rakovina cancer
rakúsky Austrian
ráno or in the morning predpoludnie, dopoludnie
remeň leather belt
remeselník tradesman
remeslo trade
bádanie, výskum genealogical research
rieka river
rímsko-katolícky Roman Catholic
robotník laborer, vassal
robotník laborer, worker
roč. (ročník) year (of book)
ročný annual
rod family, clan, descent, lineage
rodom, meno za slobodna maiden name
rodič, rodičia parent, parents
rodina family
rodisko birthplace
rodná matrika birth register
rodné meno surname
rodný list birth certificate
rodokmeň pedigree, family tree, lineage
rodopis genealogy
rok year
rokov years
roľník peasant
rod. (rodená) maiden name
rôzny various
rozvedený divorced
rozvod divorce
ruský Russian, Ruthenian, Ukrainian
rybár fisherman
rychtár village magistrate
rytier knight

S

Slovak English
s, so with
samota hamlet
šarlach scarlet fever
sčítanie ľudu census oznamujeme Vám
oznamujeme Vám we inform you
sedliak farmer (large farm)
sedem sto seven hundred
sedem (siedmy) seven(th)
sedemdesiat(y) seventy (seventieth)
sedemnásť (sedemnásty) seventeen(th)
sedemstý seven hundredth
hostinský, krčmár tavern keeper
september September
šesť (šiesty) six(th)
šesťdesiat(y) sixty (sixtieth)
sesternica cousin (female)
šesťstý six hundredth
šestnásť(šestnásty) sixteen(th)
šesťto six hundred
sestra sister
sirota orphan
škola school
slabosť weakness, sickness
slabý weak
šľachta nobility
šľachtic nobleman
slávny famous
slečna Miss
sliezsky Silesian
slobodný unmarried, single
slovenský Slovak
slovník dictionary
sluha servant (male)
služba service
slúžka (služobná) servant (female)
smrť death
snúbenec fiancé, betrothed, groom
snúbenica fiancee, betrothed, bride
sobáš, sobáše marriage, marriages
sobášny list marriage certificate
sobota Saturday
suchoty consumption
spolu together
spoločnosť society
správa report
stará dievka old maiden, spinster, older, elder, senior
stará mať, stará matka grandmother
staroba old age
starosta mayor
starý old
starý mládenec bachelor
štát state
štátna matrika civil registry
statok farm
stav marital status, condition
sto hundred
stolár cabinet maker
storočie century
str. (strana) page, side
stred, -ný central, middle, average
streda Wednesday
strýc, strýko, ujec uncle
štvrtok Thursday
štvrtý fourth
stý one hundredth
štyri four
štrnásť(štrnásty) fourteen (fourteenth)
štyridsať forty
štyridsiaty fortieth
štyristo four hundredth
štvorstý four hundred
they are
súd court
sudca judge
súhlas consent
súrodenci siblings; brothers and sisters
sused(ka), susedia neighbor, neighbors svadba, sobáš
svadba, sobáš wedding
svadobné oznámenie wedding announcement švagor
švagor brother-in-law
švagriná sister-in-law svadobný, sobášny
svadobný, sobášny marital, of marriage svätý
svätý holy
svedok witness
sviatok holiday
svokor father-in-law
svokra mother-in-law
syn, synovia son, sons
synagóga synagogue
synovec nephew

T

Slovak English
takzvaný so called
tam there
toho miesta of that place
tehliar brick maker
tehotenstvo pregnancy
tehotná pregnant
terajší, súčasný this, the present
tesár carpenter
teta aunt
tiež also
tisíc(i) one thousand(th)
titul title
tkáč weaver
to it, this
toho roku of the current year
toľko so much, as much
tovaryš journeymen
tretí third
trh, trhovisko market
tri three
tridsať thirty
tridsiaty thirtieth
trinásť(trinásty) thirteen(th)
tristo three hundred
tristý three hundredth
truhlár cabinetmaker
tu here
tunajší of this place
tuberkulóza tuberculosis
týfus brušný typhoid fever
týždeň week
týždne weeks

U

Slovak English
u at, in
úbohý poor
učeň apprentice
učiteľ teacher
údaj information
údolie valley
uhorský Hungarian
uhliar coalman
ukrajinský Ukrainian
ul. (ulica) street, road
uložený deposited
umrel, zomrel died
umrieť, zomrieť to die
úmrtie, smrť death
úmrtný list death certificate
úmrtná matrika death register
úplavica dysentery
úrad office
úradník clerk, officer
urodzený of noble birth
usadlík settler
ústny verbal, oral
utorok Tuesday
uvedený known
uzavretie contracting (of marriage)

V

Slovak English
v, vo in, on, at
Vás you
Váš your
včera yesterday
včerajší yesterday=s
vdova widow
[vdova po Jozefovi = widow of Jozef] vdovec widower
večer in the evening
vedľa next to
vek age
veľký big, great, large
veľkomožný magnate vhodný, primeraný
vhodný, primeraný appropriate
viď. see
vlani, minulý rok, last year
vlasť homeland
vlastné meno surname
vlastný own, real, natural, self
vnučka granddaughter
vnuk grandson
voda water
vojak soldier
vojenský military
vojsko military
vojvodstvo duchy
vrchný upper
všetko all
vydala sa she married
vydaný published
vydatá žena married woman
vykonal performed, did, accomplished
vykonaný performed
výmenkár(ka) pensioner
výpis, výťažok extract
výročie anniversary
vysoký high, tall
vyšší upper
vyznanie religion
vždy always

Z

Slovak English
z, zo from, of (a place)
záhradník gardener
zajtra tomorrow
zákonný lawful, legal, legitimate
zamestnanie employment
zámočník locksmith
zámok palace
zápal pľúc pneumonia
záškrt diphtheria
zasnúbenie engagement (to marry)
zasnúbený betrothed, engaged
zasnúbiť sa to become engaged
zať son-in-law
závet will, testament
zem earth
zemepán feudalist, statkár, landowner
zemské dosky land tablets
želiar cottager
žena woman, wife
ženatý married (man)
ženích bridegroom
ženský female
zosnul died
žiadny no, none
žiadosť request
žid, židia Jew, Jewish
židovský Jewish
žijúci living
život life
životopis biography
žltačka jaundice
zmluva contract, agreement
zničenie destruction
žobrák beggar
zomrel died
zoznam list, index, directory
zvolenie consent
zv. (zväzok) volume, number

Other Languages

Before 1918 the Slovak lands were part of the Kingdom of Hungary which, together with Austria, constituted the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Records written before 1918 may be in Hungarian, Latin, German, or Slovak. Slovak records often contain Hungarian, Latin, or German words.

To help you read genealogical records also see the following word lists: