Seminole Nation

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United States Gotoarrow.png Florida Gotoarrow.png Oklahoma Gotoarrow.png Indgenous Peoples of the United States Gotoarrow.png Indigenous Peoples of Florida Gotoarrow.png Indigenous Peoples of Oklahoma Gotoarrow.png Seminole Nation

This is an American Indian genealogy guide to records and research strategies for finding an ancestor from the Seminole Tribe. To get started finding Native American ancestors see also Indigenous Peoples of the United States.


Basic Facts[edit | edit source]

The Seminole Tribe is part of the group known as the Five Civilized Tribes: Seminole, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Creek

Ancestral Homeland: Southeastern United States - Georgia and Florida

Linguistic Group: Muskhogean

Federal Status: Recognized

Leaders: Osceola

Miccosukee Tribe (Seminole) live on the Miccosukee reservation or along the Tamiami Trail

Bands:  Caesar Bruner*, Ceyvah, Dosar Barkus *, Efvlv, Fushatache, Hecete, Hitchiti, Hvteyievike, Kanchatee, Mekasukey, New Comer, Nvicvp Haco, Oceese, Rewahle, Talahassee, Thlewahlee, Thomas Palmer, Tvsekia Haco, and Wm. Connor.  * Freedman Bands

Clans:Alligator (Hvlpvtvlke), Bear (Nokusvlke), Beaver (Echaswvlke), Bird (Fuswvlke), Deer (Ecovlke), Fox (Culvlke), Lye Drip, Otter, Panther, Potato (Ahalvlke), raccon (Workvlke), Snake, water Moccasin, and Wind Clan (Hotvlkylke)

1900 Census Roll Blood Bands: Thomas Palmer, Echo Emarthoge, Simon Brown, Yaha Harrjo, Tusekia Harjo, Kinkehe, Thomas Little, Oktiarche, Echoille, Wm. Cooper, Nuthcup Harjo, and Okoske Harjo.

1900 Freedman Bands: Dosar Barkus and Caesar Bruner

Tribal Headquarters[edit | edit source]

  • Seminole Nation-Indian Territory website

History[edit | edit source]

Brief Timeline[edit | edit source]

  • 1817-18: Seminole War; American troops under General Andrew Jackson. Jackson's victory led to Spain selling Florida to the United States.
  • February 22, 1821: Florida became part of the United States.
  • 1823 September 18, Treaty at Fort Moultrie Creek in Territory of Florida, with the Florida Tribes of Indians the tribe gave up 30 million acres of farmland and received .5 million acres in central Florida.
  • 1832 May 9, Treaty at Payne's Landing, Territory of Florida, annuity, removal, land cessions and to remove within three years
  • 1833 Mar 28, Treaty at Fort Gibson Major Phagan to superintend removal
  • 1833 Census (M1831)
  • December 1835 - August 14, 1842: second Seminole War lead byOsceola
  • 1835-1842: An estimated 4,000 Seminole had been removed from Florida. Those removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) became the Seminole Nation and one of the Five Civilized Tribes
  • 1836-1837 Census.(M1831)
  • A refugee band of Seminole Negroes removed near the Rio Grande near Eagle Pass, Texas.
  • 1844 First Mission school Oak Ridge Mission near Holdenville started by Reverend John Lilley a Presbyterian.
  • 1845 January 4, at Creek Agency, with Creeks and Seminole, annuity, rations, removal
  • 1850: A group of Seminoles followed Coacooshee to Mexico. (Now Eagle Pass, Texas)
  • 1856 August 7, Washington D.C., removal, with the Creeks
  • 1865 Treaty with the Cherokee and other Tribes in Indian Territory
  • 1866 March 21, Washington D.C.
  • 1868: Four schools established by a Presbyterian missionary James R. Ramsey, he also opened the Wewoka Mission a boarding school for girls.
  • 1884: Methodist Mission were operating the Sasakwa Female Academy.
  • 1891: Boarding school established Mekasukey Academy for boys
  • 1893 Emahaka Academy a boarding school for girls near Wewoka.
  • 1953: U.S. Congress began a new policy of termination for the Indian tribes. The policy ended the protected trust status of all Indian-owned lands. The BIA began a voluntary urban relocation program. American Indians could move from their rural tribes to a metropolitan area. Many Indians relocated to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas and Seattle. It is estimated that 750,000 Native American migrated to the cities between 1950-1980.
  • 1957: The Hollywood (Dania), Brighton and Big Cypress groups formed a constituted group known as the Seminole Tribe of Florida
  • 1957: Florida Tribe of Seminole incorporates - federal recognition
  • 1961: Some of the Mikasuki-speaking people along the Tamiami Trail formed the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
  • 1962 The "Trail Seminoles, organized into the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.

Calendar[edit | edit source]

The Seminole divide their year into two seasons, summer and winter, the seasons are divided into twelve moons.[1]


Big Ripening Moon

Little Chestnut Moon

Big Chestnut Moon

Falling Leaf Moon

Big Winter Moon

Little Winter Moon, alias Big Winter Moon's younger brother


Windy Moon

Little Spring Moon

Big Spring Moon

Mulberry Moon

Blackberry Moon

Little Ripening Moon

Agencies[edit | edit source]

The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the following agencies.

Seminole Agency ,Six Nations Agency, Seneca Agency in New York, New York Agency,Union Agency, Apalachicola Subagency, Creek Agency, Piqua Agency, Ohio Agency , Neosho Agency, and  Quapaw Agency

Reservations[edit | edit source]

Big Cyprus Reservation

Brighton Reservation

Hollywood Reservation

Miccosukee Reservation

Superintendencies[edit | edit source]

Records for Superintendencies exist in the National Archives and copies of many of them are also available in other research facilities.

Michigan Superintendency

Florida Superintendency

Western Superintendency

Southern Superintendency

Central Superintendency

Oregon Superintendency

Additional References to the History of the Tribe[edit | edit source]

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Seminole tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.

MacCauley, Clay. Manuscript/Manuscript on film. Letter; statistics on Florida Seminole FHL film 1697438 item 51

MacCauley, Clay The Seminole Indians of Florida, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1887. (Bureau of American Ethnology, 5th Annual Report) pp. 475-538.

Mahon, John K. Letters from the Second Seminole War. The Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. XXXVI, No. 4 April 1958.

Mahon, John K. History of the second Seminole War, 1835-1842. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida Press. C 1967. FHL book 970.3 Se52mj

McReynolds, Edwin C. The Seminoles. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press. 1957. {{FHL} 93206|item|disp=FHL book 970.3 Se52m}}

Neill,Wilfred T. The Story of Florida's Seminole Indians. St. Petersburg, FL. Great outdoors, Book 970.3 Se52n for film 908862 item 7

Peithmann, Irvin M. the Unconquered Seminole Indians,St. Peterburg, Florida: Great Outdoors Association. C 1957 FHL book 970.3 Se52pi

Porter, Kenneth W., Alcione M. Amos and Thomas P. Senter. The Black Seminoles: History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. C 1996. FHL book 970.3 Se52p

Staley, C. Ann. Transcribed Expenditure in 1841 Florida Indians. The Florida Genealogist. Florida State Genealogical Society, Inc. Volume 38 Number 2 (142) December 2015. page 40 - 57.List of Indians by name (over 200) and amount paid to each. FHL 975.9 D25fg Vol 38 No. 2 =No. 142 Dec. 2015

Records[edit | edit source]

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters. They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Census Records[edit | edit source]

1900 Indian Territory, Seminole Nation. Konawa Genealogy Society. FHL book 976.6 X22ks

1900 Census Roll, Certified by Commissioners to be a correct copy of Seminole Indians and Freedman living on the 31 Day of December, 1899. (Refers to tribal enrollment of 1897) Authorized by Section 21 of Curtis Act and Seminole Agreement - 2,752 names on Rolls arranged by Bands, which are: Blood Bands: Thomas Palmer, Echo Emarthoge, Simon Brown, Yaha Harjo, Tusekia Harjo, Kinkehe, Thomas Little, Oktiarche, Echoille, W. Cooper, Nuthcup Harjo, and Okoske Harjo. Freedman Bands: Dosar Barkas and Ceasar Bruner Reference: World Conference on Records and Genealogical Seminar: Historical and Genealogical Records of the Five Civilized Tribes and Other Indian Records. by C. George Younkin

1907 Census of Seminole County, Oklahoma. US Bureau of the Census FHL film 2155575

1930-1940 Indian Census Seminole of Florida: with birth and death records by Jeff Bowen FHL book 970.3 Se52bj also on film Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940. US Bureau of Indian Affairs - Seminole 1913-1940 FHL 581497-581498

1935 Florida State Census. Florida State Archives. FHL film 2425147 30 microfilm Online

1945 Florida State Census. Florida State Archives. FHL film 242517643 films On Line

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Post - 1885 Census

M595 RG 75 Rolls 693 Roll Number




Seminole Florida Seminole Agency Dania, 1934-52 Atlanta Rolls 486-87 Films:581,496 - 581,497

Cemetery[edit | edit source]

Seminole Indian Scouts Cemetery. by Jim C. Ames FHL book 976.4 V3s

Correspondence[edit | edit source]

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence M234

RG 75 Rolls 962

Roll Number

FHL Film Number
Seminole Seminole Agency,1824-76 Washington D.C. Rolls 799-87 1,661,530 - 537
Seminole Union Agency, 1875-80 Washington D.C. Rolls 864-77 1,661,595 - 607
Seminole, Florida Seminole Agency Dania, 1934-52 Atlanta - -

Enrollment[edit | edit source]

Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for the Five U.S. Indian Tribes

The Family History Library

Applications and Enrollment of the Commission for the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914. - Dawes Commission







Applications for Enrollment 75 M1301 1439798 468
Applications, Muskogee Area Office M 1650 (RG75) FHL Collection index and applications for four of the Five civilized tribes. Seminole applications not included. 75 M1650 FHL film 1492975 54

Enrollment of the Five Civilized Tribes


Original records in Muskogee, Oklahoma



Enrollment Cards 75 M1186 1490261 93
Index to Letters received by commission 75 M1314 1694814


Five Civilized Tribes and the Dawes Commission- Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole (Delaware adopted by Cherokee)









  • Applications for enrollment-first film: FHL film 1492975}} first film

Enrollment-first film: FHL Collection

Final rolls-first film: 830230

48 T529 1492975 11

On Line

Dawes Enrollment Applications

"Applications for Enrollment of the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914" (M1301). National Archives Catalog ID: 617283. Also known as "Dawes Enrollment Applications", "Dawes Enrollment Jackets" and "Dawes Packets" and "Land Allotment Jackets".

Other References[edit | edit source]

Ernest, John E. The Complete Seminole. Clearfield Co. by Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD 2012 ISBN 978-08063-5608-2 and FHL Collection

Freedman[edit | edit source]

African and Seminoles: From Removal to Emancipation by Daniel F. Littlefield. FHL Collection

The Black Seminoles: History of a Freedom Seeking People. By Kenneth W. Porter. FHL book 970.3 Se52p

Indian Pioneer Papers[edit | edit source]

In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."[2] The University of Oklahoma Western History Collection has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. [3] An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy. A separate index of Indians interviewed may be viewed at: “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers” The interview of Willie Larney includes information about the Seminoles in Oklahoma.Family History Library microfiche number: 6,016,865 (first microfiche number)

Military Records[edit | edit source]

Headquarters Records of Fort Gibson, Indian Territory 1830-1857 FHL Collection

The Union Indian Brigade in the Civil War by Wiley Britton FHL Collection

Register of Deceased Veterans, Florida. Works Projects Administration FHL 0006716

Indian Scouts[edit | edit source]

Enlistment Records of Indian Scouts who Served in the Scout Detachments at Fort Clark, Texas. by Donald A. Swanson. FHL fook 976.4 M2sd

Seminole Negro Scouts

Military actions involving Seminole Negro Scouts

25 April 1875 Eagle Nest, Crossing Pecos River, Texas, Seminole Negro Scouts under the direction of Lt. J. L. Bullis, 24th Infantry

1 April 1877 Rio Grande (near Devil's River, Texas, Seminole Negro Scouts under the direction of Lt. J. L. Bullis, 24th Infantry

1 November 1877 Rio Grande (Big Bend of) Texas, Seminole Negro Scouts,under the direction of Lt. J. L. Bullis, 24th Infantry

3 May 1881 Sierra Burras Mountains, Mexico Seminole Negro Scouts,under the direction of Lt. J. L. Bullis, 24th Infantry

Source: Chronological List of Actions, &C., With Indians, From January 1, 1866, to January, 1891. Adjutant General's Office. WorldCat

School Records[edit | edit source]

Mekusukey Academy Seminole Nation (some text is written in Seminole) FHL Collection

Removal[edit | edit source]

The Indian Removal Act was signed May 26, 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. The Act initiated a policy of removal of American Indians tribes living east of the Mississippi River to land west of the river.




Years of Emigration


Before Removal





stayed in Southeast

Information of Interest



Gen. Duncan L. Clinch,

Lt. Joseph W. Harris

Lt. George G. Meade,

Col. Zachary Taylor,

Col. Ethan Allen Hitchcock,

Lt. William Tecumseh Sherman,

Lt. Jefferson Van Horne,

Capt. Pitcairn Morrison,

Agent Wiley Thompson,

Payne's Landing May 9,1832

Tribal Leaders:


John Blunt (band went to Texas), Charley Emathla, Holahte Emathla,

Jumper, Micanope,

Alligator, Little Cloud,

Abraham (Negro),

Osceola (Powell),

Davey Elliott, John Yellowhair,

Nocoseohola, Halek Tustenuggee,

Cooacoochee(Wild Cat) son of King Phillip


1856 Elias Rector Superintendent of Indian Affairs, S.M. Rutherford and W.H. Garret, had the Florida Everglades searched and 165 Seminole's removed to Indian Territory

5,000 and Fugitive Slaves




900 Indians from Shawnee, Delawares, Kickapoo, Sauk and Foxes, Choctaw, and Creek recruited to hunt the Seminole

Deaths from measles

Left Florida and crossed the Gulf of Mexico into New Orleans

School Records[edit | edit source]

Mekusukey Academy (Oklahoma) Seminole Nation. Some of the t ext is written in Seminole. FHL film 1666130 6 films

Treaties[edit | edit source]

  • 1823 September 18, at Moultrie Creek in Territory of Florida, with the Florida Tribes of Indians
  • 1832 at Payne's Landing,Territory of Florida, annuity, removal, and land cessions
  • 1833 Mar 28, at Fort Gibson
  • 1845 January 4, at Creek Agency, with Creeks and Seminole, annuity, rations, removal
  • 1856 August 7, Washington D.C., removal, with the Creeks
  • 1865 with the Cherokee and other Tribes in Indian Territory
  • 1866 March 21, Washington D.C.

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

Florida Combined Death Index, 1877-1969. Florida Dept. of Health. FHL fiche 6081769 305 fiche

Family History Library[edit | edit source]

The FamilySearch Catalog has over 280 records of interest for the Seminole Indians

Important Websites[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. A Seminole Source Book. Edited by William C. Sturtevant. Garland publishing, Inc., New York and London C. 1987 FHL book 970.3 Se52s
  2. Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.
  3. The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Lennon, Rachal Mills. Tracing Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes; Southeastern Indians Prior to Removal. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002. FHL Book 970.1 L548t.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  • Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.

See also: