Poland Jewish Records
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Poland and Galicia Jewish Research: A Template for East European Research - Research tutorial at FamilySearch
- 1 Jewish Records [Akta żydowskie]
- 2 History of the Jews in Poland
- 3 JewishGen Resources
- 4 Help with Poland Jewish Research: Special Interest Groups (SIG)
- 5 Record Sets and Indexes
- 6 JRI - Poland
- 7 The Knowles Collection: Jews of Europe
- 8 Familiendatenbank Juden im Deutschen Reich (Jewish Families in the German Empire)
- 9 Yad Vashem Shoah Database
- 10 Shabbat goy
- 11 The International Tracing Service
- 12 The German Red Cross Tracing Service
- 13 Lost Shoebox Overview of Online Records for Poland
- 13.1 Szukaj w Archiwach (Search the Polish Archives)
- 13.2 The PRADZIAD Database
- 13.3 Regional Archives
- 13.3.1 Archiwum Narodowe w Krakowie (National Archive in Krakow)
- 13.3.2 Archiwum Państwowe w Olsztynie (State Archive in Olsztyn)
- 13.3.3 Akta Miasta Poznania - Kartoteka ewidencji ludności /1870-1931/(Archiwum Państwowe w Poznaniu - State Archive in Poznan/Posen)
- 13.3.4 Archiwum Państwowe w Szczecinie (State Archive in Szczecin)
- 13.3.5 Genealogia w Archiwach (Genealogy in the Archives of Torun and Bydgoszcz}
- 13.3.6 Archiwum Główne Akt Dawnych (AGAD) (Central Archive of Historical Records in Warsaw, records of Galicia)
- 13.3.7 Archiwum Państwowe we Wrocławiu (State Archive in Wrocław)
- 13.4 Metryki Genealodzy (Genealogical Records Indexing Project)
- 13.5 Geneteka
- 13.6 Pomeranian Genealogical Association German: Pommern, Polish: Pomorski
- 13.7 Poznan Project German: Posen
- 13.8 National BaSIA Database (Wielkopolska Genealogical Society)
- 14 Miscellaneous Resources
- 15 References
Jewish Records [Akta żydowskie]
Records of vital events pertaining to the Jewish community:
- Chiefly these consist of transcript records created in accordance with the laws of each of the governments that controlled Poland after the partitioning.
- Prior to the introduction of civil transcript laws (and occasionally after), Jews were sometimes included in Christian church books.
- By the 1820s and 1830s many Jewish congregations were keeping their own distinct civil transcript records.
- In the former Russian territory, rabbis were designated as official registrars of Jewish civil transcripts after 1826.
- Austrian laws allowed Jews to maintain registers under Catholic supervision from 1789, but most Jewish registers date from the 1830s or later. Jewish records were not given the status of official legal documents in Austria until 1868.
- Other types of Jewish records include circumcision records, marriage contracts, as well as holocaust memorial records, There was little consistency to the keeping of birth, marriage, and death records which was by the whim of the local religious Jewish leaders until the introduction of civil transcript laws.
- Civil transcripts and/or civil registration: record contents are similar to Christian civil transcripts.
- Circumcision records (mohalim books): given Hebrew male names of children, circumcision date (Hebrew calendar), father’s given Hebrew name, sometimes surname.
- Marriage contracts (Ketubbot): marriage date, names of groom and bride, contractual agreements.
- Death memorial records: names of deceased individuals and death date in Hebrew calendar with month and day but sometimes not year.
- Kahal records: Records of the Jewish governing bodies, including lists of those who voted for the head rabbi, lists of community inhabitants, etc.
For information regarding locations of Polish Jewish records, see: Weiner, Miriam. Jewish Roots in Poland, Pages from the Past and Archival Inventories. New York, New York: Yivo Institute for Jewish Research, 1997. (FHL book 943.8 F2wm.)
Between 1808 and 1826 Jews may have been recorded in the Roman Catholic Church. By 1826, Jewish congregations kept their own vital statistics records.
History of the Jews in Poland
- To read the Wikipedia.org article History of the Jews in Poland, click here.
- Take the Poland Virtual Jewish History Tour.
"Before the outbreak of World War II, more than 3.3 million Jews lived in Poland, the largest Jewish population of Europe and second largest Jewish community in the world. Poland served as the center for Jewish culture and a diverse population of Jews from all over Europe sought refuge there, contributing to a wide variety of religious and cultural groups. Barely 11% of Poland's Jews - 369,000 people -survived the war. Today, approximately 3,200 Jews remain in Poland."
- To visit the Galicia Jewish Museum online click here. The Galicia Jewish Museum exists to commemorate the victims of the Holocaust and to celebrate the Jewish culture of Polish Galicia, presenting Jewish history from a new perspective.
- http://www.dutchjewry.org/genealogy/ashkenazi/index.shtml Ashkenazi Amsterdam in the Eighteenth Century] "Research of the family origins and heritage of Dutch Jewry (A.R.)"
- Historians estimate that during the 19th century more than 85 percent of the world’s Jews lived in Europe.
- Most of these lived in Poland and Russia. Many books have been written about Jews in Poland. You can often find these in a public or university library.
- Explore The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe by clicking here.
JewishGen.org Family Finder
Find others, possibly cousins, searching for your family name in the same countries, cities, and villages. Search by clicking JewishGen Family Finder. Free registration required.
The JewishGen Poland Database
- More than five million records for Poland, from a variety of sources, including: vital records, business directories, voter lists, passenger manifests, Yizkor books and other Holocaust sources. A joint project of Jewish Records Indexing - Poland and JewishGen. Requires free registration. To search, click The JewishGen Poland Database.
Poland's historic borders extend into Belarus, Lithuania, Ukraine and also into parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire known as Silesia. For this reason, use the database specified on your community page to find indexed records. Search for your community page at JewishGen Communities Database. Nonetheless, persons may show up elsewhere due to migration or deportation internal to Eastern Europe.
Explains Primary-Subsidiary double given names (e.g., Aleksander Ziskind or Yehuda Leyb) and legal double (Primary-Subsidiary) given names which were composed of a classical Hebrew name plus an "Old" and/or "NEW" name, as the rabbis called them. Includes a database for searching Jewish given names.
Help with Poland Jewish Research: Special Interest Groups (SIG)
- The following JewishGen Special Interest Groups (SIGs) includes links, helps, and other resources to help with Jewish Research in Poland:
- Białystok Region SIG
The city of Białystok and nearby towns and villages, currently in Poland, formerly in the Russian Empire's Grodno Gubernia.
- Danzig/Gdańsk SIG
Danzig/Gdańsk, and its precursor communities of Alt Schottland, Langfuhr, Mattenbuden, Weinberg, and Danzig in der Breitgasse, and Tiegenhof (Nowy Dwór Gdański).
- Gesher Galicia SIG
Austrian Poland, a province of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1772 until 1917, now in southern Poland and western Ukraine.
- German-Jewish SIG
Germany and German-speaking areas of Alsace, Lorraine, Switzerland, and Poland.
- Łódź area SIG
The city of Łódź, Poland, and localities within a 40-mile radius – in Congress Poland's gubernias of Piotrków, Płock, Warszawa, or Kalisz.
- Suwalk-Łomza SIG
Publisher of Landsmen, covering these two northeastern gubernias of Russian Poland, now in northeast Poland and southwest Lithuania.
- Warszawa SIG
The capital city of Poland, Warszawa (Warsaw).
- Białystok Region SIG
- Get ideas and help with the Facebook Polish Genealogy Research Community here.
A link to a list of indexed towns from the Kielce-Radom area. For many years, the Kielce-Radom Special Interest Group has been indexed Jewish vital records from that area of Poland, publishing the data in their printed Journal. These indexes have been now merged into the JRI Poland database.
Record Sets and Indexes
- Poland, Jewish Records Indexing-Poland, Births, 1550-1993, index
- Poland, Jewish Records Indexing-Poland, Deaths, 1808-1942, index
- Poland, Jewish Records Indexing-Poland, Marriages, 1798-1939, index
- Poland, Jewish Prisoners of War Registration Cards, 1939-1945, index
- Holocaust: Records from Ten Ghettos, index
- Poland, Business Directories, 1926, 1930, 1932 and 1935, index
- Poland, Martyred Jewish Physicians, 1939-1945, index
- Poland, Jewish Children Survivors of the Holocaust, 1945, index
Provided by Tracing the Past. Includes some parts of Poland that were under German administration in 1939. Microfilm of the actual census might be found in the Family History Library catalog and copies ordered to local family history centers.
Jewish Records Indexing - Poland is the largest fully searchable database of Jewish vital records accessible online. 4 million records from more than 500 Polish towns are now indexed. More are being added every few months.
- On finding an indexed record of interest, there will usually be three options for obtaining the original record:
- a link to the digital image (or one nearby)
- a Family History Library microfilm number
- the contact information for the archive (follow the links at the page bottom)
Order these records directly from the Regional Archive where the records are maintained. Instructions and further information are found here. Use the Order Form for your inquiry.
Indexing is incomplete! Sometimes only part of the available record set is indexed (e.g., births and not deaths). Carefully watch the place names, record types and date ranges listed in the search results.
Genealogies of many Jews who appear in the records of the countries of Europe. The great advantage of the Knowles Collection is that it links together into family groups, thousands of individual Jews (over 380,000 for this database as of Jan 2015). Use the above link to search the collection. To view a description of the collection, click here.
Familiendatenbank Juden im Deutschen Reich (Jewish Families in the German Empire)
Index only, almost 70,000 persons, compiled by Ingo Paul. The site is in German.
- Includes (bold type designates parts of present-day Poland):
- Brandenburg with communities located east of the Oder River
- Sachsen with areas east of the Neiße River
- Schleswig-Holstein with Nordschleswig
The YadVashem.org Central Database of Shoah (Holocaust) Victims’ Names is searchable by name and by community with “synonym” or “Soundex” options.
A new website Shabbat Goy that provides information about more than 200 concentration camps, Jewish synagogues and cemeteries in Poland. The site is in French, but the home page provides a link to Google Translate so that it can be read in any language. To read the locality list in your native language, invoke the language conversion feature on the home page and then click the words “All Sites” on the black bar near the top of the page. The list of localities is not in alphabetical order, so an alphabetical list appears below:
- Annopol, Auschwitz, Bedzin, Belzyce, Biala, Biala Podlaska, Biala, Bialystok, Bielsk Podlaski, Blechhammer, Bochnia, Bojanowo, Buk, Byczyna-Biskupice, Chelm, Chelmno, Chrzanow, Czeladz, Czerniejewo, Czestochowa, Dabrowa Tarnowska, Debica, Drawsko Pomorskie, Elk, Gdansk, Gliwice, Glogowek, Glubczyce, Gogolin, Goleniow, Gryfice, Jarocin, Jaworzno, Jedwabne, Karczew, Katowice, Kazimierz Dolny, Kedzierzyn-Kozle, Kepno, Klimontow, Konin, Kornik, Koscian, Koszalin, Kozmin, Krakow, Krapkowice, KraSnik, Krasnystaw, Krotoszyn, Kuznica, Lancut, Leczna, LeSnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin, Majdanek, Miedzyrzec Podlaski, Mikolajki, Milowka, Miroslawiec, Mosina, Mszczonow, Niezdrowice, Nisko, Nowy Dwor, Nowy Sacz, Opatow, Opole Lubelskie, Orla, Ostrow Wielkopolski, Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski, Oswiecim, Otwock, Ozarow, Piaski, Piotrkow Trybunalski, Plaszow, Pobiedziska, Pogorzela, Polczyn Zdroj, Poznan, Prudnik, Przeworsk, Przysucha, Pszczyna, Pyskowice, Radymno, Radzyn Podlaski, Ropczyce, Rozwadow, Rymanow, Rzeszow, Sandomierz, Sanok, Sawin, Sedziszow Malopolski, Sejny, Skoczow, Slomniki, Slupca, Smigiel, Sobibor, Sokolow Malopolski, Sosnowiec, Stary Sacz, Strzegom, Strzegom, Strzelce Opolskie, Stutthof, Sulawki (sic), Swarzedz, Swidnica, Swidwin, Szczebrzeszyn, Szczucin, Szczuczyn, Szydlow, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow, Tarnowskie Gory, Toszek, Toszek, Treblinka, Trzebinia, Tuczno, Tyczyn, Tykocin, Ujazd, Ulanow, Uzarzewo, Warszawa, Wieliczka, Wlodawa, Zabrze, Zamosc, Zary, Zator, Ziebice, Zyrardow.
International Tracing Service was established at the end of World War I to help people in Europe to find family and friends who had been lost as a result of the war. The archives of the ITS were opened to the public in November 2007. The collections of the ITS are written in German. Two of the collections of the ITS have information of particular value for researching Jewish families. These records are the T/D files, and the Central Name Index.
The T/D (Tracing Document) files contain inquiries made by individuals after the war seeking to know the fate of their friends or relatives. The writer often provides valuable information such as family relationships ages, birthplaces, and locations where the family lived. Any documents or future correspondence related to the initial inquiry are included in the file. Even if the missing person was never found, the inquiry and associated documents may provide valuable information and lead the researcher to other relatives.
Central Name Index
This file indexes the over 17 million names found in the collections of the International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen. Most of the documents in the ITS are World War II era documents such as arrest papers and concentration camp lists. Names from these lists, along with the those in the T/D, are contained in the Central Name Index. Genealogists with a rare surname may even want to do a general search in the Central Name Index, as this may provide a more complete picture of the family.
Overlaps and Differences between ITS and Yad Vashem Databases
Read The International Tracing Service (ITS) and Yad Vashem to fully understand the relationships between the two. Most of ITS holdings may be found at Yad Vashem.
ITS Contact Information
The Address for the International Tracing Service is as follows:
International Tracing Service
Grosse Allee 5-9
34454 Bad Arolsen
The GRC Tracing Service supports people who have become separated from their family due to armed conflicts, natural disasters, escape, displacement or migration. It helps to trace family members, to put them back in contact and to reunite families.
Select region and branch office to find contact information.
A map view of available scans and indexes arranged by Voivodeships (administrative districts). The numbers on the map refer to the items listed below.
Szukaj w Archiwach (Search the Polish Archives)
Contains information about Polish national archive resources kept at state archives in Lublin and Poznań and their branches. Digital copies of some of archive materials from these and other archives are also available in the service. Additional scans will become available as the website develops.
Its primary purpose is to provide online descriptions of archival material from state archives and other cultural institutions. Selected archival descriptions are presented in parallel with the scans, the number of which is steadily growing. Using the service is free and does not require a log in.
- The Polish word used on this site to identify Jewish records is "mojżeszowe." For example, use that term to search all cataloged records at the site by clicking here. At the time this Wiki entry was created, this search resulted in 3,422 catalog entries.
- Each catalog entry includes the collection name. For vital records and civil registers, the catalog entry includes the locality (e.g., town) where the record was made.
- The Polish identifier for birth records is "urodzenia."
- The Polish identifier for marriage records is "małżeństwa."
- The Polish identifier for death records is "zgony."
- The Polish identifier for marriage banns records is "alegata."
- Search Example: To find Jewish marriages in the city of Radom, enter "mojżeszowe małżeństwa radom" in the search field at Szukaj w Archiwach. To perform this search, click here. Note that best matches come first.
- If scans of the records have been made, then the "Digital Copies" number will be greater than zero. After opening the catalog entry by clicking on it, look for "Digital Copies" to the right of the very red arrow towards the top, and click there. At that time, you will see the online viewer options.
- If scans are not available then contact the archive that holds the records.
- Begin searching at Szukaj w Archiwach by clicking here and closing the pop-up.
- Switch to English as necessary (unfortunately, not everything will be translated).
- Choose to search "Everything," "Files," or "Vital Records and Civil Registers."
- Enter desired search terms.
PRADZIAD stands for "Database Registration Program Vital Records and Civil Status." It is a catalog of record sets found in Polish archives. Search by name of town, denomination “mojżeszowe,” etc. Here is a fast link to all Jewish records found in the PRAZIAD database (over 3000 record sets). However Jews will also be found in other historical and civil record sets not designated as "Jewish" record sets. You may wish to search through all the record sets for your towns.
Archiwum Narodowe w Krakowie (National Archive in Krakow)
Includes online scans of census records, civil registers etc. For civil registers, search “Akta stanu cywilnego Izraelickiego”.
Archiwum Państwowe w Olsztynie (State Archive in Olsztyn)
Includes images of civil registries (“Urząd Stanu Cywilnego”).
Akta Miasta Poznania - Kartoteka ewidencji ludności /1870-1931/
(Archiwum Państwowe w Poznaniu - State Archive in Poznan/Posen)
Includes indexed census records from 1870-1931 with link to image.
Archiwum Państwowe w Szczecinie (State Archive in Szczecin)
Includes civil registry records by community, designated “Urząd Stanu Cywilnego” and linked from the left-hand sidebar. Browse images.
Genealogia w Archiwach (Genealogy in the Archives of Torun and Bydgoszcz}
A joint genealogical project of the state archives in Torun and Bydgoszcz containing images of civil records starting in 1874 for Pomorski and Kujawsko-pomorski. Browse by community and date. An English tutorial for using Genealogia w Archiwach is found here.
Archiwum Główne Akt Dawnych (AGAD) (Central Archive of Historical Records in Warsaw, records of Galicia)
Online images of the registry books of Jewish communities in the area of the Bug River from 1789-1943. The Bug River ran through Galicia and presently forms part of the border between Ukraine and Poland. Some, but not all, of these records are indexed at JewishGen.
The records of 137 Jewish communities are to be found at AGAD. Those with digital images (most of them) are identified by a “galeria ze skanami” (gallery of scans) link. Contact the archive about those without scans. The access page begins with general information, lists all 137 communities, and then re-iterates record set by record set with record type and dates covered.
Archiwum Państwowe we Wrocławiu (State Archive in Wrocław)
Search for scans of civil registers using “Urząd Stanu Cywilnego.”
Metryki Genealodzy (Genealogical Records Indexing Project)
Click on the current Administrative Division for your community, then the county (info from your community page). Look for “Denomination: mojżeszowe” and/or “Urząd Stanu Cywilnego” meaning “Civil Registry Office,” and then follow the links to browse the online images.
Search indexed records by name, place, event, and date.
Pomeranian Genealogical Association German: Pommern, Polish: Pomorski
Look for civil registry records with a “USC” (Urząd Stanu Cywilnego) designation.
Poznan Project German: Posen
Includes “civil registry” records.
National BaSIA Database (Wielkopolska Genealogical Society)
Covers Greater Poland and Kuyavian-Pomerania. Includes civil registry records. Click on map to see what is indexed. Search by name.
Data regarding locations of Polish Jewish records originally published in books by Miriam Weiner is now on this website with periodic updates. Contains articles, essays, maps, archivist insights, and archival inventory for Jewish research in Poland. The website also contains a database of documents that is searchable by town. The search for documents in Eastern Europe ancestral towns is complicated, partly because of the destruction of documents during the Holocaust and changing borders and names. Only the first few letters of the town needs to be known, as all towns beginning with those letters will appear in the list. Some towns will even be cross-referenced with spelling variations or name changes. However, to determine the current spelling of a town, consult Where Once We Walked by Mokotoff and Sack (Avotaynu, 1991). The database will note the types of documents that has survived for that town, including army lists, Jewish vital records, family lists, census records, voter and tax lists, immigration documents, Holocaust material, school records, occupational lists, and more. The span of years covered by these documents and where to find them will also be provided. Records in the archives can be accessed on various websites or databases (such as JewishGen) in person at the archives, by writing to the archives directly, or by hiring a professional researcher to do the work. By consolidating data from five Eastern European countries, researchers can easily determine which records are kept by which archives or repositories.
- See Routes to Roots Foundation and hover over Poland for a Genealogical and Family History guide to Jewish and civil records in Eastern Europe
- See also the book, Jewish roots in Ukraine and Moldova by Miriam Weiner (FamilySearch Catalog call no. 947.71 F2w 1999)
"YIVO is dedicated to fostering knowledge of the ongoing story of Jewish life, with a focus on the history and culture of East European Jewry." Includes a significant collection of records from Vilna, Lithuania, which was a part of Poland for a time.
The foundation's primary mission is to protect and commemorate the surviving sites and monuments of Jewish cultural heritage in Poland.
Maps of Poland
- To view present-day Poland at Google Maps, click here.
- For a Jewish population density map of Europe in 1900, click here.
- For a map showing the percentage of Jews in the Pale of Settlement and Congress Poland, c. 1905, click here.
- To view an additional historical map showing the historical percentage of Jews in governments, click here.
Definition of "Pale of Settlement" from Wikipedia.org:
"The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта́ осе́длости, chertá osédlosti, Yiddish: דער תּחום-המושבֿ, der tkhum-ha-moyshəv, Hebrew: תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב, tḥùm ha-mosháv) was the term given to a region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent residency was generally prohibited. It extended from the eastern pale, or demarcation line, to the western Russian border with the Kingdom of Prussia (later the German Empire) and with Austria-Hungary. The English term 'pale' is derived from the Latin word 'palus,' a stake, extended to mean the area enclosed by a fence or boundary."
- To view historical maps of Poland, click here.
- For a map showing Poland's current voivodeships (provinces), click here.
- Weiner, Miriam. "Eastern European Archival Database Planned". AVOTAYNU XVII no. 3 (Fall 2001): 3-5.