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Monaco has been a possession of the Grimaldi family since the 11th century. It became an independent Principality within the Holy Roman (German) Empire in the 13th century. In 1604 it came under the protection of Spain and in 1641 of France. It was annexed to France by Napoleon 1793-1814, and then came under the protection of Sardinia 1815-1860. It was returned to French protection in 1860 when Sardinia joined the kingdom of Italy. Two of its towns, Menton and Roquebrune were sold to France at that time.
Prince Rainier III succeeded his grandfather in 1949. He was married to U.S. actress Grace Kelly in 1956. Their son Albert Louis Pierre (1958-) is heir to the throne. Monaco was admitted to the United Nations in 1993, the smallest country represented there.
- The Family History Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “Family History Record Profile: Monaco,” Word document, private files of the FamilySearch Content Strategy Team, 1990-2000.