Latin Genealogical Word List

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Latin Genealogical
Word List
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Genealogical Word Lists
Latin Genealogical Word List

Latin is the language of the Romans. Through the continuing influence of Roman civilization and the use of Latin by the Catholic Church many genealogical resources are written in Latin. This page provides information about the language, including grammar, and a Latin to English wordlist.

The illumination is a capital letter P since the letters following are ETRUS, making the word PETRUS (Peter in Latin).

Usage

Nearly all Roman Catholic church records used Latin to some extent. Latin was used in the records of most European countries and in the Roman Catholic records of the United States and Canada. Because Latin was used in so many countries, local usage varied. Certain terms were commonly used in some countries but not in others. In addition, the Latin used in British records has more abbreviations than the Latin used in European records.

Language Characteristics

Inflections

Latin is an inflected language, meaning that the endings of words vary according to how the words are used in a sentence Who—whose— whom or marry—marries—married are examples of words in English with variant forms. This word list gives the most commonly seen form of each Latin word. As you read Latin records, be aware that almost all words vary with usage.


The case of a word describes how it is being used in a sentence. The main three cases are:

Nominative: when the noun is the subject of the sentence, i.e. it is doing the verb
Accusative : when the noun is the object of the sentence, so something else is doing a verb on it.
Genitive: the noun possesses or belongs to something else. In English indicated by 'of' or 's

A words ending also varies by whether it is plural or singular. Latin words are divided into three main declensions. Each declension had it own basic pattern for word endings.

The main word endings genealogists need to know are:

Situation 1st declension 2nd declension 3rd declension
Nominative singular -a -us
Nominative plural -ae -i -es
Genitive Singular -ae -i -is
Genitive Plural -arum -orum -um
Accusative Singular -am -um -em
Accusative Plural -as -os -es


Most Male names are in the 2nd declension. Nearly all female names are in the 1st declension. Names from both genders can be found in the 3rd declension. 

Gender

Latin words for persons, places, and things (nouns) are classified as masculine, feminine, or neuter. For example, rex (king) is a masculine word, aetas (age) is a feminine word, and oppidum (town) is a neuter word.

Words that describe persons, places, or things (adjectives) will have either masculine, feminine, or neuter endings. For example, in Latin you would write magnus rex (great king), magna aetas (great age), and magnum oppidum (large town).

This word list gives only the masculine form of adjectives. For example:

  • noster, nostra, nostrum (our) is listed as noster
  • magnus, magna, magnum (great, large) is listed as magnus
  • nobilis, nobile (noble, known) is listed as nobilis

Some words can be either masculine or feminine, such as patrinus (godfather) and patrina (godmother). This word list usually gives only the male form even though a female form may occur in Latin records. Thus, given the word famulus (servant), you can conclude that famula is a female servant. Similarly, this word list gives only natus est ("he was born"). You can conclude that nata est means "she was born." The plural form nati sunt means "they were born."

Examples and Exceptions

filius son
(pater) filii (father) of the son
(baptizavi) filium (I baptized the) son
(ex) filio (from) the son
vidua widow
(filius) viduae (son) of the widow
(sepelivi) viduam (I buried the) widow
(ex) vidua (from) the widow
pater father
(filius) patris (son) of the father
(sepelivi) patrem (I buried the) father
(ex) patre (from) the father


Other noun endings change as follows to show possession:

  • -as may change to -atis
  • -ns may change to -ntis
  • -or may change to -oris
  • -tio may change to -tionis

Example: sartor (tailor) changes to sartoris (of the tailor)


Words that show action (verbs) also vary depending on who is doing the action and whether the action is past, present, or future. For example, the Latin word baptizare (to baptize) will appear with various endings:

Present Past
baptize have baptized, baptized
(I) baptizo baptizavi, baptizabam
(he) baptizat baptizavit, baptizabat
(they) baptizant baptizaverunt, baptizabant
is baptized was baptized
(he) baptizatur baptizatus est

Spelling

Spelling rules were not standardized in earlier centuries. The following spelling variations are common in Latin documents:

  • i and j used interchangeably
  • u and v used interchangeably
  • e used for ae (æ)
  • e used for oe (œ)
  • c used for qu

Examples:

  • ejusdem or eiusdem
  • civis or ciuis
  • preceptor or praeceptor
  • celebs or coelebs
  • quondam or condam

Additional Resources

This word list includes only the words most commonly found in genealogical sources. For further help, use a Latin-English dictionary. Latin-English dictionaries are available on each floor of the Family History Library. The call numbers begin with 473.21. Many resources exist that will help you read Latin genealogical records. One of these is the Reading Handwritten Records Series of free online classes available at FamilySearch.org. This series includes one interactive lesson, Key Words and Phrases in Latin Records, which includes a printable handout of key words and phrases.

Another resource is the National Archives of England, they have 12 online lessons covering latin records from 1086 to 1733, each lesson provides step by step instructions and is listed under the title of "Beginners' Latin Tutorial".

The Internet can be of great assistance in trying to translate Latin. There are some dictionaries and word lists as well as some sites that will translate for you. One good website is William Whitaker's Words for translating words. Latin Dictionary and Latin Dictionary and Grammar Aid are Latin dictionaries. It is important to remember with using any of these websites that you have to be careful about accepting the meaning. Be sure that the meaning makes sense with what you are trying to translate.


The following Latin-English dictionary is available on microfilm for use in Family History Centers:

Additional dictionaries are listed under Latin Language - Dictionaries in the Subject Search of the FamilySearch Catalog. Most bookstores carry useful, inexpensive Latin-English dictionaries.

The following sources can also be helpful for reading Latin records:

  • Grun, Paul A. Schlüssel zur alten und neuen Abkürzungen: Wörterbuch lateinischer und deutscher Abkürzungen des späten Mittlealters und der Neuzeit. Limburg/Lahn, Germany: Starke Verlag, 1966. (FHL book 943 B4gg vol. 6.) Key to ancient and modern abbreviations: Dictionary of Latin and German abbreviations of the late middle age and modern times.

Key Words

To find and use specific types of Latin records, you will need to know some key words in Latin. This section lists key genealogical terms in English and gives the Latin words that have the same or similar meanings.

For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriage. In the second column you will find Latin words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, legitimate, joined, and other words used in Latin records to indicate marriage.

English Latin
birth nati, natus, genitus, natales, ortus, oriundus
burial sepulti, sepultus, humatus, humatio
christening baptismi, baptizatus, renatus, plutus, lautus, purgatus, ablutus, lustratio
child infans, filius/filia, puer, proles
death mortuus, defunctus, obitus, denatus, decessus, peritus, mors, mortis, obiit, decessit
father pater
godparent patrini, levantes, susceptores, compater, commater, matrina
husband maritus, sponsus, conjux, vir
marriage matrimonium, copulatio, copulati, conjuncti, intronizati, nupti, sponsati, ligati, mariti
marriage banns banni, proclamationes, denuntiationes
mother mater
given name nomen
surname cognomen
parents parentes, genitores
wife uxor, marita, conjux, sponsa, mulier, femina, consors

Genealogical Abbreviations

Abbreviation Latin English
+ Defuncti died
&c et cætera and also
aas anno aetatis suae died in the year of his age, i.e., a.a.s. 24
ar anno regni year of reign
at ætatis age[1]
atq. atque (variant of "ac") and, and also
c circa about, approximately
c comitis count
Ch Confirmati confirmed
civit civitas city
dsp decessit sine prole died without issue (children)[2]
dspl decessit sine prole legitima died without legitimate issue (children)[2]
dspm decessit sine prole mascula died without male issue (sons)[2]
dspml decessit sine prole mascula legitima died without legitimate male issue (sons)
dspms decessit sine prole mascula superstite died without surviving male issue (living sons)[2]
dsps decessit sine prole superstite died without surviving issue (living children)[2]
dspv decessit sine prole virilli died without male issue (sons)[2]
dvm decessit vita matris died in the lifetime of the mother
dvp decessit vita patris died in the lifetime of the father
J Matrimonis Juncti joined in marriage
msp
mortuus sine prole
died without offspring (children)[3]
na
natus or nata
born[1]
ob
obiit
died, followed by the date[4]
osp or ob.s.p.
obiit (or obit) sine prole
died without issue (children)[4]
P Prima vice Communicates first communion
q.
quondam
deceased, the late
slp
sine legitima prole
died without legitimate issue (children)[5]
smp
sine mascula prole
died without male issue (sons)[5]
sp
sine prole
without issue (children)[5]
spl
sine prole legitima
died without legitimate issue (children)[5]
spm
sine prole mascula
died without male issue (sons)[5]
sps
sine prole superstite
without surviving issue (children)[5]
sp/ss
susceptores
sponsors (godparents)

Numbers

In some genealogical records, numbers—especially dates—are written out. The following list gives the cardinal (1, 2, 3) and the ordinal (1st, 2nd, 3rd) versions of each number. Ordinal numbers are adjectives and may sometimes appear with the feminine ending (-a) or the neuter ending (-um). In written dates the ordinal numbers usually end with the grammatical ending (-o). Example:

quartus = the fourth
quarto = on the fourth

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
101
150
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Cardinal
unus
duo, duae
tres, tres, tria
quattuor
quinque
sex
septem
octo
novem
decem
undecim
duodecim
tredecim
quattuordecim
quindecim
sedecim
septemdecim
odeviginti
undeviginti
viginti
viginti unus
viginti duo
viginti tres
viginti quattuor
viginti quinque
viginti sex
viginti septem
viginti octo
viginti novem
triginta
quadraginta
quinquaginta
sexaginta
septuaginta
octoginta
nonaginta
centum
centum unus
centum quinquaginta
ducenti
trecenti
quadringenti
quingenti
sescenti
septigenti
octingenti
nongenti
mille

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
11th
12th
13th
14th
15th
16th
17th
18th
19th
20st
21st
22nd
23rd
24th
25th
26th
27th
28th
29th
30th
40th
50th
60th
70th
80th
90th
100th
101th
150th
200th
300th
400th
500th
600th
700th
800th
900th
1000th
Ordinal
primus
secundus
tertius
quartus
quintus
sextus
septimus
octavus
nonus
decimus
undecimus
duodecimus
tertius decimus
quartus decimus
quintus decimus
sextus decimus
septimus decimus
duodevicesimus
undevicesimus
vicesimus or vigesimus
vicesimus primus
vicesimus secundus
vicesimus tertius
vicesimus quartus
vicesimus quintus
vicesimus sextus
vicesimus septimus
vicesimus octavus
vicesimus nonus
tricesimus
quadragesimus
quinquagesimus
sexagesimus
septuagesimus
octogesimus
nonagesimus
centesimus
centesimus primus
centesimus quinquagesimus
ducentesimus
trecentesimus
quadringentesimus
quingentesimus
sescentesimus
septingentesimus
octingentesimus
nongentesimus
millesimus

Roman Numerals

Roman numerals are written as combinations of the seven letters listed below. The letters can be written in capital (XVI) or lower-case (xvi) letters.

I = 1 V = 5 X = 10 L = 50 C = 100 D = 500 M = 1000

D is sometimes represented by the symbol Roman Numeral D.jpg.

M is sometimes represented by the symbol Roman Numeral M.jpg.

If smaller value numbers follow larger value numbers, add the values together. If a smaller value number precedes a larger value number, subtract the smaller from the larger. For example:

VII
IX
XL
MDCCII
MCMLXIV
= (5+2) = 7
= (10-1) = 9
= (50-10) = 40
= 1000+500+200+2 = 1702
= 1000+(1000-100)+50+10+(5-1) = 1964

Common Roman Numerals

1 = I
2 = II
3 = III
4 = IV
5 = V
6 = VI
7 = VII
8 = VIII
9 = IX
10 = X
11 = XI
12 = XII
13 = XIII

14 = XIV
15 = XV
16 = XVI
17 = XVII
18 = XVIII
19 = XIX
20 = XX
21 = XXI
22 = XXII
23 = XXIII
24 = XXIV
25 = XXV
26 = XXVI

27 = XXVII
28 = XXVIII
29 = XXIX
30 = XXX
31 = XXXI
40 = XL
50 = L
60 = LX
70 = LXX
80 = LXXX
90 = XC
100 = C
101 = CI
150 = CL
200 = CC
300 = CCC
400 = CD
500 = D
600 = DC
700 = DCC
800 = DCCC
900 = CM
1000 = M
1600 = MDC
1700 = MDCC
1800 = MDCCC
1900 = MCM

Dates and Times

In Latin records, dates are often written out. Numbers generally end with -o when used in a date. For example:

Anno Domini millesimo sescentesimo nonagesimo quarto et die decimo septimo mensis Maii [In the year of (our) Lord one thousand six hundred ninety-four, and on the seventeenth day of the month of May]

To understand Latin dates, use the following lists as well as the preceding "Numbers" section.

Months

English Latin
January Januarius
February Februarius
March Martius
April Aprilis
May Maius
June Junius
July Julius
August Augustus
September September, 7ber, VIIber
October October, 8ber, VIIIber
November November, 9ber, IXber
December December, 10ber, Xber

Days of the Week

English Latin
Sunday dominica, dies dominuca, dominicus, dies Solis, feria prima
Monday feria secunda, dies Lunae
Tuesday feria tertia, dies Martis
Wednesday feria quarta, dies Mercurii
Thursday feria quinta, dies Jovis
Friday feria sexta, dies Veneris
Saturday feria septima, sabbatum, dies sabbatinus, dies Saturni

Phrases Indicating Time

Latin English
anno domini in the year of the Lord
anno incarnationis in the year (since/of) the incarnation of the Lord
annus bissextus leap year
ante meridiem before noon (a.m.)
altera die on the next day
biduum space of two days, two-day period
cras tomorrow
die sequenti on the following day
die vero this very day
ejusdem die of the same day
eodem anno in the same year
eodem die on the same day
eodem mense in the same month
eo tempore at this time
hodie today
longo tempore for a long time
mane in the morning
meridie noon
nocte at night
nudius tertius three days earlier
nunc dies tertius three days earlier
nunc temporis of the present time
perendie day after tomorrow
pomerid after noon (p.m.)
post meridiem after noon (p.m.)
postridie on the day after, a day later
pridie the day before
pro tempore for (at) the time
triduum space of three days, three-day period
tunc temporis of former time
vespere in the evening

General Words

This general word list includes words commonly seen in genealogical sources. Numbers, months, and days of the week are listed both here and in separate sections that follow this list.

In this list, some grammatical variations of Latin words are given in parentheses. Some Latin phrases and their translations are listed [in brackets] under the most significant Latin word, not the first word, of the phrase. Words in parentheses in the English column clarify the definition.

Click the letter below to get to the words starting with that letter.
Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

A

Latin English
a (ab) from, by
abavia great-great-grandmother
abavus great-great-grandfather, ancestor
abdormitus died
abdormivit he/she died
ab hoc mense from this month on
abiit he/she died
abinde since
abitus est he/she died, went away
abjectarius cabinetmaker, woodworker
abjuro to renounce by oath
ablutus est he was baptized
abs from, by
abscessus death
absque without, except
abstersus baptized
abuo I baptize, I wash
ac and
acatholicus non-Catholic, Protestant
accipio to take, receive, take possession of
accola local resident
acicularius needle maker
acquiescat he/she reposes, dies, is content with
acquietus est he died
acra acre
actum record
ad to, at, in, for, towards
adhuc as yet, still
adjutor assistant
adjuvenis assistant
adolescens young man, adolescent
adulterium adultery
advenit he appeared, came
advocatus lawyer
aeger sick
aegyptus gypsy
aequalis equal
aetas (aetatis) age
aetate (being) in the age of, age
affinitas relationship by marriage
affirmavit he/she affirmed, confirmed, asserted
agentis of the official
agnatus blood relative in the male line
agonia cramps
agricola farmer
ahenarius coppersmith
albus white
alemannus German
alias also, otherwise, or, at, another, called
alibi elsewhere, at another time
aliud (alius) other, another
allemania Germany
altare altar
alter the next, the other
alutarius tanner
ambo both, two together
amita aunt, father's sister
amitinus cousin, (child of father's sister)
ancilla female servant
ancillus male servant
anglia England
anima soul, spirit
animam reddidit domino suo he/she returned his/her soul to his/her Lord (died)
anno in the year (of)
anno domini in the year of (our) Lord
anno incarnationis in the year (since/of) the incarnation (of the Lord)
annus year
andedictus aforesaid
ante before, in front of, prior to
antiquus old, senior
apoplexia stroke
aprilis of April
apud at the house of, at, by, near
aqua water
archidiaconus archdeacon
archiepiscopus archbishop
archivum archive
arcularius carpenter
arma coat of arms
armentarius herdsman
armiger gentleman, squire
armorum of coats of arms
at but
atque and
augusti of August
aurifaber goldsmith
auriga driver
aut or
autem but, however, moreover
auxentium Alsace
ava grandmother
avi ancestors, grandparents
avia grandmother
aviaticus nephew
avunculus uncle (mother's brother)
avus grandfather




Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

B

Latin English
bacallarius bachelor
baillivus bailiff
bannorum, liber register of marriage banns, announcements
bannum bann, marriage proclamation
baptisatus baptized
baptisma baptism
necessitate baptismo (being) an emergency baptism
baptismatis of baptism
baptismus baptism
baptizatorum, liber register of baptisms
baptizatus est he was baptized, has been baptized
baptizavi I baptized, have baptized
baro baron
beatus blessed, deceased
bene well
bergarius shepherd
biduum space of two days, two-day period
biennium two-year period
bona possessions
bonus good
bordarius cottager, tenant, border
borussia Prussia
brasiator brewer
burgensis citizen, burgess
Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

C

Latin English
cadaver dead body, cadaver
caelebs bachelor, single man
caelum heaven, sky
caementarius stonemason
calcearius shoemaker
calciator shoemaker
caledonia Scotland
caligator shoemaker
cambria Wales
cameranius chamberlain, valet, groom
capella chapel
capellanus chaplain
capitis head, chief
capt et jurat taken and sworn
caput head, chief
carbonarius collier, coal miner
carecarius carter
carnarius butcher
carpentarius carpenter
carta deed, charter, map
casale estate, village
casatus cottager
cataster land, property record
catholicus Catholic
caupo (cauponis) innkeeper
causa cause, sake, because of
ex causa on account of, for the sake of
celator turner
celebraverunt they celebrated, were married
census census
centenarius a person one hundred years of age
centesimus hundredth
centum hundred
cerdo (cerdonis) handworker
chartarius paper miller
chirotherarus glover
chirurgus surgeon
chramarius merchant
cimeterium cemetery
cingarus gypsy
circa about, around, round about
circiter about, approximately
civis citizen
civitas city
clausit he/she finished, closed
claustrarius locksmith
clausum closed, finished
clericus clergyman
clostrarius locksmith
coelebs bachelor, single man
coemeterium cemetery
cognationis blood relationship
collis hill, mount, mountain
cognomen name, family name, surname
colonus colonist, settler, resident, farmer
colorator dyer
comes count
comitas county
comitatus county
comitissa countess
commater godmother
commorantes living, residing
comparatio presence, appearance
comparuit he/she appeared, was present
compater godfather
compos in possession of
concepta est she was pregnant
concessit consented
conditione, sub conditionally
conjugatus married
conjuges married couple
conjugum of/from the married couple
conjuncti sunt they were joined (in marriage)
conjux spouse
consanguinitatis of blood relationship (such as cousins)
consobrina female cousin (usually on the mother's side)
consobrinus male cousin (usually on the mother's side)
consors (consortis) wife
contra against, opposite
contracti contracted, drawn together
contraxerunt they contracted (marriage)
convulsionis of convulsions
cooperta married (of a woman)
copulationis of marriage
copulati sunt they were married, joined
copulatus married, joined
copulavit he married (performed wedding)
coquus cook
coram in the presence of
coriarius tanner, leather worker
corpus (corporis) body
cotarius cottager
cras tomorrow
creatura dei foundling (creature of God)
cuius whose
cuiusdam of a certain
cultellarius cutler
cum with
cuprifaber coppersmith
cur why
curia court
currarius carriage builder
custos (custodis) custodian, guard


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

D

Latin English
datum date, given
de of, from, by, concerning, about
debilitas illness, weakness
decanatus deanery, section of a diocese
decanus deacon
decem ten
decembris of December
decessit he/she died
decessus died, death
decimus tenth
decretum decree
decubuit he/she died, lay down
dedit he/she gave
deflorata deflowered, no longer a virgin
defuit he/she departed, died
defunctorum of the dead (people)
defunctorum, liber register of the deceased
defunctus est he/she dies, is discharged
defungitur he died
dei of God
deinde then, thereafter, next
dilectus beloved
denarius coin, penny, money
denatus deceased, dead
denatus est he died, has died
denunciatio publication of marriage banns
factis tribus denunciationibus after the publication of three marriage banns (three marriage banns having been published)
desponsationis engagement
desponsatus engaged
deus God
dexter right
dictus said, stated, known as
didymus twin
die on the day
dies (diei) day
dignus worthy
dimidium half
diocesis diocese
discessit he/she died
disponsationis permission
diuturnus of long duration
divortium divorce
doageria dowager
dodum formerly, recently
domi at home
domicella young lady, servant, nun
domicellus young nobleman, junker, servant, servant in a monastery
domina lady
dominica Sunday
dominus lord, rule, the Lord (Jesus Christ)
domus home, house, family
donum gift
dos (dotis) dowry
duae two
ducatus duchy
ducentesimus two hundredth
ducenti two hundred
ducis See dux.
dum while, when, until, as long as
duo two
duodecim twelve
duodecimus twelfth
duodevicesimus eighteenth
duodeviginti eighteen
dux (ducis) duke, leader
dysenteria dysentery


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

E

Latin English
e out of, from
eadem the same
eam her
ebdomada week
ecclampsia convulsions
ecclesia church
in facie ecclesiae in front of the church
ego I
ejusdem the same
elapsus past, elapsed
empicus lung disease
enim for, namely, truly
eodem the same
eodem die on the same day
episcopus bishop
equalis equal
eques (equitis) knight, cavalry soldier
erant they were
ergo therefore, because of
erratum error
esse to be
est he/she is
et and, even
etiam and also, and even
eum him
ex from, out of (places of origin)
exhalavit animam he/she breathed out his/her soul (died)
extra outside of, beyond
extraneus stranger, foreign
extremum last
extremum munitus last rites provided
exulatus exile


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

F

Latin English
faber maker, smith
factus made
falso falsely, incorrectly
familia family
familiaris relative, slave, friend, follower
famulus servant
feber (febris) fever
februarii of February
fecunda pregnant
femina female, woman
fere almost, nearly
feria day, holiday
festum feast, festival, wedding
fidelis faithful
figulus potter
filia daughter
filia populae illegitimate daughter
filiaster stepson
filiastra stepdaughter
filiola little daughter
filiolus little son
filius son
filius populi illegitimate son
finis border, end
firmarius farmer
fluxus dysentery
focus hearth, fireplace, home
foderator fuller, cloth worker
fodiator digger
folium page
fons (fontis) baptismal font, spring, fountain
fossor grave digger, miner
frater brother
fuerunt they were
fui I was
fuit he/she was
furnarius baker


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

G

Latin English
garcio boy, servant
gardianus church warden
gemellae twins (female)
gemelli twins (male, or male and female)
geminus twin
genealogia genealogy
gener son-in-law
generis See genus.
generosus of noble birth, gentleman
genitor father
genitores parents
genitus est he was born, begotten
gens (gentis) male line, clan, tribe, lineage
genuit he/she was begotten
genus (generis) sex, type, kind, birth, descent, origin, class, race
germana real sister (by blood), German
germania Germany
germanus real brother (by blood), German
glos (gloris) sister-in-law (wife's sister)
gradus degree, grade
gratia grace, sake
gravida pregnant
guardianus guardian
gubernium domain


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

H

Latin English
habent they have
habet he/she has
habitans resident, inhabitant
habitatio residence
habitavit he/she resided, dwelt
habuit he/she had, held
haec (hac) this, the latter
haereticus heretic
haud not
hebdomada week
helvetia Switzerland
heres (heredis) heir
heri yesterday
hibernia Ireland
hic here
hinc from here
his this, the latter
hispania Spain
hoc this, the latter
hodie today
homo (hominis) man, human being
honestus respectable, honorable
hora hour
hortulanus gardener
hospes (hospitis) innkeeper
huius of this, of the latter
humationis burial
humatus est he was buried
humilis humble, lowly
hungaricus Hungarian
hydropsis dropsy
hypodidasculus schoolmaster, usher


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

I

Latin English
iam already
ibi there
ibidem (ib, ibid) in the same place
idem the same
ignotus unknown
iit he/she went
illegitimus illegitimate
illius of that, of the former
impedimentum hindrance, impediment (often to a marriage)
nulloque detecto impedimento matrimonio and no hindrance to the marriage having been uncovered
imperium empire
imponit he imposes, places upon
impositus imposed, placed upon, given
cui impositum est nomen to whom was given the name
imposui I placed upon
impraegnavit he impregnated
impregnata pregnant
incarnationis of the incarnation (of the Lord)
incola inhabitant, resident
index (indicis) index
inerunt they entered into (marriage)
infans (infantis) child, infant
inferior lower
infirmus weak
infra below, under
infrascriptus written below, undersigned
iniit he/she entered, began
initiatus est he was baptized
injuria injury, worry
inter between
intra within, during
intronizati sunt they were married, have been married
intronizaverunt they married, have married
inupta unmarried
invenit he/she found, discovered
ipse himself, herself, itself
ita so, thus
item also, likewise
ivit he/she went


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

J

Latin English
januarii of January
jovis, dies Thursday
judaicus Jewish
judicium court, judgment
jugum married couple (short for conjugum)
julii of July
juncti sunt they were joined (in marriage)
junii of June
junior younger, junior
juravit he/she swore, took an oath
jure legally, lawfully
juro I swear, testify
jus (juris) law
juvenis young man, young woman, young person
juxta near to, beside


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

L

Latin English
laborius worker, laborer
lanarius wool worker
lanatus clothed in wool
laniarius butcher
laniator butcher
lanifex (lanificis) weaver
laterarius brick maker
lautus est he was baptized, has been baptized
lavacrum font
lavatus est he was baptized, washed
lavo I baptize, wash
legio legion
legitimatus legitimate
levabat he was holding, raising, lifting up
levans godparent
levantes the godparents
levantibus by the godparents
levare ex fonte to raise from the baptismal font, to act as a godparent
levir husband's brother, brother-in-law
liber book, register, free
liberi children
libra pound (weight)
ligati sunt they were married, have been married
ligatus married, joined, married person
ligavi I joined (in marriage)
lignarius joiner, cabinetmaker
lignicidus woodcutter
linifex (linificis) linen weaver
locus place
ludimagister schoolmaster, teacher
ludus school
lunae, dies Monday
lustrationis of the baptism


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

M

Latin English
macellator butcher
magis more
magister master
magnus large, great
maii of May
major greater, older
majorennis of legal age
majoritatatis of legal age, majority
male badly
malus bad, evil
mane in the morning
manu propria (signed) by one's own hand
manus hand, band
marasmus weakness
maris of a male, man
marita married, wife
mariti married couple
maritus married, husband
martii of March
martis, dies Tuesday
mas male, man
mater (matris) mother
matertera aunt, mother's sister
matrica register, record book
matrimonium marriage
per subsequens matrimonium legitimatus legitimized by subsequent marriage
matrina godmother
matruelis cousin on mother's side
me me
mecum with me
medicus doctor
mendicus beggar
mense in the month (of)
mensis month
mercator merchant
mercenarius day laborer
mercurii, dies Wednesday
meretrix (meretricis) harlot, prostitute
meridies noon
meus mine
miles (militis) soldier, knight
mille thousand
millesimus thousandth
minorennis not of legal age
minoritatis of less than legal age, minority
minus less
modo lately, presently, now
modus manner, way
mola mill
molitor miller
moneta money
mons (montis) mountain
morbus disease
more novo (according to) the new style (of dating)
more vetere (according to) the old style (of dating)
moritur he/she died
mortis of death
ex hac mortali ad immortalem vitam from this mortality to immortal life (died)
ob imminens mortis periculum on account of imminent danger of death (for an emergency baptism)
mortuus est he died
mos (moris) custom, manner
mulier woman, wife
multus many
municeps a magistrate of a town
munitus fortified, provided
mutuus mutual, common


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

N

Latin English
nativitas birth
naturalis natural, illegitimate
natus est he was born
nauta sailor
nec neither, nor
necessitatis of necessity
necnon and also
negotiator merchant (commerce)
nemo (neminis) no one
neosponsa newlywed (female)
neosponsus newlywed (male)
nepos (nepotis) nephew, grandson
neptis niece, granddaughter
neque and not
nescit he doesn't know
niger black
nihil nothing
nisi if not
n.n. = nomen nescio I do not know the name
nobilis noble
nobilitatis of nobility
nocte at night
nomen name
nomen nescio name not known
nominatus est he was named
nomine by/with the name (of)
non not, no
nonagenarius a person in his nineties
nonagesimus ninetieth
nonaginta ninety
nongentesimus nine hundredth
nongenti nine hundred
nonus ninth
nonus decimus nineteenth
nos we, us
noster our
nota bene note well, notice
notarius notary
nothus illegitimate child
novem nine
novembris of November
noverca stepmother
nox night
nudius earlier
nudius tertius today is the third day (e.g., the day before yesterday)
nullus no, none
numerus number
nunc now, at this time
nunquam never
nuntius messenger
nuper lately (sometimes denotes a deceased person)
nupserunt they married
nupta married woman, bride
nuptias wedding
nuptus married
nurus daughter-in-law
nutritor foster father
nutrius foster child
nutrix (nutricis) foster mother


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

O

Latin English
ob on account of, for, according to
obdormitus est he fell asleep, died
obierunt they died, have died
ob(i) imminens vitæ periculum because of impending danger of death
obiit he/she died, went away, departed
obiit sine prole died without issue
obitus death, died
obstetrix (obstetricis) midwife
octavus eighth
octavus decimus eighteenth
octingentesimus eight hundredth
octingenti eight hundred
octo eight
octobris of October
octogenarius a person in his eighties
octogesimus eightieth
octoginta eighty
officialis official
olim formerly, once (sometimes denotes a deceased person; also used in English church records to denote a name change, such as a slave name prior to baptism; "formerly known as")
omnis all, every
operarius day laborer
oppidum city, town
orbus orphan
origo (originis) origin, birth
oriundus, ex originating (from), born
orphanus orphan
ortus origin, birth
ovilius shepherd


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

P

Latin English
pacatio payment
paene almost, nearly
pagina page
pagus village, district
palatium palatinate
panifex baker
papa pope
parentes parents
pariochialis parochial, parish
pariter equally, also
parochia parish
parochus parish priest
pars (partis) area, region
partus birth, childbirth
parvulus very little, small
parvus little
pastor pastor, shepherd
pater (patris) father
patres forefathers, ancestors
patria fatherland, native land
patrina godmother
patrini godparents
patrinus godfather
patruelis cousin on father's side
patruus uncle (father's brother)
pauper poor
pax (pace) peace
pedegogus schoolteacher
penult the last but one, next to the last
per through, by means of
peregrinus foreign, strange
perendie day after tomorrow
perfecit he/she completed, did
periit he/she perished, died
peritus deceased, dead
peritus est he died
pestis plague
phthisis consumption, tuberculosis
pictor painter
pie piously
pigator dyer
piscator fisherman
pistor baker
pius pious
plutus baptized, sprinkled
pomerid afternoon (p.m.)
pons (pontis) bridge
popula people
post after
posterus following
posthumus born after death of father
post partum after birth
postridie on the day after, a day later
potuit could
preceptor teacher, instructor
predefunctus previously deceased (such as before the birth of a child)
predictus aforesaid
prefatus aforesaid
prefectus magistrate
pregnata pregnant
premissus published previously (such as marriage banns)
prenobilis respected, honorable, esteemed
presens (presentis) present, in attendance
preter besides, also, past, beyond
pretor village mayor
pridie the day before
primus first
princeps prince
principatus principality
privigna stepdaughter
privignus stepson
pro for, in behalf of, as far as
proclamationis bann, decree
procurator lawyer, monastic official
progenitus firstborn
proles issue, child, offspring (gender not given)
promulgationis decree, bann
prope near, close to
propter because of, near
prout as, accordingly
provisus provided (with)
proximus previous, preceding
anni proximi elapsi of the preceding year
pudica chaste, upright
puella girl
puer boy, child
puera girl
puerperium childbirth
purgatus baptized, purged, cleansed
puta reputed, supposed


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

Q

Latin English
quadragesimus fortieth
quadraginta forty
quadrigentesimus four hundredth
quadringenti four hundred
quaestor treasurer, paymaster
quam how, as much as
quando when
quartus fourth
quartus decimus fourteenth
quasi almost, as if
quattuor four
quattuordecim fourteen
-que and (as a suffix)
qui (quae, quod) who, which, what
quidam (quaedam, quodam) a certain person or thing
quindecim fifteen
quingentesimus five hundredth
quingenti five hundred
quinquagesimus fiftieth
quinquaginta fifty
quinque five
quintus fifth
quintus decimus fifteenth
quod because
quondam formerly, former (refers to a deceased person)


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

R

Latin English
recognito examination, inquest by jury
rectus right, direct
regeneratus est he was baptized
regimine pedestre infantry regiment
regina queen
registrum index, list
regius royal
regnum kingdom
relicta widow
relictus widower, surviving
religio (religionis) religion
relinquit he/she left behind, abandoned
renanus of the Rhine
renatus est he was baptized
repertorium index, list
requiescat in pace (may he/she) rest in peace
restio rope maker
rex (regis) king
ritus rite, ceremony
rotulus roll
rufus red
rusticus peasant, farmer


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

S

Latin English
sabbatinus, dies Saturday
sabbatum Saturday
sacellanus chaplain
sacer sacred
sacerdos (sacerdotis) priest
sacramentum sacrament, ordinance, rite
omnibus sacramentis provisis (he/she) was provided with all the last rites
sacramentis totiis munitiis (being) fortified by all the last rites
sacro fonte baptismi in the sacred font of baptism
saeculum a generation, century, age, eternity, world
saepe often
salarium salary
Saluatoris Savior (as in year of our Lord)
sanctus holy, sacred, a saint
sanus healthy
sartor tailor
satis enough
saturni, dies Saturday
scabinus judge, lay assessor
scarlatina scarlet fever
schola school
scorbutus scurvy
scorifex (scorificis) tanner
scorta unmarried mother, whore
scotia Scotland
scribo I write
scripsit he/she wrote
scriptum written
secundus second
sed but
sedecim sixteen
sellarius saddler
semel once, a single time
semi half
semper always
senex (senicis) old man
senilis weak with age
senior older, elder
senium old age
sepelivi I buried
septagenarius a person in his seventies
septem seven
septembris of September
septemdecim seventeen
septentrional north, as in America Septentrionali
septigenti seven hundred
septimana week
septimus seventh
septimus decimus seventeenth
septingentesimus seven hundredth
septuagesimus seventieth
septuaginta seventy
sepultorum, liber burial register
sepultus est he was buried
sequens (sequentis) following
serdo (serdonis) tanner
servus servant
sescentesimus six hundredth
sescenti six hundred
seu or
sex six
sexagesimus sixtieth
sexaginta sixty
sextus sixth
sextus decimus sixteenth
sexus sex
si if
sic thus, so, yes
sigillum seal
signum sign, mark
signum fecit he/she made a mark, signed
silva woods, forest
sine without
sinister left
sinus bosom, breast
in sinum maternum conditus given into the maternal breast (buried)
sive or
smigator soap maker
socer (socris) father-in-law
socius apprentice, comrade, associate
socrinus brother-in-law
socrus mother-in-law
sol (solis) the sun
solemnicationis marriage
solis, dies Sunday
solutus unmarried, free from debt
soror sister
sororius brother-in-law (sister's husband)
spasmus cramps
spirituales, parentes godparents
sponsa bride, spouse, betrothed
sponsalia marriage banns
sponsalis betrothed
sponsatus married
sponsor godparent
sponsus groom, spouse, betrothed
spurius illegitimate
statim immediately
status condition, status
stemma pedigree
stinarius plowman
stirps origin, source
stuprata pregnant (out of wedlock)
stuprator father of an illegitimate child
sub under, beneath, below
subscripsit he/she undersigned
subscriptus undersigned
subsequentis following, subsequent
subsignatum marked or signed below
subsignavit he/she marked (signed) below
suevia Sweden
sum I am
sunt they are
superior upper
superstes surviving, still living
supra before, above, beyond
supradictum above written
surdus deaf
susceptor godparent (male)
susceptores godparents
susceptorix godparent (female)
sutor cobbler, shoemaker
suus his/her/its own, their own
synergus ENGLISH WORD


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

T

Latin English
taberna inn, tavern
tamen however
tandem at first, finally
tegularius brick maker
teleonarius tax collector
tempus (temporis) time
terra land, earth
tertius third
tertius decimus thirteenth
testes witnesses
testibus by witnesses
testimentum will, testament
testis witness
textor weaver
thorus tatus of legitimacy, bed
ex illegitimo thoro of illegitimate status
tignarius carpenter
tinctor dyer
tomus volume
tonsor barber
tornator turner (lathe)
totus entire, all
trans across
transitus est he died
trecentesimus three hundredth
trecenti three hundred
tredecim thirteen
tres (tria) three
tribus clan, lineage
tricesimus thirtieth
tricesimus primus thirty-first
triduum space of three days, three-day period
trigemini triplets
triginta thirty
triginta unus thirty-one
tum then
tumulatus buried
tunc then, at that time, immediately
tussis cough
tutela guardianship
tutor guardian
tuus your
typhus typhoid fever, typhus


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

U

Latin English
ubi where
uix nata legitimately born (born to a married couple)
ultimus last, final
unctio extrema extreme unction, the last rites, anointing
unde wherefore, whereupon, whence
undecim eleven
undecimus eleventh
undevicesimus nineteenth
undeviginti nineteen
ungaricus Hungarian
unigenus only (born) son, unique, only begotten
unus one, only, together
urbs (urbis) city
ut how, as, that, therewith, in order that
uterinus on mother's side of family, of the same mother
ut infra as below
ut supra as above
uxor wife
uxoratis married


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

V

Latin English
vagabundus wanderer, vagabond
vagus tramp
variola smallpox
vassus servant, vassal
vel or
velle will, testament
venerabilis venerable, worthy
veneris, dies Friday
venia permission, indulgence
vero, die on this very day
vespere in the evening
vester your
vetula old woman
vetus (veteris) old
via road, way
vicarius vicar
vicecomes sheriff, reeve
vicesimus twentieth
vicinus nearby, neighborhood
victor cooper (occupation)
vicus village
vide see
videlicet namely
vidua widow
viduus widower
vigesimus twentieth
vigesimus nonus twenty-ninth
vigesimus octavus twenty-eighth
vigesimus primus twenty-first
vigesimus quartus twenty-fourth
vigesimus quintus twenty-fifth
vigesimus secundus twenty-second
vigesimus septimus twenty-seventh
vigesimus sextus twenty-sixth
vigesimus tertius twenty-third
viginti twenty
viginti duo twenty-two
viginti noven twenty-nine
viginti octo twenty-eight
viginti quattuor twenty-four
viginti quinque twenty-five
viginti septem twenty-seven
viginti sex twenty-six
viginti tres twenty-three
viginti unus twenty-one
villicanus reeve, steward
vir man, male
virgo (virginis) virgin
virtuosus virtuous, honorable
vita life
vitam cessit he/she departed from life (died)
vitriarius glassmaker
vitricus stepfather
vivens (vivus) living
vos you
vulgo commonly, generally


Words starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

Z

Latin English
zingarius gypsy

External Links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 John E. Cussans, Handbook of Heraldry : With Instructions for Tracing Pedigrees and Deciphering Ancient Mss. : Rules for the Appointment of Liveries etc. (London: Chatto and Windus, 1893), 283; digital images, Google Books (http://books.google.com/books?id=G6MrAAAAIAAJ : accessed 28 April 2009).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Gabriel Adeleye, World dictionary of foreign expressions: a resource for readers and writers (Wauconda, Ill.: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1999), 94, 112; digital images, Google Books (http://books.google.com/books?id=tzW0IasL5EQC : accessed 28 April 2009); book preview limits pages viewed.
  3. Adeleye, World dictionary of foreign expressions, 252.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Adeleye, World dictionary of foreign expressions, 279-80, 286.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Adeleye, World dictionary of foreign expressions, 364-6, 370.