Iowa Emigration and Immigration
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|Local Research Resources|
Iowa has no ports; consequently, many Iowa residents immigrated through ports in New York, New Orleans, or Canada. Passenger lists since 1820 may contain a person’s age, the state or country of birth, immigration date, occupation, names of children. After 29 July 1906, the passenger lists also contain a physical description.
The principal groups that came to Iowa from the early 1800s to the early 1900s were:
The first European settlers in Iowa were French-Canadians, who worked in the lead mines near present-day Dubuque. 
The Black Hawk Treaty of 1833 opened most of Iowa to white settlement. Southern Iowa immigration began as the American government negotiated treaties extinguishing the remaining Indian claims. Settlers came from other states, particularly Kentucky and Tennessee. Northern Iowa immigration came primarily from Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and the Middle Atlantic and New England states.
The population of Iowa nearly tripled. Ohio and Indiana contributed more settlers than all other states and immigration from Europe increased. Among the many German immigrants were the Amana colonists, who settled in Iowa in 1855 after having first lived near Buffalo, New York. Many immigrants arrived from Britain and Ireland.
- The Amish-Mennonites of Waldeck and Wittgenstein 
- German Immigrants in Western Iowa Protestant Church Records
- German Immigrants in NE Iowa Protestant Church Records
Many Scandinavians immigrated.
- Chapters on Scandinavian immigration to Iowa 
Small groups of Austro-Hungarians and Italians arrived.
Routes to Iowa
Many early settlers of Iowa came by way of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. The main steamboat route from the Middle Atlantic states and the Southern states followed the Ohio River and the Mississippi River to Keokuk.
Many of the migrants into Iowa did not stay long. Some left for the gold rush, Others went to lands in the West.
- The westward migration of Latter-day Saints opened an overland trail from the Mississippi River to Council Bluffs which was still used by covered wagons long after the railroad first reached the Mississippi in 1854.
- Mormon handcart story  Lists captain of company, number in company, number died, date of departure from Iowa City, Iowa, and date of arrival in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Until 1850 most overseas immigrants came through the ports of New Orleans or New York. After 1850 most European settlers came through ports in New York or Canada.
For detailed information about federal immigration sources, including Canadian border-crossing records, see the Canada Emigration
- Ancestry’s Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources,  Contains bibliographies and background information on history and ethnic groups. Also contains maps and tables showing when each county was created.
Sources and Footnotes
- Lead and Zinc Mining in the Dubuque Area
- Hermann Guth.The Amish-Mennonites of Waldeck and Wittgenstein (Elverson, Pennsylvania Mennonite Family History, c1986). FHL Book, 943.41 D2g.
- Chapters on Scandinavian immigration to Iowa George T. (Tobias) Flom. (Iowa City: Iowa:The State Historical Society of Iowa. Reprinted from Iowa Journal of History and politics for 1905-6). 150 p. FHL Film 989450 Item 7
- Mormon handcart story by Gustive Olaf Larson. (Salt Lake City, Utah&nbsp;: Deseret Book, c1956) FHL Book 979.2 H2Lm
- Ancestry’s Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources Alice Eichholz, ed. (Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1992). FHL book 973 D27rb 1992.