Georgia (country) History

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History

The sovereign state of Georgia is a unitary semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy. The Georgians adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. The common belief had an enormous importance for spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states.

In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810. Russian rule over Georgia was eventually acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans and the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 19th century. During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia briefly became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and then emerged as an independent republic before the Red Army invasion in 1921 which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets.

Soviet Georgia would be incorporated into a new Transcaucasian Federation which in 1922 would be a founding republic of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic. During the Great Patriotic War, almost 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against the German invaders. Georgia would become marred with blatant corruption and increased alienation of the government from the people.

By the 1980s, Georgians were ready to abandon the existing system altogether. A pro-independence movement led to the secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008 and Georgia's current territorial dispute with Russia. Georgia and most of the world's countries consider the regions to be Georgian territory under Russian occupation.
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Timeline

1801 - The eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801
1810 - The Russian empire conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810
1917 - During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution Georgia briefly became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and then emerged as an independent republic
1921 - The Red Army invaded which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets. Soviet Georgia would be incorporated into a new Transcaucasian Federation
1922 - Georgia would be incorporated into a new Transcaucasian Federation which would be a founding republic of the Soviet Union
1936 - The Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic
1956 - Georgia would become marred with blatant corruption and increased alienation of the government from the people
1991 - A pro-independence movement led to the secession from the Soviet Union and for most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and economic crisis
1991 - Independence from the Soviet Union
2008 - There was a worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War and Georgia's current territorial dispute with Russia

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