French Republican Calendar

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France Gotoarrow.png Republican Calendar

Storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789.

History of the Calendar

The French Republican calendar (also known as the Revolutionary calendar) was introduced during the French Revolution to replace the Gregorian calendar and begin a new era. The calendar was based on scientific rather than Christian principles.

This calendar was used for twelve years, from 24 October 1793 to 31 December 1805. (An attempt was made in 1871 to reinstate it, but this attempt failed.)  However, it was back-dated to have begun on 22 September, 1792. It was used for civil registration records, notarial records, and other government records throughout France and other areas under French rule, including modern Belgium, Luxembourg, and parts of the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. It also affected records in other areas ruled by the French government, such as Egypt, Malta, Reunion, Louisiana, Guiana, and some Caribbean islands.

Principles of the New Calendar

Each year began on the autumn equinox, and the years were counted from the founding of the French Republic on 22 September 1792.

Each year had twelve months of thirty days each.

Five days, called complementary days, were added to the end of the year to bring the total to 365.

Every four years, beginning with the third year of the Republic, an extra complementary day was added. (Days were added to years 3, 7, 11, and so forth.) During this period, the standard calendar had only two leap years (in 1796 and 1804).

The Months

The twelve months of the French Republican calendar were based on the natural events of the seasons of the year. They do not correspond to the standard months of January through December.

In areas that were not French-speaking, the names of the months were often translated into the language of the record, as shown by the following chart:

Months of the French Republican Calendar

Autumn months

French English Translation German Dutch Italian Latin
Vendémiaire grape harvest Weinlesemonat Wijnoogstmaand vendemmaio mensis vindemiarum
Brumaire fog Nebelmonat Mistmaand brumaio mensis brumarum
Frimaire frost Reifmonat Rijpmaand frimaio mensus frimarum
Nivôse snow Schneemonat Sneeuwmaand nevoso mensis nivium
Pluviôse rain Regenmonat Regenmaand piovoso mensis pluviarum
Ventôse wind Windmonat Windmaand ventoso mensis ventorum
Germinal germination Keimmonat Kiemmaand germinale mensis germinum
Floréal flowering Blütenmonat Blœmmaand floreale mensis florum
Prairial pasture Wiesenmonat Grasmaand pratile mensis prætorum
Messidor harvest Erntemonat Oostmaand messidoro mensis messidoro
Thermidor or

Fervidor

heat Hitzemonat Hittemaand termidoro mensis thermarum
Fructidor fruit Fruchtmonat Vruchtmaand fruttidoro mensis fructuum

Complementary or Feast Days

English French German Dutch Italian Latin
Feast of... Fête de... Fest der... Feest der... giorno della... Festum...
First day virtue la vertu Tugend Deugd virtù virtutis
Second day genius le génie Geistes Vernuft genio ingenii
Third day labor le travail Arbeit Werkzaamheid lavoro laboris
Fourth day opinion l’opinion Meinung Gezindheid opinione opinionis
Fifth day rewards récompenses Belohnungen Beloning ricompènse pretiorum
Sixth day* revolution la révolution Umsturzes/ Revolution Revolutie rivoluzione revolutionis
  • Only used in leap years

Complementary Days

The extra days at the end of the year were called jours complémentaires (complementary days or holidays) or jours-sansculottides (days of the revolutionaries). The complementary days were feast days and each had a name. The above chart shows the names in each language where the calendar was used.

How Dates Were Recorded

Dates were usually written out in French or the local language. For example:

  • Le treizième jour du mois de Pluviôse l’an sept de la République Française (The 13th of Pluviose in the seventh year of the French Republic).

The years of the Republic were often designated by Roman numerals. For example:

  • 13 Pluviôse VII (13 Pluviose, seventh year of the Republic).

The complementary (feast) days were recorded in two ways:

  • By the name of the feast. Example: the feast day of Labor in the ninth year of the French Republic.
  • By the number (first, second, third, and so on) of the day.
  • Example: the third complementary day of the ninth year of the French Republic.

How to Calculate the Standard Date for a French Republican Date

Four calendars are on the following pages. Each calendar has the French Republican months across the top, and thirty days on the left-hand column.

Find the French Republican year for the date you are converting at the top of one of the four calendars.

Find the day (of the French month) in the left column, and move across the page to the French month (abbreviated at the top of the chart). This will give you the standard (Gregorian) month and day.

Return to the top of the calendar. The corresponding standard years are on the same horizontal line as the French Republican year. The correct standard year for the date you are converting is on the same side of the heavy black line as the month and day you found in step 2.


Example: 10 Vendémiaire de l’an IX

  1. Year IX is on Calendar Three
  2. On Calendar Three, find the number 10 in the left column and move across the page to the column for Vendémiaire. This box says 2 Oct.
  3. Dates on the left side of the heavy black line for the ninth year of the Republic correspond to 1800.
  4. Thus 10 Vendémiaire IX corresponds to 2 October 1800.

Calendar One

French Republican Year                 Standard (Gregorian) Year (in Bold)

Year One I.............................1792    1793
Year Two II.............................1793    1794

Year Three III..........................1794    1795

Year Five V............................1796    1797

Year Six VI............................1797    1798

Year Seven VII.......................1798    1799

VEND BRUM FRIM NIVO PLUV VENT GERM FLOR PRAIR MESS THERM FRUCT COMPL
1 22
Sep
22
Oct
21
Nov
21
Dec
20
Jan
19
Feb
21
Mar
20
Apr
20
May
19
Jun
19
Jul
18
Aug
17
Sep
2 23
Sep
23
Oct
22
Nov
22
Dec
21
Jan
20
Feb
22
Mar
21
Apr
21
May
20
Jun
20
Jul
19
Aug
18
Sep
3 24
Sep
24
Oct
23
Nov
23
Dec
22
Jan
21
Feb
23
Mar
22
Apr
22
May
21
Jun
21
Jul
20
Aug
19
Sep
4 25
Sep
25
Oct
24
Nov
24
Dec
23
Jan
22
Feb
24
Mar
23
Apr
23
May
22
Jun
22
Jul
21
Aug
20
Sep
5 26
Sep
26
Oct
25
Nov
25
Dec
24
Jan
23
Feb
25
Mar
24
Apr
24
May
23
Jun
23
Jul
22
Aug
21
Sep
6 27
Sep
27
Oct
26
Nov
26
Dec
25
Jan
24
Feb
26
Mar
25
Apr
25
May
24
Jun
24
Jul
23
Aug
22
Sep*
7 28
Sep
28
Oct
27
Nov
27
Dec
26
Jan
25
Feb
27
Mar
26
Apr
26
May
25
Jun
25
Jul
24
Aug
8 29
Sep
29
Oct
28
Nov
28
Dec
27
Jan
26
Feb
28
Mar
27
Apr
27
May
26
Jun
26
Jul
25
Aug
9 30
Sep
30
Oct
29
Nov
29
Dec
28
Jan
27
Feb
29
Mar
28
Apr
28
May
27
Jun
27
Jul
26
Aug
10 1
Oct
31
Oct
30
Nov
30
Dec
29
Jan
28
Feb
30
Mar
29
Apr
29
May
28
Jun
28
Jul
27
Aug
11 2
Oct
1
Nov
1
Dec
31
Dec
30
Jan
1
Mar
31
Mar
30
Apr
30
May
29
Jun
29
Jul
28
Aug
12 3
Oct
2
Nov
2
Dec
1
Jan
31
Jan
2
Mar
1
Apr
1
May
31
May
30
Jun
30
Jul
29
Aug
13 4
Oct
3
Nov
3
Dec
2
Jan
1
Feb
3
Mar
2
Apr
2
May
1
Jun
1
Jul
31
Jul
30
Aug
14 5
Oct
4
Nov
4
Dec
3
Jan
2
Feb
4
Mar
3
Apr
3
May
2
Jun
2
Jul
1
Aug
31
Aug
15 6
Oct
5
Nov
5
Dec
4
Jan
3
Feb
5
Mar
4
Apr
4
May
3
Jun
3
Jul
2
Aug
1
Sep
16 7
Oct
6
Nov
6
Dec
5
Jan
4
Feb
6
Mar
5
Apr
5
May
4
Jun
4
Jul
3
Aug
2
Sep
17 8
Oct
7
Nov
7
Dec
6
Jan
5
Feb
7
Mar
6
Apr
6
May
5
Jun
5
Jul
4
Aug
3
Sep
18 9
Oct
8
Nov
8
Dec
7
Jan
6
Feb
8
Mar
7
Apr
7
May
6
Jun
6
Jul
5
Aug
4
Sep
19 10
Oct
9
Nov
9
Dec
8
Jan
7
Feb
9
Mar
8
Apr
8
May
7
Jun
7
Jul
6
Aug
5
Sep
20 11
Oct
10
Nov
10
Dec
9
Jan
8
Feb
10
Mar
9
Apr
9
May
8
Jun
8
Jul
7
Aug
6
Sep
21 12
Oct
11
Nov
11
Dec
10
Jan
9
Feb
11
Mar
10
Apr
10
May
9
Jun
9
Jul
8
Aug
7
Sep
22 13
Oct
12
Nov
12
Dec
11
Jan
10
Feb
12
Mar
11
Apr
11
May
10
Jun
10
Jul
9
Aug
8
Sep
23 14
Oct
13
Nov
13
Dec
12
Jan
11
Feb
13
Mar
12
Apr
12
May
11
Jun
11
Jul
10
Aug
9
Sep
24 15
Oct
14
Nov
14
Dec
13
Jan
12
Feb
14
Mar
13
Apr
13
May
12
Jun
12
Jul
11
Aug
10
Sep
25 16
Oct
15
Nov
15
Dec
14
Jan
13
Feb
15
Mar
14
Apr
14
May
13
Jun
13
Jul
12
Aug
11
Sep
26 17
Oct
16
Nov
16
Dec
15
Jan
14
Feb
16
Mar
15
Apr
15
May
14
Jun
14
Jul
13
Aug
12
Sep
27 18
Oct
17
Nov
17
Dec
16
Jan
15
Feb
17
Mar
16
Apr
16
May
15
Jun
15
Jul
14
Aug
13
Sep
28 19
Oct
18
Nov
18
Dec
17
Jan
16
Feb
18
Mar
17
Apr
17
May
16
Jun
16
Jul
15
Aug
14
Sep
29 20
Oct
19
Nov
19
Dec
18
Jan
17
Feb
19
Mar
18
Apr
18
May
17
Jun
17
Jul
16
Aug
15
Sep
30 21
Oct
20
Nov
20
Dec
19
Jan
18
Feb
20
Mar
19
Apr
19
May
18
Jun
18
Jul
17
Aug
16
Sep
  • Used only in Year III and VII

Calendar Two

French Republican Year         Standard (Gregorian) Year  (in Bold)
Year Four IV . . . . . . . . . 1795    1796
VEND BRUM FRIM NIVO PLUV VENT GERM FLOR PRAIR MESS THERM FRUCT COMPL
1 23
Sep
23
Oct
22
Nov
22
Dec
21
Jan
20
Feb
21
Mar
20
Apr
20
May
19
Jun
19
Jul
18
Aug
17
Sep
2 24
Sep
24
Oct
23
Nov
23
Dec
22
Jan
21
Feb
22
Mar
21
Apr
21
May
20
Jun
20
Jul
19
Aug
18
Sep
3 25
Sep
25
Oct
24
Nov
24
Dec
23
Jan
22
Feb
23
Mar
22
Apr
22
May
21
Jun
21
Jul
20
Aug
19
Sep
4 26
Sep
26
Oct
25
Nov
25
Dec
24
Jan
23
Feb
24
Mar
23
Apr
23
May
22
Jun
22
Jul
21
Aug
20
Sep
5 27
Sep
27
Oct
26
Nov
26
Dec
25
Jan
24
Feb
25
Mar
24
Apr
24
May
23
Jun
23
Jul
22
Aug
21
Sep
6 28
Sep
28
Oct
27
Nov
27
Dec
26
Jan
25
Feb
26
Mar
25
Apr
25
May
24
Jun
24
Jul
23
Aug
7 29
Sep
29
Oct
28
Nov
28
Dec
27
Jan
26
Feb
27
Mar
26
Apr
26
May
25
Jun
25
Jul
24
Aug
8 30
Sep
30
Oct
29
Nov
29
Dec
28
Jan
27
Feb
28
Mar
27
Apr
27
May
26
Jun
26
Jul
25
Aug
9 1
Oct
31
Oct
30
Nov
30
Dec
29
Jan
28
Feb
29
Mar
28
Apr
28
May
27
Jun
27
Jul
26
Aug
10 2
Oct
1
Nov
1
Dec
31
Dec
30
Jan
29
Feb
30
Mar
29
Apr
29
May
28
Jun
28
Jul
27
Aug
11 3
Oct
2
Nov
2
Dec
1
Jan
31
Jan
1
Mar
31
Mar
30
Apr
30
May
29
Jun
29
Jul
28
Aug
12 4
Oct
3
Nov
3
Dec
2
Jan
1
Feb
2
Mar
1
Apr
1
May
31
May
30
Jun
30
Jul
29
Aug
13 5
Oct
4
Nov
4
Dec
3
Jan
2
Feb
3
Mar
2
Apr
2
May
1
Jun
1
Jul
31
Jul
30
Aug
14 6
Oct
5
Nov
5
Dec
4
Jan
3
Feb
4
Mar
3
Apr
3
May
2
Jun
2
Jul
1
Aug
31
Aug
15 7
Oct
6
Nov
6
Dec
5
Jan
4
Feb
5
Mar
4
Apr
4
May
3
Jun
3
Jul
2
Aug
1
Sep
16 8
Oct
7
Nov
7
Dec
6
Jan
5
Feb
6
Mar
5
Apr
5
May
4
Jun
4
Jul
3
Aug
2
Sep
17 9
Oct
8
Nov
8
Dec
7
Jan
6
Feb
7
Mar
6
Apr
6
May
5
Jun
5
Jul
4
Aug
3
Sep
18 10
Oct
9
Nov
9
Dec
8
Jan
7
Feb
8
Mar
7
Apr
7
May
6
Jun
6
Jul
5
Aug
4
Sep
19 11
Oct
10
Nov
10
Dec
9
Jan
8
Feb
9
Mar
8
Apr
8
May
7
Jun
7
Jul
6
Aug
5
Sep
20 12
Oct
11
Nov
11
Dec
10
Jan
9
Feb
10
Mar
9
Apr
9
May
8
Jun
8
Jul
7
Aug
6
Sep
21 13
Oct
12
Nov
12
Dec
11
Jan
10
Feb
11
Mar
10
Apr
10
May
9
Jun
9
Jul
8
Aug
7
Sep
22 14
Oct
13
Nov
13
Dec
12
Jan
11
Feb
12
Mar
11
Apr
11
May
10
Jun
10
Jul
9
Aug
8
Sep
23 15
Oct
14
Nov
14
Dec
13
Jan
12
Feb
13
Mar
12
Apr
12
May
11
Jun
11
Jul
10
Aug
9
Sep
24 16
Oct
15
Nov
15
Dec
14
Jan
13
Feb
14
Mar
13
Apr
13
May
12
Jun
12
Jul
11
Aug
10
Sep
25 17
Oct
16
Nov
16
Dec
15
Jan
14
Feb
15
Mar
14
Apr
14
May
13
Jun
13
Jul
12
Aug
11
Sep
26 18
Oct
17
Nov
17
Dec
16
Jan
15
Feb
16
Mar
15
Apr
15
May
14
Jun
14
Jul
13
Aug
12
Sep
27 19
Oct
18
Nov
18
Dec
17
Jan
16
Feb
17
Mar
16
Apr
16
May
15
Jun
15
Jul
14
Aug
13
Sep
28 20
Oct
19
Nov
19
Dec
18
Jan
17
Feb
18
Mar
17
Apr
17
May
16
Jun
16
Jul
15
Aug
14
Sep
29 21
Oct
20
Nov
20
Dec
19
Jan
18
Feb
19
Mar
18
Apr
18
May
17
Jun
17
Jul
16
Aug
15
Sep
30 22
Oct
21
Nov
21
Dec
20
Jan
19
Feb
20
Mar
19
Apr
19
May
18
Jun
18
Jul
17
Aug
16
Sep

Calendar Three

French Republican Year                 Standard (Gregorian) Year (in Bold)
Year Eight VII . . . . . . .  1799    1800
Year Nine IX . . . . . . . .  1800    1801
Year Ten X . . . . . . . . .  1801    1802
Year Eleven XI . . . . . . . 1802    1803
Year Thirteen XIII . . . . .1804    1805
Year Fourteen XIV. . . . .1805   1806
VEND BRUM FRIM NIVO PLUV VENT GERM FLOR PRAIR MESS THERM FRUCT COMPL
1 23
Sep
23
Oct
22
Nov
22
Dec
21
Jan
20
Feb
22
Mar
21
Apr
21
May
20
Jun
20
Jul
19
Aug
18
Sep
2 24
Sep
24
Oct
23
Nov
23
Dec
22
Jan
21
Feb
23
Mar
22
Apr
22
May
21
Jun
21
Jul
20
Aug
19
Sep
3 25
Sep
25
Oct
24
Nov
24
Dec
23
Jan
22
Feb
24
Mar
23
Apr
23
May
22
Jun
22
Jul
21
Aug
20
Sep
4 26
Sep
26
Oct
25
Nov
25
Dec
24
Jan
23
Feb
25
Mar
24
Apr
24
May
23
Jun
23
Jul
22
Aug
21
Sep
5 27
Sep
27
Oct
26
Nov
26
Dec
25
Jan
24
Feb
26
Mar
25
Apr
25
May
24
Jun
24
Jul
23
Aug
22
Sep
6 28
Sep
28
Oct
27
Nov
27
Dec
26
Jan
25
Feb
27
Mar
26
Apr
26
May
25
Jun
25
Jul
24
Aug
23
Sep*
7 29
Sep
29
Oct
28
Nov
28
Dec
27
Jan
26
Feb
28
Mar
27
Apr
27
May
26
Jun
26
Jul
25
Aug
8 30
Sep
30
Oct
29
Nov
29
Dec
28
Jan
27
Feb
29
Mar
28
Apr
28
May
27
Jun
27
Jul
26
Aug
9 1
Oct
31
Oct
30
Nov
30
Dec
29
Jan
28
Feb
30
Mar
29
Apr
29
May
28
Jun
28
Jul
27
Aug
10 2
Oct
1
Nov
1
Dec
31
Dec
30
Jan
1
Mar
31
Mar
30
Apr
30
May
29
Jun
29
Jul
28
Aug
11 3
Oct
2
Nov
2
Dec
1
Jan
31
Jan
2
Mar
1
Apr
1
May
31
May
30
Jun
30
Jul
29
Aug
12 4
Oct
3
Nov
3
Dec
2
Jan
1
Feb
3
Mar
2
Apr
2
May
1
Jun
1
Jul
31
Jul
30
Aug
13 5
Oct
4
Nov
4
Dec
3
Jan
2
Feb
4
Mar
3
Apr
3
May
2
Jun
2
Jul
1
Aug
31
Aug
14 6
Oct
5
Nov
5
Dec
4
Jan
3
Feb
5
Mar
4
Apr
4
May
3
Jun
3
Jul
2
Aug
1
Sep
15 7
Oct
6
Nov
6
Dec
5
Jan
4
Feb
6
Mar
5
Apr
5
May
4
Jun
4
Jul
3
Aug
2
Sep
16 8
Oct
7
Nov
7
Dec
6
Jan
5
Feb
7
Mar
6
Apr
6
May
5
Jun
5
Jul
4
Aug
3
Sep
17 9
Oct
8
Nov
8
Dec
7
Jan
6
Feb
8
Mar
7
Apr
7
May
6
Jun
6
Jul
5
Aug
4
Sep
18 10
Oct
9
Nov
9
Dec
8
Jan
7
Feb
9
Mar
8
Apr
8
May
7
Jun
7
Jul
6
Aug
5
Sep
19 11
Oct
10
Nov
10
Dec
9
Jan
8
Feb
10
Mar
9
Apr
9
May
8
Jun
8
Jul
7
Aug
6
Sep
20 12
Oct
11
Nov
11
Dec
10
Jan
9
Feb
11
Mar
10
Apr
10
May
9
Jun
9
Jul
8
Aug
7
Sep
21 13
Oct
12
Nov
12
Dec
11
Jan
10
Feb
12
Mar
11
Apr
11
May
10
Jun
10
Jul
9
Aug
8
Sep
22 14
Oct
13
Nov
13
Dec
12
Jan
11
Feb
13
Mar
12
Apr
12
May
11
Jun
11
Jul
10
Aug
9
Sep
23 15
Oct
14
Nov
14
Dec
13
Jan
12
Feb
14
Mar
13
Apr
13
May
12
Jun
12
Jul
11
Aug
10
Sep
24 16
Oct
15
Nov
15
Dec
14
Jan
13
Feb
15
Mar
14
Apr
14
May
13
Jun
13
Jul
12
Aug
11
Sep
25 17
Oct
16
Nov
16
Dec
15
Jan
14
Feb
16
Mar
15
Apr
15
May
14
Jun
14
Jul
13
Aug
12
Sep
26 18
Oct
17
Nov
17
Dec
16
Jan
15
Feb
17
Mar
16
Apr
16
May
15
Jun
15
Jul
14
Aug
13
Sep
27 19
Oct
18
Nov
18
Dec
17
Jan
16
Feb
18
Mar
17
Apr
17
May
16
Jun
16
Jul
15
Aug
14
Sep
28 20
Oct
19
Nov
19
Dec
18
Jan
17
Feb
19
Mar
18
Apr
18
May
17
Jun
17
Jul
16
Aug
15
Sep
29 21
Oct
20
Nov
20
Dec
19
Jan
18
Feb
20
Mar
19
Apr
19
May
18
Jun
18
Jul
17
Aug
16
Sep
30 22
Oct
21
Nov
21
Dec
20
Jan
19
Feb
21
Mar
20
Apr
20
May
19
Jun
19
Jul
18
Aug
17
Sep
  • Used only in Year XI

Calendar Four

French Republican Year Standard (Gregorian) Year (in Bold)
Year Twelve XII . . . . . . . 1803     1804
VEND BRUM FRIM NIVO PLUV VENT GERM FLOR PRAIR MESS THERM FRUCT COMPL
1 24
Sep
24
Oct
23
Nov
23
Dec
22
Jan
21
Feb
22
Mar
21
Apr
21
May
20
Jun
20
Jul
19
Aug
18
Sep
2 25
Sep
25
Oct
24
Nov
24
Dec
23
Jan
22
Feb
23
Mar
22
Apr
22
May
21
Jun
21
Jul
20
Aug
19
Sep
3 26
Sep
26
Oct
25
Nov
25
Dec
24
Jan
23
Feb
24
Mar
23
Apr
23
May
22
Jun
22
Jul
21
Aug
20
Sep
4 27
Sep
27
Oct
26
Nov
26
Dec
25
Jan
24
Feb
25
Mar
24
Apr
24
May
23
Jun
23
Jul
22
Aug
21
Sep
5 28
Sep
28
Oct
27
Nov
27
Dec
26
Jan
25
Feb
26
Mar
25
Apr
25
May
24
Jun
24
Jul
23
Aug
22
Sep
6 29
Sep
29
Oct
28
Nov
28
Dec
27
Jan
26
Feb
27
Mar
26
Apr
26
May
25
Jun
25
Jul
24
Aug
7 30
Sep
30
Oct
29
Nov
29
Dec
28
Jan
27
Feb
28
Mar
27
Apr
27
May
26
Jun
26
Jul
25
Aug
8 1
Oct
31
Oct
30
Nov
30
Dec
29
Jan
28
Feb
29
Mar
28
Apr
28
May
27
Jun
27
Jul
26
Aug
9 2
Oct
1
Nov
1
Dec
31
Dec
30
Jan
29
Feb
30
Mar
29
Apr
29
May
28
Jun
28
Jul
27
Aug
10 3
Oct
2
Nov
2
Dec
1
Jan
31
Jan
1
Mar
31
Mar
30
Apr
30
May
29
Jun
29
Jul
28
Aug
11 4
Oct
3
Nov
3
Dec
2
Jan
1
Feb
2
Mar
1
Apr
1
May
31
May
30
Jun
30
Jul
29
Aug
12 5
Oct
4
Nov
4
Dec
3
Jan
2
Feb
3
Mar
2
Apr
2
May
1
Jun
1
Jul
31
Jul
30
Aug
13 6
Oct
5
Nov
5
Dec
4
Jan
3
Feb
4
Mar
3
Apr
3
May
2
Jun
2
Jul
1
Aug
31
Aug
14 7
Oct
6
Nov
6
Dec
5
Jan
4
Feb
5
Mar
4
Apr
4
May
3
Jun
3
Jul
2
Aug
1
Sep
15 8
Oct
7
Nov
7
Dec
6
Jan
5
Feb
6
Mar
5
Apr
5
May
4
Jun
4
Jul
3
Aug
2
Sep
16 9
Oct
8
Nov
8
Dec
7
Jan
6
Feb
7
Mar
6
Apr
6
May
5
Jun
5
Jul
4
Aug
3
Sep
17 10
Oct
9
Nov
9
Dec
8
Jan
7
Feb
8
Mar
7
Apr
7
May
6
Jun
6
Jul
5
Aug
4
Sep
18 11
Oct
10
Nov
10
Dec
9
Jan
8
Feb
9
Mar
8
Apr
8
May
7
Jun
7
Jul
6
Aug
5
Sep
19 12
Oct
11
Nov
11
Dec
10
Jan
9
Feb
10
Mar
9
Apr
9
May
8
Jun
8
Jul
7
Aug
6
Sep
20 13
Oct
12
Nov
12
Dec
11
Jan
10
Feb
11
Mar
10
Apr
10
May
9
Jun
9
Jul
8
Aug
7
Sep
21 14
Oct
13
Nov
13
Dec
12
Jan
11
Feb
12
Mar
11
Apr
11
May
10
Jun
10
Jul
9
Aug
8
Sep
22 15
Oct
14
Nov
14
Dec
13
Jan
12
Feb
13
Mar
12
Apr
12
May
11
Jun
11
Jul
10
Aug
9
Sep
23 16
Oct
15
Nov
15
Dec
14
Jan
13
Feb
14
Mar
13
Apr
13
May
12
Jun
12
Jul
11
Aug
10
Sep
24 17
Oct
16
Nov
16
Dec
15
Jan
14
Feb
15
Mar
14
Apr
14
May
13
Jun
13
Jul
12
Aug
11
Sep
25 18
Oct
17
Nov
17
Dec
16
Jan
15
Feb
16
Mar
15
Apr
15
May
14
Jun
14
Jul
13
Aug
12
Sep
26 19
Oct
18
Nov
18
Dec
17
Jan
16
Feb
17
Mar
16
Apr
16
May
15
Jun
15
Jul
14
Aug
13
Sep
27 20
Oct
19
Nov
19
Dec
18
Jan
17
Feb
18
Mar
17
Apr
17
May
16
Jun
16
Jul
15
Aug
14
Sep
28 21
Oct
20
Nov
20
Dec
19
Jan
18
Feb
19
Mar
18
Apr
18
May
17
Jun
17
Jul
16
Aug
15
Sep
29 22
Oct
21
Nov
21
Dec
20
Jan
19
Feb
20
Mar
19
Apr
19
May
18
Jun
18
Jul
17
Aug
16
Sep
30 23
Oct
22
Nov
22
Dec
21
Jan
20
Feb
21
Mar
20
Apr
20
May
19
Jun
19
Jul
18
Aug
17
Sep

Paper publication: First Edition,
Feb. 1991.