England Names, Personal
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Understanding given names and surnames can help you trace your ancestors. The English did not have a specific naming pattern, but they often gave their children family names. Sometimes when a child died, the next child of that sex born into the family was given the same name. Occasionally two or more living children in the family had the same given name.
The nobility and wealthy landowners first began using surnames. Merchants and townspeople adopted the custom, as eventually did the rural population. This process took several centuries. Surnames developed from several sources. For example:
- Occupational (based on a person’s trade, such as Carter or Smith)
- Geographical (based on a person’s residence, such as Drayton or Debenham)
- Patronymic (based on a person’s father’s name, such as Jones, son of John)
- Descriptive or nickname (such as Joy or Child)
Many books discuss English surnames. Two are:
- Bardsley, Charles W. A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames. Reprint of 1901 edition. Baltimore, Maryland.)Genealogical Publishing Company, 1980. Digital version at Internet Archive - free; (Family History Library book 942 D4b.) This book mentions early dates and places where particular surnames are common.
- Guppy, Henry Brougham. Homes of Family Names in Great Britain. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing, 1968. (Family History Library book 942 D4g 1968.) This book discusses the geographic origins and meanings of certain surnames.
- Hanks, Patrick, and Flavia Hodges. A Dictionary of Surnames. New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Digital version at Ancestry - free; (Family History Library book 929.42 H194d. BYU FHL book CS 2385 .H27 1988.) The book contains entries for most major surnames of European origin and some rare surnames.
- Lasker, G. W. and C. G. N. Mascie-Taylor. Atlas of British Surnames: With 154 Maps of Selected Surnames. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press, 1990. (Family History Library book 942 D4Lg.) This book charts with maps the density of surnames in England.
- Lloyd, Lewis C.; Charles Travis Clay and David C. Douglas, eds. The Origins of Some Anglo-Norman Families. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing, 1975. (Family History Library book 942 D4n.) This book studies the origins of prominent Anglo-Norman families.
- Rogers, Colin D. The Surname Detective: Investigating Surname Distribution in England, 1086-Present Day. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1995. (Family History Library book 942 D4rs.) This book looks at the distribution of surnames throughout England.
- Titford, John . Searching for Surnames: A Practical Guide to their Meanings and Origins. Newbury, England: Countryside Books, 2002. (Family History Library book 942 D4tj.) This book discusses the meaning and origins of early surnames.
Projects that study specific surnames are called one-name studies. The Guild of One-Name Studies is an example of an organization that has identified several thousands such projects.
Another aspect of English surnames is pronunciation. "A List of Surnames Pronounced Differently from What the Spelling Suggests" (1883), available online, identifies some more unusual examples.
When they were christened, children usually received one or two given names. Some were named after parents or other relatives. (see also British Naming Conventions)
For a book describing given names, see:
- Withycombe, E.G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Third Revised Edition. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1950. (Family History Library book 942 D4w 1950. BYU FHL book CS 2375 .G7 W5 1977.)
Many names in pre-1700 records are in Latin. The Record Interpreter (1892) identifies:
A select list of Latin given names with the English equivalent are listed in Volume three of David E. Gardner’s, and Frank Smith’s Genealogical Research in England and Wales. Three Volumes. Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft Publishers, 1956–64. (Family History Library book 929.142 G172g.)
- Robert Charles Hope, A Glossary of Dialectal Place-nomenclature, To Which is Appended A List of Family Surnames Pronounced Differently from What the Spelling Suggests (London: Simpkin, Marshall, 1883). Digitised by Internet Archive - free.
- Charles Trice Martin, The Record Interpreter (London: Reeves and Turner, 1892). Digitised by Google Books - free.