Egypt History

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History

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government.

Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, and many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, and declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961.

Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, and the fifteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 15,000 sq miles, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited.

The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, and a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, and is projected to become one of the largest in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt overtook South Africa and became Africa's second largest economy.
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Timeline

1517 - Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Turks, after which it became a province of the Ottoman Empire. The defensive militarisation damaged its civil society and economic institutions
1687 - 1731, Egypt experienced six famines and the 1784 famine cost it roughly one-sixth of its population
1798 - Napoleon defeated the Egyptian Mamluks who had ruled Egypt for centuries in the Battle of the Pyramids
1867 - Egypt was granted the status of an autonomous vassal state a legal status which was to remain in place until 1914
1914 - Egypt remained an autonomous vassal state until it was declared a British Protectorate and the Protectorate was made official
1952 -Following a Revolution by the Free Officers Movement, the rule of Egypt passed to military hands. On 18 June 1953, the Egyptian Republic was declared
1967 - Six-Day War, Israel attacked Egypt, and occupied Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip, which Egypt had occupied since the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
2006 - Human Rights Watch's report on Egypt detailed serious human rights violations
2011 - The Egyptian military assumed the power to govern and the military dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution
2013 - The military-backed Egyptian authorities cracked down on the Muslim Brotherhood and its supporters, jailing thousands and killing hundreds of street protesters

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