Denmark Probate Records

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Probate Records

Probate records are court records that describe the distribution of a person's estate after death. Information in the records may include the death date, names of heirs and guardians, relationships, residences, an inventory of the estate, and names of witnesses.

These records are very helpful for research because in many areas the authorities began recording probate actions before birth and death records.

Probate records were not created for every person who died. The probate law of 1683 stated that probate was necessary if a parent died and left children that were not of age (age 25). Often an estate was probated even if the children were of age.

Although probate records are one of the most accurate sources of genealogical information, the relationships noted in the records may not always have the same meaning today. For instance, a brother-in-law may be recorded as a brother, because legally that made no difference.

From the fourteenth century in Denmark, the foged (bailiff) was responsible for law enforcement in his bailiwick. Late in the sixteenth century the sorenskriver (scribe) in the bailiff's office was appointed to take care of probate cases and prepare the legal documents in connection with the probate. Later the title of sorenskriver took on the meaning of probate judge.

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The Probate Process

Before 1683, probate records were often part of the general court records. The probate process began when the authorities were notified of a death. Thirty days after notification, the authorities held a registration of the estate at the home of the deceased. If the deceased was a parent, the surviving spouse and all children still living at home were to be present. All heirs not living in the parish were allowed a certain time to present themselves to the court. The time allowed was based on how far they had to travel. If a widow was pregnant when her husband died, she had the right to keep possession until after the child's birth. All guardians had to be present when the estate was divided.

The probate document was signed by all heirs or their guardians and by the probating authority.

No widower or widow could remarry before the estate had been settled in probate. However, a surviving spouse could receive permission from the court to live in an unprobated estate [uskiftet bo]. Under this provision, there could be no distribution of inheritance to the heirs unless the surviving spouse remarried, died, or requested a distribution.

All legal heirs who could not manage their own affairs were to have a guardian appointed in their behalf. The law stated that the child's closest relatives were to be appointed guardian, the father's relatives first, then the mother's. If no relatives were available, then the court appointed a guardian. A widow could choose her own guardian subject to the court's approval.

Records of guardianship may be kept separately from other probate papers, or a different court may have jurisdiction over guardianship.

To view records examples of skifteprotokollerne (administrations of estates) with translations click here.

Wills and Indexes [Testamentprotokoller med Indexer]

Research use: These records are useful linkage sources for the upper and middle classes. They give family relationships. They are difficult to use without the indexes; The indexes are needed to effectively locate individuals in the wills.

Record type: Legal declarations of a person's desires for the disposition of his property or estate after his death. Generally only the upper and middle classes had wills. The peasant classes are most often found only in the probate records. Most original will books include indexes. Transcripts of wills were sent to the Chancery to be confirmed. After 1848 , the Ministry of Justice [Justitsministeriet] kept copies of all wills.

Time period: 1500 to present.

Contents: Name and age of testator, residence, heirs, relationships, description of land and property, date of will, signature, witnesses. Indexes.

Location: There is a large collection of original will books (including indexes) in the National Archives that goes up to 1925. Many original wills are in the provincial archives, under the “amts” jurisdiction up to 1933.

Percentage in Family History Library: Overall about 45%. The library has already acquired about 90% of will transcripts (1750-1848) as part of chancery records. Although most of the probate records of Denmark have been filmed, the Family History Library has not filmed any original wills.

Population coverage: 10%.

Reliability: Very good.[1]

For more information about wills, see this article.

The Availability of Probate Records

Before the 1683 law, probate was held only when there were problems in dividing an estate. After 1683 the probate records are separate from the other court records and handled by the probate judge.

Probate records for clergy, schoolteachers, and military officers were often kept separate from the regular probate jurisdiction. Church officials would conduct probate for a priest or a schoolteacher, and a commanding officer for a military officer.

The Family History Library has an excellent collection of probate records from many areas of Denmark. These are listed in the catalog under DENMARK, COUNTY, PARISH - PROBATE RECORDS. Most records have separate name indexes in either the beginning or the end of the record. Also check the catalog under DENMARK, [COUNTY], [HERRED] - PROBATE RECORDS.

Guardianship Records [Overformynderiprotokoller]

Guardianship records are a good supplement to the probate records. Their use is twofold. First, they replace missing probate records. Second, they provide information concerning a minor's later destiny.

The guardianship record usually has the following information:

  • Name of the ward or minor.
  • Sometimes age or birth date.
  • Date on which the inheritance was paid to the court and the estate reference involved. (If the inheritance comes from one or several sources, each document is referred to with the amount.)
  • Name of guardian and residence.
  • Date on which the inheritance is paid to the ward or minor.
  • Status of the ward at the time the inheritance is paid, indicating a place of residence if different from the original probate record.

Research use: Very useful lineage-linking source. Relationship information is given so that blood lines of adoptees and orphans can be identified.

Record type: Records of those who have care of underaged heirs after the death of parents.

Time period: 1570 to present.

Contents: Information about the ward and when and from whom (family member or other person) inheritance was received; information about the guardian and his relationship to the ward, and expenses charged to the estate. At times two generations are mentioned, when both parents and grandparents passed away during the ward's minor state. Dates of birth or christening may be given.

Location: National and provincial archives.

Percentage in Family History Library: 90%.

Population coverage: 10%.[1]

Probate Word List

Following is a list of common words, phrases, and abbreviations used in probate records. For other Danish probate vocabulary lists, click here or here.

A.D. in the year of our Lord
Aar- year
Ad- at
Advokat- attorney
Af, av- of, at, by, from
Afdøde- deceased
Afg., afgange- deceased
Afgangen- the deceased
Afgift- fee, charge
Afholdelse- conduct, organization
Afholdt- held, incurred, organized
Afgaa, afgaaet- die, died
Afkald- waiver
Afkom- offspirng
Afsælle- sell
Aftale- aggreement
Aftos- last night
Aftægtsfolk- retired people
Aftægtskone- retired woman
Aftægtsmand- retired man
Agent- agent
Agt(en)- intention, purpose
Aldeles- absolutely, totally, quite, entirely
Alder- age
Aldrig- never
Alle- all
Allerhøjest- most highest
Allordere- allocate
Alt- all, universe, already
Amt- county
Amtets- the county's
Amtmand- chief county administrator
Amtsforratter- county commissioners
Anden- other, second
Anden side- other side
Andunldt- amount
Anføre- indicate, state, also retired
Anført- listed, stated, specified
Anmeld, Anmeldelse- report, notification, review
Annus (Latin)- year
Anordnet- ordered, arranged, set apart
Anpart- share
Antage- accept, take on, assume
Antagelse,- assumption, acceptance
Antagelig- presumably, probably, likely
Antaget- chosen
Antagne- assumed
Antal- number
Ar, en- are
Arbejdshold- work team
Arbejdsperiode- employment period or schedule
Arvedel, Arvadeling- inheritance, portion or share of the inheritance
Arvelader- testator
Arveskifte- inheritance
Arving- heir
Arvinger, Arfvinger- heirs
At- that, to
At være- as, being
Aulede- only
Avle- beget, grow
Avlet- begotten, produced
Avlet med afdøde - begotten with the deceased
Av- of, from, by

Baade- both
Barn, børn- child, children
Barnedåb- grandchild
Barnefader- the child’s father
Bedstefader- grandfather
Bedstemoder- grandmother
Befal, Befale- command, order
Befalede- commanded, ordered
Befindes- found to be
Begjæring, Begæring- petition, request, application, motion
Behøver at- require, have to, need to
Bekendtgørelse- official announcement
Bekentgjort- announced
Bekost, Bekostning- expense, the cost
Bekræft- confirm, verify, affirm
Beløb- amount
Bemeldte- aforesaid
Bemidlet- well off
Benævnte- named
Beregne- calculate
Bero- be, remain
Beroer- depends
Beskikket- appointed
Beskriven- description
Betaler- pay
Betaling- payment
Betalt- paid
Betegne- description
Betjente, Betiente- official
Betydeligt- significantly, considerablely
Birchedomer, Birkedommer- birke judge
Blandt- among
Blev, blef- was, become
Blive, Blivet, Bliver- be, being, becoming, getting
Boede, Boet,- lived
Boe- live, reside
Boelsmand- farmer
Boet- estate, the estate; also live, living
Bog- book
Bonde- farmer
Bondegaard- farm
Bopæl- resident, residence
Bor- live, living, lives
Borgmester- Mayor
Bortdøde- deceased
Bortfalder- void, repeal
Bortsolgt- sold
Bouppteckning- probate
Brev- letter
Broder- brother
Broderdatter- brother’s daughter
Broderlod- brother's share
Brodersøn- brother’s son
Brække- break
Brødre- brothers
By, bye- town, village
Børn- children
Børnebørn- grandchildren
Børnene- the children

Comite, kommite- committee
Come, komme- come
Curator- curator

Da- as, since, when
Danske- Danish
Darværende- former
Datter, Døttre- daughter, daughters
Datterdatter- daughter’s daughter, granddaughter
Dattersøn- daughter’s son
De- they, those, the
Deling, deeling- division, distribution
Derfor- therefore
Deg- you
Dend- it, that, the, other
Den- of, the, it, of the
Denne- this
Dennes- his, its, thereof, latter
Der- who, there, which, that
Dere- you
Derefter- after that, then, afterwards
Deres- theirs, yours, its
Deret- theirs, which, who, that
Derhjemme -at home
Deriblandt- including, among
Dermed- there by, thus
Dernæst- next
Dertil- there, thereof, therefore, thereto
Derudover- additional
Det- it, that
Dette- this
Did- you, yourself, there
Disse- these
Dit- your
Dog- however, though
Dokket- docked
Dom- sentence, judgement, verdict
Dommer- judge
Drager- porter, carrier
Dranker- drunkard
Dreng, dr.- male, boy
Drengebarn- male child
Dronning- queen
Død, Døden- death, the death
Dødsanmeldelse- death announcement
Dødsfald- death
Døtre- daughter

Eder- you
Edle- noble
Een- one
Efter- after, behind
Efterdi- because
Efterlade- leave
Efterlade sig en formue- leave a fortune
Efterladenskaber- remainder, the rest
Efterladte- survivors, remaining
Efterladende- left behind, surviving
Efterlefuende- surviving
Eftermelte- below mentioned
Efterretning- obedience
Eftersom- since, as
Eg, Ege, Egne, Egen, Eget- own, on one's own
Egenskab- capacity, property, attribute, characteristic
Egstra- see ekstra
Egteskab- marriage
Ei, Ej- not
Eje- own
Ejendom, Ejendele- property, posessions
Ejen- property
Ejer- owner
Ekstra- extra
Ekstradere- extract
Embede- office
En- the, a, an, one
End- than, end, over
Endelig- final, finally
Endvidere- also, furthermore
Enebarn- only child
Enes- agree
Enhver- each, everyone
Eniste- begotten
Enke- widow
Enkekone- widow
Enkemand- widower
Ensker- wishes, wants
Er, Ere- is, are, the, has, have
Erholde- assume, get, obtain, receive
Erhverv- profession, trade
Erhverver- acquire, gain
Erkendtlig- grateful
Erkend, Erkende- acknowledge, own, admit, recognize, realize
Erklære- declare, declaring, proclaim
Et- a, an, one

Faa- get, receive
Fadder- godfather, sponsor
Faaet- received, got, obtained
Fader- father
Faderne, Fadderne- godparents
Fallit- bankrupt, bankruptcy
Fandt, Fantes- found, was found
Far- father
Farbroder- father’s brother, uncle
Farfader- paternal grandfather
Farfar- grandfather
Far- father
Farmoder- grandmother, father’s mother
Farmor- grandmother, father’s mother
Faset- receive
Faste- real
Faster- aunt, father’s sister
Fastsætte- assign, appoint
Fat- got, hold, summarize, understand, comprehend
Fattes- lacking, wanting
Fellets- joint
Fik- get, receive
Fil- file
Findes- found
Firer- four
Foged- bailiff, marshall, official
Folgende- as follows, thus
Folio- page
For- in, for, in order, for the
For endelig skifte- for final probate
Foranførte- above mentioned
Foranmeldte- above reported, previously announced
Forat- to, in order to
Forandre, forandring- change, vary, shift, reverse
Foregaænde- earlier
Foregaaet- official announcement
Fordeling- distribution, allocation
Fordring- claim, debt, receivable
Fordre, fordrede- demand, require
Fordrukken- drunken
Forefandtes- were present
Foregaænde- earlier, previous, former
Foregaaet- occurred, took place
Forestage- make, do, perform
Foretagelse- making, performing
Foretage, foretagne- transact, perform, conduct, make, distribute
Fortagen- distribution
Foretager- makes, performs, carries out
Fortaget lovlig- transacted lawfully
Forevise- show
Forfald- absence
Forfaret- conduct
Forgået- occurred, took place
Forfeiglet- previous
Forhen, førhen- in the past, formerly
Forhentiltagne- previously appointed
Forkarlen- foreman
Forloveren- sponsors, bondsmen at marriage
Forladefoged- baliff of the manor
Formedelst- due to, because of
Formode- assuming, supposing
Formue- assets, property, wealth
Formynder- guardian
Fornyelig- recently, recently departed
Forordningen- regulation, statutes
Forpagter- tenant
Forpligte- oblige, commit
Forpligtelse- obligation, commitment
Forpligtet- committed, obliged
Forrentning- interest, return, rate
Forreste- front, foremost
Forresten- incidentally, by the way, anyway
Forrætte og afslutte- transact and conclude
Forretning- business, transaction, administration, proceeding
Forretning tilstede- present at the proceeding
Forretninger- transactions
Forretningen- business administration
Forrevist kjøb- bill of sale
Forrige- previous
Forsamle- meet, assemble, gather
Forsamlingen- meeting, assembly, gathering, committee
Forsegle- seal up
Forsende- seal up
Forsige- to say
Forskel- difference
Fortfare- conduct, carry out
Fortfarende- continually, ongoing
Fortforet- conducted
Fortil- before
Foruden- besides, in addition to
Forud- previous, prior
Forudgående- previous
Forudsiger- predicts
Forvalter- administrator, agent, manager, bailiff
Forvære- make worse
Forældre- parents
Forældreløs- orphan
Forældrene- the parents
Fosterbarn- foster child
Fosterbørn- foster children
Fosterdatter- foster daughter
Fostersøn- foster son
Fra- from
Fraværende- absent
Frembragt- reveal, disclose
Fremdeles, fremdeeles- further
Fremfor- before, above, beyond
Fremføre- advance, forward
Fremfærd- conduct
Fremgang- proceed, progress
Fremlagt, fremlagde- submitted, presented, provided, produced
Fremme- to go forth
Fremsat- submitted, made, delivered, presented
Fremstille, Fremstillet- create, make, produce, present to be judged
Fremviste- presented, showed, displayed
Fri- free
Frille- mistress
Frue- Mrs., wife, lady, not a peasant women
Fruentimmer- unmarried mother
Frugtsommelig- pregnant
Frøken- miss, not a peasant girl
Fudt- completely
Fuldkommen- complete, perfect
Fuldkomns- fulfilled
Fuldmagt- proxy, power of attorney
Fuldmægtig, fuldmegtige- attorney, advocate, head clerk
Fulgt- followed
Fuldkommen- complete, perfect
Fælled, Fælles- common, mutual, joint
Fæstebonde- copyholder, leaseholder, farmer
Fæstegårdmand- copyholder, leaseholder, farmer
Fæste- copyhold, lease
Fæstebonde-leaseholder on a farm
Fæstemand- betrothed
Fæster- person who is leasing
Fæstprotokol- land lease
Fætter- cousin
Fødtes (Føde) værger- family guardian
Følge- result of (i følge- as a result of)
Følger- as follows
Før die unmyndige vegen- in behalf of the minors
Før- before
Førhen- previously
Første- first
Får- gets, will, have
Fået- received, got

Gaardmand- farmer
Gammel- old
Garden- the farm
Gave- gift, present
Gavn- benefit
Gift, givt- married
Gik- went, walked, did, was, were
Gior- makes
Gjeld- debts
Gjort, Gjorde- made, done, been
Godfather- godfather
Gudfrygtige- godfearing
Gudmoder- godmother
Gæld, gjold, gjæld- debt, payables
Gå- go, walk, do
Gårdbruger, gaardbruger- farmer
Gårdejer, gaardejer- farm owner
Gaard- farm
Gårdfæster, gaardfæster- farm leaseholder, tenant
Gårdmand, gaardmand- farmer

H.(abbreviation for "hustrue"- wife
Halde- hold, maintain, keep, continue
Halvbrodre, Halvbroder- half brother
Halvdelen- half, a portion
Ham- he, his, him
Han- he, his, him
Hannen- male, him
Hans- his
Har- has, have
Hartkorn- unit of land valuation
Havde- had
Have- have, be
Havender- debtors
Heder- honor
Hederlige- honorable
Hederlige och wellærde- honorable and well-learned
Helbroder- whole brother
Hele- all, entire
Hellere- rather, better, prefer
Hellig- holy
Hende, Hendes- her, hers
Henhold- according, accordance with, belong to
Henhøre til- refer to
Hensidde- live, exist
Hensyn- respect, regard
Her- here
Heraf- of this, thereof, these, which
Herom- accordingly, thereof, thereon
Herremand- lord of the manor
Herrets ting- district court
Herskerinde- mistress
Hidtil- previously, up until now
Hjemme, Hiemme- at home
Hjemmedødt- home christening, home baptism
Hmd, Hm. (abbreviation for Husmand)- cottager
Holde- hold, holding, keep, keeping, stay, staying
Holden- keeping, stopping; also rich, prosperous Holdelse- proceeding
Holdte- held
Hor- adultery, fornication
Hos- at, with, in, by, from
Hovedperson- head of house
Hr.- Mr.
Hun- she
Hus, Huus- house
Husbonde- husband, head of house
Husejer- owner of house
Husfader- head of house
Husfolk- small farmers
Husholderske- housekeeper
Husmand med jord- farmer with land
Husmand- cottager, small farmer
Husmoder, huusmoder- wife, homemaker
Hustrue, hustru, kone-wife
Huus afgift- rent
Hvad- what
Hvem- who
Hver, hvert- every
Hvidebøger- "white books" or a record of those deceased in Copenhagen who did not have an official probate
Hvilke, hvilken, hvilket- which, what, this
Hvil- rest
Hvor- where, which, when, how, there
Hvorefter- whereafter, then
Hvornaar- when is, when will, when does, where once, where when
Hvorved- wherewith
Hvortil- plus, in additon, which should be added
Høj Ædle, Højædle- noble, high

I- in, of, the, at, you
I dag- today
Iagttage- watch, observe
Iberegne- include
Idet- as, because, with, since, taking
Ifald- if, in case
Ifolge, Ifølge- according, according to
Ikke- not
Imellem- between
Imod- against, accepted, opposed
Inderste- tenant, renter
Indfandt- appeared, met
Indgaa- conclude
Indgaaet- entered into, concluded, reached, received
Indlæg- contribution, pleading, plea, letter, article, speech, submission, observation
Inddrage- include, involve
Indfandt- materialize
Indsidder- tenant, renter
Indtage- take, adopt
Indtægt- income, revenue, proceeds
Ingen- no, not, none
Interesse- interest
Intet- no, nothing
Intægt- asset, income

Jeg- I
Jer- you, yourselves
Jeres- your, yours
Jomfru- maiden, miss, not a peasant girl, virgin
Jord(e)- earth, land, property
Jordlig- earthly
Jordseddel- certificate from the probate authority to the deceased's priest, verifying that they had recorded the death. The priest was then allowed to bury the dead.

Karl- young man, farmhand
Kendelse- decision, judgement, verdict, order, ruling
Kidre- dear
Kiste- coffin
Kl., Kng., Kong.(abbreviation for Kongelig) - Royal, government
Kongelig- royal
Kom- come
Kommer- come, coming, comes
Kommis- commission, commissioner
Kommitterede- nominee, commissioner
Kommunemand- city official
Kone- wife, married woman
Kongelige (Kl.)- Royal, government
Kost, Kostet- cost, the cost
Kravede- required
Kun- just, only, only the
Kunde- could, might, would; also client, patron
Kundskab- knowledge
Kundgjørelse- announcement, notification
Kusine- cousin
Kvinde, Qvinde- woman
Kvindefadder, Qvindefadder- godmother
Kvindemenneske- woman
Køb, Kjøb- purchase

Lagte- pay
Laugværge- widow's guardian, chosen by her and usually her brother
Lærte hederlige- learned and honorable
Lejer- tenant
Leve- live
Levende- living
Leveret- suppied, delivered, provided
Lig- equal, similar to
Ligel- ditto
Ligeledes- likewise, also, equally
Ligesom- like, somewhat, as
Ligkiste- coffin
Likvidere- liquidate
Livsarvinger- living heirs
Lod- lot, share
Logerende- tenant, lodger
Lov- law
Lovlig- legal
Lyder saaledes- reads thus
Løbende- current, continuous, standing
Løse- resolve, solve

m.f.P. (abbreviation of “med ført Pen")- with guided pen. Usually appears under the signatures of those who could not write.
m.p.P. (abbreviation of “med påholden Pen”)- with guided pen (see m.f.P.)
M.V., (abbrev. of med videre)- continued, forward
Maa- must, may, should, shall, must be
Madmoder- woman of the house, housewife
Magistrats Gods- magistrate’s estate
Maitresse- mistress
Maj- May
Maj., Majestæts- majesty
Man- man, husband, one, you, it
Mand- man, men
Manden- the man
Mandfadder- godfather
Mandkjøn- male
Med- with, by, of, the
Medmindre- unless
Meere, Mere- more, further
Mellem- between
Men- but
Mere- more
Middel- medium, average, part
Mindreårige- minors
Moder, Mor- mother
Moderens- the mother
Modt- appeared, met, was present
Modtagen- receive
Mor, Moder- mother
Morbroder- mother’s brother, uncle
Morfader, morfar- mother’s father, grandfather
Mormoder, mormor- mother’s mother, grandmother
Mortis (Latin)- death
Moster- aunt, mother’s sister
Mostermand- mother’s sister’s husband
Muldseddel- see Jordseddel
Myndig- of legal age. The age varied throughout Denmark, but on average 15-18 years (considered mindreårige 18-25 years) for men. Women were never recognized as “of age” until 1857, and always had a guardian appointed to them. After 1857, the “of age” age for single women was the same as men. In 1922, everyone was considered “of age” when they turned 21 years old, and today the age is 18.
Mænd- men
Mændenes- the men, appraisers
Møde- meeting, appointment
Mødte, Mødt- met, met with, present, in attendance
Mø- maiden, virgin
Må or Maa- do, be, must, may, should
Maad- goal, way, means
Maanad- month

Naar- where, when
Nafnlig- namely
Namful- namely
Nati, Natiuitas (Latin)- birth
Navnlig- namely
Navnet- name, the name
Nemlig- namely
Navn- name
Nedlagt- closed, asks, seeks, claims
Nej- no
Nevø- nephew
Niece- niece
Noch- also
Nogen- any
Nogen tid siden- sometime before
Noget- something, anything
Nok- enough
Nu- now
Nutid- present
Nuværende- current, present, existing
Nyfder ophold- of age (legal)
Ny, Nyt- new
Næmlig, namely- namely, that is
Næringsvei- occupation
Næst- next
Nærværende- present
Når- when, where

Odel- freehold land
Og, Oc, Och- and
Ogfolder- live
Ogsaa, Også- also
Oktober- October
Oldefader- great-grandfather
Oldemoder- great-grandmother
Om- about, in, on
Omkostninger- expenses, costs
Opdrætte- breed
Opfostringshus- orphanage
Oplaest- announced, read, spoken
Opgiven- stated, studied
Opgjort- calculate, estimate
Opholde sig- reside, stay
Opholder- living, staying
Opholdsted- place of residence
Opløbe- finish
Opmærksom- attentive, mindful, aware
Oplysninger- information, data, details
Ordre- order
Ovenmeldte- above reported
Ovenævnte- above mentioned, aforementioned
Overformynderi- trustee (someone who needs a guardian)
Overformynderiet- Guardianship records
Overførende- transferring
Overrække- present, give
Overskydende- excess
Overstige- exceed
Overværelse- presence, attendance
Overværends- attending

p., post- after
Paa- on, at, in
Paa grund- because
Paa stedet- at this place
Paahvileds, Paahvile- rest with, lie with, be due from, chargeable to
Paalagt- order, put on, entrusted
Paaløbende- accrued, incidental
Pante- mortgage
Passere- pass
Pastorat- parish
Penge- money
Personerne- the people
Pige- girl, maid, servant
Pigebarn- girl child
Pigen- the maid, that girl
Plejebarn- foster child
Plejebørn- foster children
Plejeforældre- foster parents
Plejemoder- foster mother
Plejesøn- foster son
Protocol, Protokol- ledger, journal
Provst- rural dean
Provsti- deanery
Provstinde- deans wife
Præst, præsten- priest, the priest, clergyman, minister
Præstegield- clerical district
Pådømmelse- trial, judgment
Påhvileds, Påhvile- rest with, lie with, be due from, chargeable to
Påløbende- accrued, incidental
Påstod- claimed

Qua (Latin)- which, where, what, see, that
Qvinde, Qvinden, Kvinde- woman, the woman
Qvindekiøn, Kvindekøn- female gender
Qvindemenneske- women

Raadlighed- command, disposal, available, provided
Raadmand, Rådmand- councilman, alderman
Rd(l). (abbreviation for Rigsdaler)- a former Danish monetary unit.
Realiserede- realized, achieved, actual, recorded
Realisation- realization
Registrerede- registered
Registering- inventory, registration
Registrering og Vurdering- inventory and appraisal
Renter- interest
Resten- the rest
Resterende- balance, remainder
Resultat- result, profit, earnings
Retlige- legal, the legal, justice
Retten- court
Rigtighed- accuracy, correctness, truthfulness
Rime- agree
Rimelig- reasonable, fair, fair price
Rodemester- tax collector
Rådlighed- command, disposal, available, provided
Rådmand, Raadmand- councilman, alderman

Saa- so, as, indeed, that, in behalf, then, such, saw, since
Saadan- such
Saaledes- namely, for instance, such as, thus, as follows
Saavel- both
Sabbat- Sabbath
Sagen- proceedings
Sagfører- lawyer
Sal., Salig, Salige- deceased
Samling- meeting
Sammen- together or same
Sammen avlede- together begotten
Sammenleje- living together
Sammenviede- married together
Sammestads- same place
Samt- as well, well as
Samtikke, samtykke- consent, agree
Samtlige- all
Sandsynligt- probable, likely
Sedler- banknotes, bills
Sees- seeing, seen, is seen
Self tilhøre- self-owned
Selvejer- owner, freeholder
Set- viewed, seen
Sidste- last
Sig- him, her, it's, them, himself, herself, themselves, at, to, out, the
Sige god- say good (vouch)
Signor (French)- Mr.
Sin, Sine- its, his, her, there
Sind- mind
Sit- its, his, her
Skabe- create, generate, provide, also cabinets
Skal- do, must, to be, should
Skatteopkræver- tax debt, tax charges
Skete, Skeed- happened, occurred, did
Skifte- probate
Skifte forretning- probate proceeding
Skiftes foretagelse- probate execution
Skifte og Deeling- probate and distribution
Skifteforvalter- probate administrator, probate agent
Skifteomkostningerne- probate costs
Skifteprotokoller- probate records
Skifteretten- probate court
Skiftesamling- probate meeting of heirs
Skifter handling- settlement
Skiftet- the probate
Skilde- separate
Skjønt- though
Skilling- monetary unit
Skrivelse- letter
Skriver- scribe
Skriverstue- writing room, office
Skulde- should, would, might
Skylde- owe
Skøn- estimate, assessment
Slagfreds- illegitimate
Slagfredsdatter- illegitimate daughter
Slagfredssøn- illegitimate son
Slutte- finish, end, conclude
Slægt- family, relatives
Små- small
Sognebarn- parishioner
Sognefoged- sheriff, constable
Solgt- sold
Som- as, since, who, which, as, whom, that
Soskendebarn- niece, nephew
Spurgte- inquired, asked
Spædbarn- infant, baby
Stads- city
Stadboende- city residents
Stedbarn- stepchild
Stedbørn- stepchildren
Steddatter- step daughter
Stedfader- step father
Stedmoder- step mother
Stedsøn- step son
Stervbo, Sterfboen- estate, inventory of the deceased
Stifbarn- stepchild
Stifbørn- stepchildren
Stift, Stiftet- diocese, the diocese
Stue- ground, room, living room
Stærboet- same place
Sur- confused
Svigerdatter- daughter-in-law
Svigerfader- father-in-law
Svigerinde- sister-in-law
Svigermoder- mother-in-law
Svoger- brother-in-law
Svogerske- sister-in-law
Sødskende(s)- siblings, sisters
Søn, Sønnen- son, the son
Sønnedatter- son’s daughter
Sønnekone- son’s wife
Sønnen- the son
Sønnerne- sons
Sønnesøn- son’s son
Søskende- siblings
Søskendebarn- cousins
Søskendefætter- first cousin
Søster- sister
Så- so, as, indeed, that, in behalf, then, such, saw, since
Sådan- such, how, to, this
Således- namely, for instance, such as, thus, as follows
Såvel- both

Tagelse- making, admission, aquisition, exemption
Tager- takes, taking, out, are, does
Taksere- appraise
Tarv- best interests
Tarveligt- simple, poor, shoddy, menial, frugally
Testes- witnesses
Tidligere- previously, past
Tiener, tjener, tjeneste- servant
Til- to, for
Tilbud- offer, proposition
Tilbød- offered
Tidligere- previously, past, earlier
Tidligt- early, premature, soon
Tilgodehavender- receivables
Tilhører- belonging to
Tilhørende- belonging, matching, related
Tilkendegive- declare, indicate, express, show, inform
Tillade- allow, permit, let
Tillidsmænd- trustees, representatives
Tilladelse- permission
Tillige- also, along with, in addition, together
Tilligemed- together, preceded by, also
Tillynsing- announcement, posting
Tilspurgte- inquired, asked
Tilstand- condition, state, status
Tilstede, til stede- present, in attendance; also permit, grant, allow
Tilstedeværende- present
Tilstillede- sent, appointed
Tilstaa- testify, swear, confirm, acknowledge
Tilstaaelse- confession, admission, acknowledgement
Tilsvar- chargable amount
Tilsvarende- corresponding, equivalent, similar, comparable; also liable, responsible for
Tilsværge- swear
Tilsynsværge- legal guardian
Tiltage- increase, grow
Tiltale- prosecute, charge, address, speak to
Ting- court
Tingmanden- court officer
Tjenende- serving
Tjener, tiener- serve
Troloved, trolovet- engaged
Trykt- printed
Tømmer- timber
Tømrer- carpentry

Ubetydelig- insignificant
Udbetal, udbetaling- cash, cash out, withdraw, payment
Udgang- end, exit, output
Udelt- undivided, entirely
Uden- without
Ude- out, away
Uden- without
Udflytning- moving out
Udgift- expense, cost
Udi- in, at, of, from
Udlagt- laid out, reported
Udlæg- costs, outlay, expenses
Udskifteligt- replacable, removable, interchangable
Udøbt- unbaptized
Uge- week
Uger- weeks
Ugift- unmarried
Umage, Umagelig- effort, pains, uncomfortable
Umindelig- as far as can be remembered, immemorial
Umulig, Umuligt- impossible
Umyndig- underage, minor
Umyndiges vegne- minors behalf
Umådelig- extremely, immensely
Unde- underage; also give, wish, grant
Under- under
Underskrevet- undersigned
Underskrevne- signed
Undertegnede- the undersigned
Undgaas- avoided
Undladt, Undlod- failed, omited, left undone
Undtagen- except
Ungk., Ungkarl- bachelor
Ugift- unmarried
Ung- young
Uskiftet bo (boe)- unprobated estate, undivided estate
Utlagt, udladt- announced, reported
Uægte- illegitimate

V and W
Vanvittig- retarded
Var, Varnede, Værende, Været- was, were, being, been
Ved- at or by
Ved Døden er afgaaet- with death has departed, who died
Vederlag- compensation, renumeration, proceeds
Vedgå- admit, own, acknowledge
Vedkomme, Vedkommende- person concerned
Vegne, Wegen- behalf
Velædle- noble
Velbegavet- well endowed
Vel som- well as (saa vel som- as well as)
Velbe., Vel begavet- well endowed
Velbyrdige, Vel byrdige- noble lineage
Vellærde- well educated
Vid- wide, extensive, open; also wit
Vide- know
Videre- further, forward, continue
Vidner- witnesses
Vidste- did, knew, know, did not know
Vil, Vilde- shall, would, want, will
Villig- willing, prepared, ready
Vis- show, certain, view, some, degree
Vitterlighedsmænd- witnesses, notaries, attestors
Vor- our
Vurder- rate, assess, evaluate
Vurdere- to value, price, appraise
Vurderet, Vurderede- assessed, appraised
Vurdering- appraisal, evaluation, estimation
Vurderingsmand- appraiser
Vurderingsmænd- appraisers
Værd- worth, value
Være- be, have, to be, to
Været- been
Værge- guardian, typically the father’s eldest brother (if the father had died), or the father himself (if the mother had died). By law, the guardian must be from the father’s side unless there were no living male relatives of the father.

Yderligere- additonal, more
Ydre- outer
Ygste- youngest
Ytre- utter, express, speak

Ægte- real, true, authentic
Ægteskab- marriage
Ældste- oldest
Æta (Latin)- age
Ætas (Latin)- age, days, time, period

Øge- increase
Ønsker- do, want, wish, need
Øvrige- other, additional, remaining

År- year

Word List of Household and Farm Items Often Listed in Probates

aag, åg- shoulder yoke for carrying buckets
arbejdsvogn- wagon

bagetrug- bakers trough for kneading dough
baller, baljer, ballie, balge med jernbånd- wooden tub with iron bands
band- bands
baandknif, båndkniv- small chopping knife
becken, bækken- pan containing hot coals to heat the bed
beester- beasts
bench- bench
beholder- container
benklæder, beenklæder- trousers
beslag- brackets, hardware
beslagen vogn- wagon with metal brackets, not entirely of wood
besætningen- herd
bilægerkakkelovn- stove
bismer- small portable scale
blaa, blå- blue
blaargarns, blårgarns- wool or linen cloth
blaastribed- blue striped
blick, blech lygte- small portable tin lamp
boghylde- bookshelf
bor- auger
bord- table
bornholmer- grandfather clock
bryggerkedel- brewing kettle
bryggkar, bryggekar- brewing vat
brystdug- vest
brændevin- alcohol
bukser, buxer- trousers
bulle, bol- a short top for women
bul øxe, buløkse- forest ax
bænk- bench
bæster- beasts
båbdknif- small chopping knife

carter- cards for carding wool

degntrug- wooden trough for bread kneading
dragkiste- chest of drawers
drejels, dreeils- hinge, pivot
driftetrug, drøftetrug- low, open basket with handle which was used for cleaning grain
dug- cloth, tablecloth
dyne- quilt, duvet
dørslag- colander
dørslag- colander

ege, eege- oak
egebord- oak table
egedragkiste- oak chest
egekar oak vat
egeskrin- keepsake box, sometimes with a lock
degntrug- wooden trough for bread kneading
dragkiste- chest
drægtig- pregnant (livestock)
drejels, dreeils- finer type fabric
drifte trug, drøfte trug- grain cleaning trough
dug- cloth, tablecloth
dyne- quilt, duvet

faar- sheep
filtes- felted, made of felt
fierding- a tub that can hold 25 kg
fleske olle- meat brining vat
forklæde- apron
fyrre- pine
fyrrebord- pine desk
føl, følle- foal
får- sheep
får med grøde- pregnant sheep

garvinde- yarn reel
gestlinge- goslings
giæs- geese
giæs med grøde- geese with goslings
glas- glass
graa, grå- gray
gravspade, grevespade- grave spade
greeb, greb- grip, lever, handle
grise, grisse- pigsgryde- piglets
gryde- pot
gul- yellow
grøn- green
grøde- pregnant or with eggs (livestock)
gæs, giæs- geese
gæslinger, geslinge- goslings

haand qvern, håndkværn- hand mill, often used to grind malt for beer brewing
haandøxe, håndøkse- hand ax
haankattunsklæder, håndklæder-towels
hakkebret, hakkebræt- chopping board
halskobbel, halskoppel- horse harness
halstørklæde- scarf or muffler
hampe- hemp
hand qvern- hand mill
haspe- type of yarn winder
hat- hat
hauger, haver- removable wagon sides
hempharve, harver- harrow or cultivator
hengeskab- hanging cupboard
hest, hæst - horse
hestføl- very young foal
hestplag- colt
himmelseng- poster bed
hingst- stallion
hingsteføl- very young foal
hjørneskab- corner cabinet
hoppe- mare
hose- hose, knitted long stockings
hoveddyne- pillow
hovedpude, hoved pude- pillow
hue- cap
huge block, huggeblok- chopping block
hvergarns- linsey-woolsey
hvid- white
hæst, hest- horse
høelee, høle- scythe
hør- linen
hørlærritz, hørlærred- made of linen
håndkværn, haand qvern- hand mill, often used to grind malt for beer brewing

ildtag- fire poker

jakke- jacket
jern- iron, stove
jernbilæggerkakkelovn- stove
jernbaand, jernbånd- iron bands
jernbismer- small portable scale made of iron
jerngryde- iron pot
jernpande- iron pan
jern vægge- iron wedge for wood splitting, etc.

kaabe- cloak
kaaber- copper
kaarsklæder- light, usually fitted, scarf to put over a woman's hat
kakkelovn- stove
kalfve, kalve- calf
kande- jug
kappe- cloak
kar- vessel, vat
karter- wool carders, a flat brush for straightening wool strands before spinning them into yarn
karstol- three-legged stool or stand for holding vats and tubs
kasket- cap
kartuns, kattuns- made of cotton
keddle, kiedel- kettle
kedelkrog, kedelskrog, kjedelskrog- kettle hook
kierne- churn
kiol- mens formal jacket
kiør- cows
kjedelskrog- kettle hook
kjole- men's formal jacket
kjole og hvidt- women's formal dress
kiste- chest
klæde kiste- dress chest
klæde skab- wardrobe, upright clothes chest
knapper- buttons
kniplinger- lace
kniv- knife
koe, ko- cow
komfur- stove
konvolut- cap
kopper- copper
kornharpe- type of upright sieve machine for cleaning grain
krave- collar
krukke- crock
kuvert- hat
krave- cows
krus- pottery mug
kvern- mill
kvie, qvie- heifer
kviekalve- heifer calf
kvæg, qveeg- cattle
kærne- churn
køer- cows
kørekappe- driving jacket, cloak, or cap
kåbe- cloak


lagen- sheet
lam, lamb- lamb
lehnestoel, lænestol- armchairs
ler- clay
leerfad, lerfad- pottery dish, plate, cup, etc.
lin, liin- linen
lyddæmper- muffler
lysesaks, lyse sax- candle snuffer with a scissor-like hinge
læder- leather
lædersele- leather harness for a horse
lænestol, lehnestoel- armchairs
løgte- lamp

madskab- wooden upright food pantry
mangle fiel og stok- clothes press that used a wooden roller
manglebrædt og stok- clothes press that used a wooden roller
malkekande, mælkekande- milk jug
malet- painted
messing- brass
messingbækken- brass pan which held hot coals to heat the bed
meye or meje jern, mejetøj, mejered- iron tool for harvesting corn
morter- mortar (for use with pestle for grinding)
møbler- furniture
mønstrede- patterned

nattrøye- night shirt
naur- auger
nederdel- skirt

okse- ox
olmerdug, ulmerdug- striped fabric made in Olmer, Germany
olle- oil
otting- container that held an exact measurement of 12.5 kg
overdyne- duvet cover
ovn- stove

pande- pan
papir- paper
penge- cash
peber qvern, peverkværn- pepper mill
plag- colt
plove- plow
plove med behor- plow with accessories
porcellæn- porcelain
prykket- dotted
pude, puude- pillow
pudevår- pillowcases
pynteærmer- interchangable dress sleeves
pyntetørklæde- decorative scarf
pyramide- pyramid-shaped shelf

qveeg, kvæg- cattle
qvern- mill
qvie, kvie- heifer
qvie kalfe- heifer calf

rede penge- ready cash
redskaber- tools
rist- 3-legged grill rack
riveiern, rivegern- grater
rok- spinning wheel
rød- red

saks, sax- scissors
saltkar- small salt container
selde- flat straw basket for sifting flour
seletøj- harness for a horse
seng- bed
sengested- bedstead
serker, særke- petticoat
siebøtte- wooden bowl with a cloth in the bottom for straining milk
sigte- sieve
sikar- wooden bowl with a cloth in the bottom for straining milk
sjal- shawl
skab- cabinet
ske, skeer- spoon, spoons
skieppe, skæppe- 20-liter container
skind- skins, pelts, or leather
skindbuxor- buckskin pants
skiorte, skjorte- shirt
skiær, skære bænk- cutting bench, workbench
skiære kiiste, skærekiste- "cutting chest", or chest holding mounted tools which were used for cutting animal feed
skielderier, skilderier- painting or photgraph
sko, skoe- shoes
skære (skiær) bænk og kniv- cutting table and knife
skørt, skiordt- skirt
slagbenk, slagbænk- daybed, bench
sliibe steen, slibesten- grindstones
slæde- sled
småsvin- piglets
sold- sieve or screen
spade- spade or shovel
spand- bucket
spejl- mirror
spinderok- spinning wheel
spisebord- dining table
spender, spænder- buckles
spæde kalve- infant calf
stager- candlesticks, usually with a stand
standtønder- food storage barrels
stander seng- floor bed
steen kruuse med laag- tea mug with lid
stegepande- frying pan
stettins tallerken- tin-enameled plate
stie, stige- laddar
stol, stoele, stole- chair, chairs
stort- large, high
stribet- striped
strippe- wooden scoop
strygejern- an iron
strømber, strømper- stockings
stud kalv, studekalv- steer calf
studlinge- steer calf
stueur, stueuhr- clock
støvler- boots
sviin, svin- pigs
sæde- seat

tabel- table
taburet, taberet- stool
taft- taffeta
tallerkne, tallerken- plate
tavle- table
tel økse, tælleøkse- small ax with a broad blade and a shaft that bent slightly outward
tengsel- small ax for hollowing out wood
ternet- checkered
thepotte- teapot
tilbehør- attachments, accessories
tin- tin or pewter
tinkrus, tinkruus- tin cup
tintalerkener- tin or pewter plate
tragt- funnel
trefoder- tripod for placing cookware over a fire
tromle- barrel or drum
trug- trough
træ- wooden
træbismer- small portable wooden scale
trækar- wooden container
træskoe, træsko- wooden shoes
træhaver, træe haver- wooden extensions for wagon sides
trøje- sweater
tækkelad- a kind of wide ladder which can be hung below the roof thatching
tøj- clothes
tønde- barrel
tørklæde- head scarf
tørvespade- peat spade

ulmerdug, olmerdug- striped fabric made in Olmer, Germany
underkjole- petticoat
underdyne- type of quilt where a person lies on one side and covers themselves with the other side
ungsvin- young pig

vaar, vår- pillowcases
vadmel- homespun
vandspand- water bucket
vanter- mittens
vest- vest
vin- wine
vindovn- stove with combustion door facing the living room
vogn- wagon
vraaskab- corner cabinet
vugge- crib
væder, vædder- ram
vægge- wedge

ærmer- loose, dressy sleeves which were interchangable with different vests

øl, ølle- ale, beer
ølflaske- beer bottle
øl kande, ølkande- beer jug or pitcher
øltragt, ølle tragt- funnel for pouring beer into bottles
øreballie, ørebalje- wooden tub with ear-shaped handles
øxe, økse- ax



  1. 1.0 1.1 The Family History Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “Family History Record Profile: Denmark,” Word document, private files of the FamilySearch Content Strategy Team, 1987-1998.