Denmark Probate Records

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Probate Records


Probate records are court records that describe the distribution of a person's estate after death. Information in the records may include the death date, names of heirs and guardians, relationships, residences, an inventory of the estate, and names of witnesses.

These records are very helpful for research because in many areas the authorities began recording probate actions before birth and death records.

Probate records were not created for every person who died. The probate law of 1683 stated that probate was necessary if a parent died and left children that were not of age (age 25). Often an estate was probated even if the children were of age.

Although probate records are one of the most accurate sources of genealogical information, the relationships noted in the records may not always have the same meaning today. For instance, a brother-in-law may be recorded as a brother, because legally that made no difference.

From the fourteenth century in Denmark, the foged (bailiff) was responsible for law enforcement in his bailiwick. Late in the sixteenth century the sorenskriver (scribe) in the bailiff's office was appointed to take care of probate cases and prepare the legal documents in connection with the probate. Later the title of sorenskriver took on the meaning of probate judge.

You Can Use this Record to Find...

Main types of probate records include the following:

  • Dokumenter til ordincere Boer [documents for common inhabitants]
  • Forseglingsprotokol [records with seals]
  • Behandlingsprotokol [hearing records]
  • Registreringsprotokol [registration records]
  • Registre [indexes]
  • Reparitionsprotokol [restitution records]
  • Gjeldsbog [debt book]
  • Decisionsprotokol [judgement records]
  • Kvitteringsbog [receipt book], etc.

A single probate may be found mentioned in several of these volumes, or might be listed only in the forseglingsprotokol. The Forseglingsprotokol and the dokumenter til ordinære Boer are the best places to start.

The Probate Process

Before 1683, probate records were often part of the general court records. The probate process began when the authorities were notified of a death. Thirty days after notification, the authorities held a registration of the estate at the home of the deceased. If the deceased was a parent, the surviving spouse and all children still living at home were to be present. All heirs not living in the parish were allowed a certain time to present themselves to the court. The time allowed was based on how far they had to travel. If a widow was pregnant when her husband died, she had the right to keep possession until after the child's birth. All guardians had to be present when the estate was divided.

The probate document was signed by all heirs or their guardians and by the probating authority.

No widower or widow could remarry before the estate had been settled in probate. However, a surviving spouse could receive permission from the court to live in an unprobated estate (uskiftet bo). Under this provision, there could be no distribution of inheritance to the heirs unless the surviving spouse remarried, died, or requested a distribution.

All legal heirs who could not manage their own affairs were to have a guardian appointed in their behalf. The law stated that the child's closest relatives were to be appointed guardian, the father's relatives first, then the mother's. If no relatives were available, then the court appointed a guardian. A widow could choose her own guardian subject to the court's approval.

Records of guardianship may be kept separately from other probate papers, or a different court may have jurisdiction over guardianship.

To view records examples of skifteprotokollerne (administrations of estates) with translations click here.

Copenhagen: 1670-1771

There were 13 different probate courts in Copenhagen (see the article Copenhagen Probate Jurisdictions). The four largest were the following:

1. Magistrats skiftekommission, 1681-1781 (Magistrate's probate commission, also called Byretten or city court). These records are for the commoners of the city. There is an index on FHL film 0045256 and 0044771, and these records are found on films 0044772-0045255.

2.Hofretten, 1679-1771 (Castle Court). This court was for high civil officials. Index, FHL film 0044596; probates FHL films 0044597¬0044688.

3. Borgretten, 1682-1771(Citizen Court). This court was for the lower civil officials and employees. General index FHL film 0044689 probate records FHL films 0044690-0044770.

4.Underadmiralitetsretten, 1670-1779 (Lower Admirals Court). For navel non-commissioned (officers with rank lower than Captain). Records on FHL films 0048030¬0048113.

Other probate court records for this time period that have not been filmed include the following:

  • Regimentasauditørerne (Military Court, for enlisted men in the army)
  • Søetatens General Auditør (Military Court, for navel none-commissioned officers)
  • Universitets Skiftejurisdiktion (University Court, for students, many no longer exist)
  • Den Gejstlige Skiftejurisdiktion (Ecclesiastical Court, for clergy and related personnel, most no longer exist)
  • Vajsenhusets Skiftejurisdiktion (Orphan-house Court, for personnel of the orphan house, records no longer exist)
  • Frederiks Hospitals Skiftejurisdiktion (Hospital Court, for personnel of the hospital, records no longer exist)
  • Det Asiatiske og det Vestindisk-Guineiske Kompagnis (The Asiatic and West Indies-Guineas Company, for employees in Copenhagen and the colonies)
  • Jødernes Skiftejurisdiktion (Jewish Probate Jurisdiction, many Jews listed in the Magistratens Skiftekommision listed above).

Copenhagen: 1771-1861

Most probate records in Copenhagen for this time period were handled by a single probate commission. For the period 1771-1803 they are listed under the Stadsretten (City Court; FHL films 0045257-0046190) and from 1804-1862 under the Landsretten (Land Court; FHL films 0046191¬0048027). These records are divided in two ways: by record type (see above under indexes) and then by classification.

Within each record type there are nine groupings as to the classification of those for whom a probate was held (the catalog does not show which groups are on which film, so you may wish to consult the book, Register of Danish estate probates:Copenhagen county, 1701-1820; FHL book 948.911 P23c; film 0599138, item 3).
I. High civil officials and commissioned officers
II. Other civil officials, clerks, secretaries,book keepers, etc.
III.Clergy, professors, students, and workers at schools, hospitals, and the church
IV. Citizens of higher reputation and wealth
V. Artist, tradesmen, etc.
VI. Persons of no great means
VII. Servants
VIII. Enlisted men of the navy and merchant marines
IX. Enlisted men of the army.

Copenhagen: 1861-1912

The nine classifications from the earlier period were regrouped into six. Class III was grouped with Class II. Classes VII-IX were combined to a new Class III. These later records were listed under the title Den kongelige Lands-over- samt Hof og Stadsret i København (The royal provincial, as well as castle and city court in Copenhagen; FHL films 0520496¬0521527,0517662-0517794).

The Reparitionsprotokol [restitution records] from 1863¬1910 are filed separately (FHL film 0517795¬0517840), as are a set of records called Børn og hospitalslemmer (Children and hospital inmates; FHL film 0517868-0517897).

Wills and Indexes (Testamentprotokoller med Indexer)

Research use: These records are useful linkage sources for the upper and middle classes. They give family relationships. They are difficult to use without the indexes; The indexes are needed to effectively locate individuals in the wills.

Record type: Legal declarations of a person's desires for the disposition of his property or estate after his death. Generally only the upper and middle classes had wills. The peasant classes are most often found only in the probate records. Most original will books include indexes. Transcripts of wills were sent to the Chancery to be confirmed. After 1848 , the Ministry of Justice (Justitsministeriet) kept copies of all wills.

Time period: 1500 to present.

Contents: Name and age of testator, residence, heirs, relationships, description of land and property, date of will, signature, witnesses. Indexes.

Location: There is a large collection of original will books (including indexes) in the National Archives that goes up to 1925. Many original wills are in the provincial archives, under the “amts” jurisdiction up to 1933.

Percentage in Family History Library: Overall about 45%. The library has already acquired about 90% of will transcripts (1750-1848) as part of chancery records. Although most of the probate records of Denmark have been filmed, the Family History Library has not filmed any original wills.

Population coverage: 10%.

Reliability: Very good.[1]

For more information about wills, see this article.

The Availability of Probate Records

Before the 1683 law, probate was held only when there were problems in dividing an estate. After 1683 the probate records are separate from the other court records and handled by the probate judge.

Probate records for clergy, schoolteachers, and military officers were often kept separate from the regular probate jurisdiction. Church officials would conduct probate for a priest or a schoolteacher, and a commanding officer for a military officer.

The Family History Library has an excellent collection of probate records from many areas of Denmark. These are listed in the catalog under DENMARK, COUNTY, PARISH - PROBATE RECORDS. Most records have separate name indexes in either the beginning or the end of the record. Also check the catalog under DENMARK, [COUNTY], [HERRED] - PROBATE RECORDS.

Some wonderful indexes have been prepared to these various records by the Land Archive for Sjælland and are found at both the Landsarkivet and the Family History Library on microfiche, the most extensive index being for the Forseglingsprotokoller:

  • Forseglingsprotokoller 1720-1919 (FHL fiche 6030293-60401670).
  • Ordinære boer 1660-1771 (FHLfiche 6030251-6030255).
  • Konceptskrifter [draft probates] 1660-1771 (FHL fiche 6030238-6030250).
  • Behandlingsprotokoller 1715-1771 (FHL fiche 6030233-6030237).
  • Samfrændskifter [relative probates] 1771-1810 (FHL fiche 6030270-6030271).
  • Eksekutorboer [executor estate] 1790-1919 (FHL fiche 6030256-6030269).

Guardianship Records (Overformynderiprotokoller)

Guardianship records are a good supplement to the probate records. Their use is twofold. First, they replace missing probate records. Second, they provide information concerning a minor's later destiny.

The guardianship record usually has the following information:

  • Name of the ward or minor.
  • Sometimes age or birth date.
  • Date on which the inheritance was paid to the court and the estate reference involved. (If the inheritance comes from one or several sources, each document is referred to with the amount.)
  • Name of guardian and residence.
  • Date on which the inheritance is paid to the ward or minor.
  • Status of the ward at the time the inheritance is paid, indicating a place of residence if different from the original probate record.

Research use: Very useful lineage-linking source. Relationship information is given so that blood lines of adoptees and orphans can be identified.

Record type: Records of those who have care of underage heirs after the death of parents.

Time period: 1570 to present.

Contents: Information about the ward and when and from whom (family member or other person) inheritance was received; information about the guardian and his relationship to the ward, and expenses charged to the estate. At times two generations are mentioned, when both parents and grandparents passed away during the ward's minor state. Dates of birth or christening may be given.

Location: National and provincial archives.

Percentage in Family History Library: 90%.

Population coverage: 10%.[1]

Probate Word List

Following is a list of common words, phrases, and abbreviations used in probate records. For other Danish probate vocabulary lists, click here or here.


Danish English
A.D. in the year of our Lord
Aar year
Ad at
Advokat attorney
Af, av of, at, by, from
Afdøde deceased
Afg., afgange deceased
Afgangen the deceased
Afgift fee, charge
Afholdelse conduct, organization
Afholdt held, incurred, organized
Afgaa, afgaaet die, died
Afkald waiver
Afkom offspirng
Afsælle sell
Aftale aggreement
Aftos last night
Aftægtsfolk retired people
Aftægtskone retired woman being supported by the new owner of their farm (usually a child)
Aftægtsmand retired man being supported by the new owner of their farm (usually a child)
Agent agent
Agt(en) intention, purpose
Aldeles absolutely, totally, quite, entirely
Alder age
Aldrig never
Alenstok yardstick (equivalent of 24 inches, or 0.63 modern-day meters)
Alle all
Allerhøjest most highest
Allordere allocate
Alt all, universe, already
Amt county
Amtets the county's
Amtmand chief county administrator
Amtsforratter county commissioners
Anden other, second
Anden side other side
Andunldt amount
Anføre indicate, state, also retired
Anført listed, stated, specified
Anmeld, Anmeldelse report, notification, review
Annus (Latin) year
Anordnet ordered, arranged, set apart
Anpart share
Antage accept, take on, assume
Antagelse assumption, acceptance
Antagelig presumably, probably, likely
Antaget chosen
Antagne assumed
Antal number
Ar, en are
Arbejdshold work team
Arbejdsperiode employment period or schedule
Arv inheritance
Arvedel, Arvadeling inheritance, portion or share of the inheritance
Arvelader testator
Arveskifte inheritance
Arvesummen the sum of the inheritance
Arving heir
Arvinger, Arfvinger heirs
At that, to
At være as, being
Aulede only
Avle beget, grow
Avlet begotten, produced
Avlet med afdøde begotten with the deceased
Av of, from, by


Danish English
Baade both
Barn, børnen child, children
Barnedåb grandchild
Barnefader the child’s father
Bedstefader grandfather
Bedstemoder grandmother
Befal, Befale command, order
Befalede commanded, ordered
Befindes found to be
Begjæring, Begæring petition, request, application, motion
Behøver at require, have to, need to
Bekendtgørelse official announcement
Bekentgjort announced
Bekost, Bekostning expense, the cost
Bekræft confirm, verify, affirm
Beløb amount
Bemeldte aforesaid
Bemidlet well off
Benævnte named
Beregne calculate
Bero be, remain
Beroer depends
Beskikket appointed
Beskriven description
Betaler pay
Betaling payment
Betalt paid
Betegne description
Betjente, Betiente official
Betydeligt significantly, considerably
Birchedomer, Birkedommer birke judge
Blandt among
Blev, blef was, become
Blive, Blivet, Bliver be, being, becoming, getting
Boede, Boet lived
Boe live, rside
Boelsmand farmer
Boet estate, the estate; also live, living
Bog book
Bonde farmer
Bondegaard farmer
Bopæl resident, residence
Bor live, living, lives
Borgmester Mayor
Bortdøde deceased
Bortfalder void, repeal
Bortsolgt sold
Boslod/Lodseddel Certificate for a share or lot
Bouppteckning probate
Brev letter
Broder- brother brother
Broderdatter brother's daughter
Broderlod a brother's share of an inheritance (this
could be used when talking about a son (having
a share with his brothers and sisters) or
the deceased's brother)
Brodersøn brother's son
Brække break
Brødre brothers
By, bye town, village
Byfogeden The city baliff
Børn children
Børnebørn grandchildren
Børnene the children


Danish English
Comite, kommite committee
Come, komme come
Curator curator


Danish English
Da as, since, when
Danske Danish
Darværende former
Datter, Døttre daughter, daughters
Datterdatter daughter’s daughter, granddaughter
Dattersøn daughter’s son
De they, those, the
Deling, deeling division, distribution
Derfor therefore
Deg you
Dend it, that, the, other
Den of, the, it, of the
Denne this
Dennes his, its, thereof, latter
Der who, there, which, that
Dere you
Derefter after that, then, afterwards
Deres theirs, yours, its
Deret theirs, which, who, that
Derhjemme at home
Deriblandt including, among
Dermed there by, thus
Dernæst next
Dertil there, thereof, therefore, thereto
Derudover additional
Det it, that
Dette this
Did you, yourself, there
Disse these
Dit your
Dog however, though
Dokket docked
Dom sentence, judgement, verdict
Dommer judge
Drager porter, carrier
Dranker drunkard
Dreng, dr. male, boy
Drengebarn male child
Dronning queen
Død, Døden death, the death
Dødsanmeldelse death announcement
Dødsanmeldelsesprotokoller Starting in 1792, all deceased had
to be reported to the local probate
authorities, whether they were to be probated
or not. The reports of the deceased became
a compiled record called the
Dødsfald death
Døtre daughter


Danish English
Eder you
Edle noble
Een one
Efter after, behind
Efterdi because
Efterlade leave
Efterlade sig en formue leave a fortune
Efterladenskaber remainder, the rest
Efterladte survivors, remaining
Efterladende left behind, surviving
Efterlefuende surviving
Eftermelte below mentioned
Efterretning obedience
Eftersom since, as
Eg, Ege, Egne, Egen, Eget own, on one's own
Egenskab capacity, property, attribute, characteristic
Egstra see ekstra
Egteskab marriage
Ei, Ej not
Eje own
Ejendom, Ejendele property, posessions
Ejen property
Ejer owner
Ekstra extra
Ekstradere extract
Embede office
En the, a, an, one
End than, end, over
Endelig final, finally
Endvidere also, furthermore
Enebarn only child
Enes agree
Enhver each, everyone
Eniste begotten
Enke widow
Enkekone widow
Enkemand widower
Ensker wishes, wants
Er, Ere is, are, the, has, have
Erholde assume, get, obtain, receive
Erhverv profession, trade
Erhverver acquire, gain
Erkendtlig grateful
Erkend, Erkende acknowledge, own, admit, recognize, realize
Erklære declare, declaring, proclaim
Et a, an, one


Danish English
Faa get, receive
Fadder godfather, sponsor
Faaet received, got, obtained
Fader father
Faderne, Fadderne godparents
Fallit bankrupt, bankruptcy
Fandt, Fantes found, was found
Far father
Farbroder father’s brother, uncle
Farfader paternal grandfather
Farfar grandfather
Far father
Farmoder grandmother, father’s mother
Farmor grandmother, father’s mother
Faset receive
Faste real
Faster aunt, father’s sister
Fastsætte assign, appoint
Fat got, hold, summarize, understand, comprehend
Fattes lacking, wanting
Fellets joint
Fik get, receive
Fil file
Findes found
Firer four
Foged bailiff, marshall, official
Folgende as follows, thus
Folio page
For in, for, in order, for the
For endelig skifte for final probate
Foranførte above mentioned
Foranmeldte above reported, previously announced
Forat to, in order to
Forandre, forandring change, vary, shift, reverse
Foregaænde earlier
Foregaaet official announcement
Fordeling distribution, allocation
Fordring claim, debt, receivable
Fordre, fordrede demand, require
Fordrukken drunken
Forefandtes were present
Foregaænde earlier, previous, former
Foregaaet occurred, took place
Forestage make, do, perform
Foretagelse making, performing
Foretage, foretagne transact, perform, conduct, make, distribute
Fortagen distribution
Foretager makes, performs, carries out
Fortaget lovlig transacted lawfully
Forevise show
Forfald absence
Forfaret conduct
Forgået occurred, took place
Forfeiglet previous
Forhen, førhen in the past, formerly
Forhentiltagne previously appointed
Forkarlen foreman
Forloveren sponsors, bondsmen at marriage
Forladefoged baliff of the manor
Formedelst due to, because of
Formode assuming, supposing
Formue assets, property, wealth
Formynder guardian
Fornyelig recently, recently departed
Forordningen regulation, statutes
Forpagter tenant
Forpligte oblige, commit
Forpligtelse obligation, commitment
Forpligtet committed, obliged
Forrentning interest, return, rate
Forreste front, foremost
Forresten incidentally, by the way, anyway
Forrætte og afslutte transact and conclude
Forretning business, transaction, administration, proceeding
Forretning tilstede present at the proceeding
Forretninger transactions
Forretningen business administration
Forrevist kjøb bill of sale
Forrige previous
Forsamle meet, assemble, gather
Forsamlingen meeting, assembly, gathering, committee
Forsegle seal up
Forsende seal up
Forsige to say
Forskel difference
Fortfare conduct, carry out
Fortfarende continually, ongoing
Fortforet conducted
Fortil before
Foruden besides, in addition to
Forud previous, prior
Forudgående previous
Forudsiger predicts
Forvalter administrator, agent, manager, bailiff
Forvære make worse
Forældre parents
Forældreløs orphan
Forældrene the parents
Fosterbarn foster child
Fosterbørn foster children
Fosterdatter foster daughter
Fostersøn foster son
Fra from
Fraværende absent
Frembragt reveal, disclose
Fremdeles, fremdeeles further
Fremfor before, above, beyond
Fremføre- advance, forward
Fremfærd conduct
Fremgang proceed, progress
Fremlagt, fremlagde submitted, presented, provided, produced
Fremme to go forth
Fremsat submitted, made, delivered, presented
Fremstille, Fremstillet create, make, produce, present to be judged
Fremviste presented, showed, displayed
Fri free
Frille mistress
Frue Mrs., wife, lady, not a peasant women
Fruentimmer unmarried mother
Frugtsommelig pregnant
Frøken miss, not a peasant girl
Fudt completely
Fuldkommen complete, perfect
Fuldkomns fulfilled
Fuldmagt proxy, power of attorney
Fuldmægtig, fuldmegtige attorney, advocate, head clerk
Fulgt followed
Fuldkommen complete, perfect
Fælled, Fælles common, mutual, joint
Fæstebonde copyholder, leaseholder, farmer
Fæstegårdmand copyholder, leaseholder, farmer
Fæste copyhold, lease
Fæstebonde a farm
Fæstemand betrothed
Fæster person who is leasing
Fæstprotokol land lease
Fætter cousin
Fødtes (Føde) værger family guardian
Følge as a result of)
Følger as follows
Før die unmyndige vegen in behalf of the minors
Før before
Førhen previously
Første first
Får gets, will, have
Fået received, got


Danish English
Gaardmand farmer
Gammel old
Garden the farm
Gave gift, present
Gavn benefit
Gift, givt married
Gik went, walked, did, was, were
Gior makes
Gjeld debts
Gjort, Gjorde made, done, been
Godfather godfather
Gudfrygtige godfearing
Gudmoder godmother
Gæld, gjold, gjæld debt, payables
go, walk, do
Gårdbruger, gaardbruger farmer
Gårdejer, gaardejer farm owner
Gaard farm
Gårdfæster, gaardfæster farm leaseholder, tenant
Gårdmand, gaardmand farmer


Danish English
H. abbreviation for "hustrue"- wife
Halde hold, maintain, keep, continue
Halvbrodre, Halvbroder half brother
Halvdelen half, a portion
Ham he, his, him
Han he, his, him
Hannen male, him
Hans his
Har has, have
Hartkorn unit of land valuation
Havde had
Have have, be
Havender debtors
Heder honor
Hederlige honorable
Hederlige och wellærde honorable and well-learned
Hegle tools for processing flax and hemp
Heigle tools for processing flax and hemp
Helbroder whole brother
Hele all, entire
Hellere rather, better, prefer
Hellig holy
Hende, Hendes her, hers
Henhold according, accordance with, belong to
Henhøre til refer to
Hensidde live, exist
Hensyn respect, regard
Her here
Heraf of this, thereof, these, which
Herom accordingly, thereof, thereon
Herremand lord of the manor
Herrets ting district court
Herskerinde mistress
Hidtil previously, up until now
Himmelseng canopy bed
Hjemme, Hiemme at home
Hjemmedødt home christening, home baptism
Hmd, Hm. (abbreviation for Husmand) cottager
Holde hold, holding, keep, keeping, stay, staying
Holden keeping, stopping; also rich, prosperous
Holdelse proceeding
Holdte held
Hor adultery, fornication
Hos at, with, in, by, from
Hovedperson head of house
Hr. Mr.
Hun she
Hus, Huus house
Husbonde husband, head of house
Husejer owner of house
Husfader head of house
Husfolk small farmers
Husholderske housekeeper
Husmand med jord farmer with land
Husmand cottager, small farmer
Husmoder, huusmoder wife, homemaker
Hustrue, hustru, kone hustru, kone-wife
Huus afgift rent
Hvad what
Hvem who
Hver, hvert every
Hvidebøger "white books" or a record of those deceased
in Copenhagen who did not have an official probate
Hvilke, hvilken, hvilket which, what, this
Hvil rest
Hvor where, which, when, how, there
Hvorefter whereafter, then
Hvornaar when is, when will, when does,
where once, where when
Hvorved wherewith
Hvortil plus, in additon, which should be added
Høj Ædle, Højædle noble, high


Danish English
I in, of, the, at, you
I dag today
Iagttage watch, observe
Iberegne include
Idet as, because, with, since, taking
Ifald if, in case
Ifolge, Ifølge according, according to
Ikke not
Imellem between
Imod against, accepted, opposed
Inderste tenant, renter
Indfandt- materialize appeared, met
Indgaa conclude
Indgaaet entered into, concluded, reached, received
Indlæg contribution, pleading, plea, letter,
article, speech, submission, observation
Inddrage include, involve
Indfandt- materialize materialize
Indsidder tenant, renter
Indtage take, adopt
Indtægt income, revenue, proceeds
Ingen no, not, none
Interesse interest
Intet no, nothing
Intægt asset, income


Danish English
Jagtbøsser hunting rifles - originally for nobles, but lower classes were allowed to hunt after 1840
Jeg I
Jer you, yourselves
Jeres your, yours
Jomfru maiden, miss, not a peasant girl, virgin
Jord(e) earth, land, property
Jordlig earthly
Jordseddel/Muldseddel certificates or confirmations from the
Probate authorities to the deceased’s
priest, that they had received notification
and registered the death. The priest
was not allowed to bury the dead
until the probate authorities had received
such notification


Danish English
Kakkelovn small stove for light dishes
Karl young man, farmhand
Kendelse decision, judgement, verdict, order, ruling
Kidre dear
Kiste coffin
Kl., Kng., Kong.(abbreviation for Kongelig) Royal, government
Kongelig royal
Kom come
Kommer come, coming, comes
Kommis commission, commissioner
Kommitterede nominee, commissioner
Kommunemand city official
Kone wife, married woman
Kongelige (Kl.) Royal, government
Kontorbetjent office clerk
Kontorchef head of office staff
Kontormedhjælper office clerk
Kost, Kostet cost, the cost
Kravede required
Kun just, only, only the
Kunde could, might, would; also client, patron
Kundskab knowledge
Kundgjørelse announcement, notification
Kusine cousin
Kvinde, Qvinde woman
Kvindefadder, Qvindefadder godmother
Kvindemenneske woman
Køb, Kjøb purchase


Danish English
Lagte- pay pay
Landarbejder- farm worker farm worker
Landbo- farmer renter farmer renter
Landbruger farmer
Laugværge a widow’s guardian who would be
present with her during her deceased
husband’s probate. Widows had the
privilege to choose their
own Guardian, which normally was one of
her brothers
Lærte hederlige learned and honorable
Lejer tenant
Lensmanden the constable
Leve live
Levende living
Leveret suppied, delivered, provided
Lig equal, similar to
Ligeledes- likewise, also, equally ditto
Ligeledes- likewise, also, equally likewise, also, equally
Ligesom like, somewhat, as
Ligkiste coffin
Likvidere liquidate
Livsarvinger living heirs
Lod lot, share
Lodseddel/Boslod Certificate for a share or lot
Logerende tenant, lodger
Lov law
Lovlig legal
Lyder saaledes reads thus
Løbende current, continuous, standing
Løse resolve, solve


Danish English
m.f.P. (abbreviation of “med ført Pen") this abbreviation usually appears under the
signatures of those witnessing the probate, who
either could not write or just needed help with writing
m.p.P. (abbreviation of “med påholden Pen”) abbreviation meaning “med påholden Pen,” or
“with guided pen”. See “m.f.P.”
M.V., (abbrev. of med videre) continued, forward
Maa must, may, should, shall, must be
Madmoder woman of the house, housewife
Magistrat/Magistrate justice for the peace
Magistrats Gods magistrate’s estate
Maitresse mistress
Maj., Majestæts- majesty May
Maj., Majestæts majesty
Man man, husband, one, you, it
Mand man, men
Manden the man
Mandfadder godfather
Mandkjøn male
Mark former Danish monetary unit. Worth
less than a Rigsdaller but more than a skilling
Med with, by, of, the
Medmindre unless
Meere, Mere more, further
Mellem between
Men but
Mere more
Middel medium, average, part
Mindreårige minors, under age
Moder, Mor mother
Moderens the mother
Modt appeared, met, was present
Modtagen receive
Mor, Moder mother
Morbroder mother’s brother, uncle
Morfader, morfar mother’s father, grandfather
Mormoder, mormor mother’s mother, grandmother
Mortis (Latin) death
Moster aunt, mother’s sister
Mostermand mother’s sister’s husband
Muldseddel see Jordseddel
Myndig of legal age. The age varied throughout
Denmark, but on average 15-18 years (considered
mindreårige 18-25 years) for men. Women were
never recognized as “of age” until 1857,
and always had a guardian appointed to them.
After 1857, the “of age” age for single
women was the same as men. In 1922,
everyone was considered “of age” when they
turned 21 years old, and today the age is 18.
Mænd men
Mændenes the men, appraisers
Møde meeting, appointment
Mødte, Mødt met, met with, present, in attendance
maiden, virgin
Må or Maa do, be, must, may, should
Maad goal, way, means
Maanad month


Danish English
Naar where, when
Nafnlig namely
Namful namely
Nati, Natiuitas (Latin) birth
Navnet name, the name
Navneklud embroidery
Navnlig namely
Nemlig namely
Navn name
Nedlagt closed, asks, seeks, claims
Nej no
Nevø nephew
Niece niece
Noch also
Nogen any
Nogen tid siden sometime before
Noget something, anything
Nok enough
Nu now
Nutid present
Nuværende current, present, existing
Nyfder ophold of age (legal)
Ny, Nyt new
Næmlig, namely namely, that is
Næringsvei occupation
Næst next
Nærværende present
Når when, where


Danish English
O.S.V. etc.
Odel freehold land
Ofververends attending
Og, Oc, Och and
Ogfolder live
Ogsaa, Også also
Oktober October
Oldefader great-grandfather
Oldemoder great-grandmother
Om about, in, on
Omkostninger expenses, costs
Opdrætte breed
Opfostringshus orphanage
Oplaest announced, read, spoken
Opgiven stated, studied
Opgjort calculate, estimate
Opholde sig reside, stay
Opholder living, staying
Opholdsted place of residence
Opløbe finish
Opmærksom attentive, mindful, aware
Oplysninger information, data, details
Ordre order
Ovenmeldte above reported
Ovenævnte above mentioned, aforementioned
Overformynderi trustee (someone who needs a guardian)
Overformynderiet Guardianship records
Overførende transferring
Overrække present, give
Overskydende excess
Overstige exceed
Overværelse presence, attendance
Overværends attending


Danish English
p., post after
Paa on, at, in
Paa grund because
Paa stedet at this place
Paahvileds, Paahvile rest with, lie with, be due from, chargeable to
Paalagt order, put on, entrusted
Paaløbende accrued, incidental
Pante mortgage
Passere pass
Pastorat parish
Penge money
Personerne the people
Pige girl, maid, servant
Pigebarn girl child
Pigen the maid, that girl
Plasmand cottager
Plejebarn foster child
Plejebørn foster children
Plejeforældre foster parents
Plejemoder foster mother
Plejesøn foster son
Protocol, Protokol ledger, journal
Pligtmand tenant
Proprietær farmer (large)
Provst rural dean
Provsti deanery
Provstinde deans wife
Præst, præsten priest, the priest, clergyman, minister
Præstegield clerical district
Pulitiaduakat district attorney
Pådømmelse trial, judgment
Påhvileds, Påhvile rest with, lie with, be due from, chargeable to
Påløbende accrued, incidental
Påstod claimed


Danish English
Qua (Latin) which, where, what, see, that
Qvinde, Qvinden, Kvinde woman, the woman
Qvindekiøn, Kvindekøn female gender
Qvindemenneske women


Danish English
Raadhusskriver town hall clerk scribe
Raadlighed command, disposal, available, provided
Raadmand, Rådmand councilman, alderman
Rd(l). (abbreviation for Rigsdaler) a former Danish monetary unit.
Realiserede realized, achieved, actual, recorded
Realisation realization
Registrerede registered
Registering inventory, registration
Registrering og Vurdering inventory and appraisal
Renter interest
Resten the rest
Resterende balance, remainder
Resultat result, profit, earnings
Retlige legal, the legal, justice
Retsformand persiding judge
Retten court
Ridefoged bailiff
Rigsdaller/Rd(l) former Danish monetary unit. Worth
more than a mark or a skilling
Rigtighed accuracy, correctness, truthfulness
Rime agree
Rimelig reasonable, fair, fair price
Rodemester tax collector
Rådlighed command, disposal, available, provided
Rådmand, Raadmand councilman, alderman


Danish English
Saa so, as, indeed, that, in behalf, then, such, saw, since
Saadan such
Saaledes namely, for instance, such as, thus, as follows
Saavel both
Sabbat Sabbath
Sagen proceedings
Sagfører lawyer
Sal., Salig, Salige deceased
Samling meeting
Sammen together or same
Sammenaulede begotten
Sammenauled together beget
Sammen avlede together begotten
Sammenleje living together
Sammenviede married together
Sammestads same place
Samt as well, well as
Samtikke, samtykke consent, agree
Samtlige all
Sandsynligt probable, likely
Sedler banknotes, bills
Sees seeing, seen, is seen
Seigneur Mr or Sir-willborn/ honourable
Self tilhøre self-owned
Selvejer owner, freeholder
Set viewed, seen
Sidste last
Sig him, her, it's, them, himself, herself, themselves, at, to, out, the
Sige god say good (vouch)
Signor (French) Mr.
Sin, Sine its, his, her, there
Sind mind
Sit its, his, her
Skabe create, generate, provide, also cabinets
Sin his, hers
Skal do, must, to be, should
Skatteopkræver tax debt, tax charges
Skeed given
Skeedte occurred
Skete, Skeed happened, occurred, did
Skifte probate
Skiftebrevet probate letter
Skifte forretning probate proceeding
Skiftes foretagelse probate execution
Skiftes holdelse probate proceeding
Skifte og Deeling probate and distribution
Skifteforvalter probate administrator, probate agent
Skifteomkostningerne probate costs
Skifteprotokoller probate records
Skifteretten probate court
Skiftesamling probate meeting of heirs
Skifter handling settlement
Skiftet the probate
Skilde separate
Skjønt though
Skilling monetary unit; former Danish monetary unit.
Worth less than a Rigsdaller or a skilling
Skrivelse letter
Skriver scribe, clerk
Skriverstue writing room, office
Skulde should, would, might
Skylde owe
Skøn estimate, assessment
Sl.,sal. sal.,-deceased
Slagfreds illegitimate
Slagfredsdatter illegitimate daughter
Slagfredssøn illegitimate son
Slutte finish, end, conclude
Slægt family, relatives
Små small
Sognebarn parishioner
Sognefoged sheriff, constable
Solgt sold
Som as, since, who, which, as, whom, that
Soskendebarn niece, nephew
Spurgte inquired, asked
Spædbarn infant, baby
S(igno)r Mister
Stads city
Stadboende city residents
Stedbarn stepchild
Stedbørn stepchildren
Steddatter step daughter
Stedfader step father
Stedmoder step mother
Stedsøn step son
Stervbo, Sterfboen estate, inventory of the deceased
Stifbarn stepchild
Stifbørn stepchildren
Stift, Stiftet diocese, the diocese
Stue ground, room, living room
Stærboet same place, place where deceased lived
Stævningsmand baliff sheriff
Sur confused
Svigerdatter daughter-in-law
Svigerfader father-in-law
Svigerinde sister-in-law
Svigermoder mother-in-law
Svigersøn son-in-law
Svoger brother-in-law
Svogerske sister-in-law
Sødskende(s) siblings, sisters
Søn, Sønnen son, the son
Sønnedatter son’s daughter
Sønnekone son’s wife
Sønnen the son
Sønnerne the sons
Sønnesøn son’s son
Søskende siblings
Søskendebarn cousins
Søskendefætter first cousin
Søster sister
so, as, indeed, that, in behalf, then, such, saw, since
Sådan such, how, to, this
Således namely, for instance, such as, thus, as follows
Såvel both


Danish English
Tagelse making, admission, acquisition, exemption
Tager takes, taking, out, acquisition, does
Taksere acquisition, appraise
Tarv- best interests acquisition, interests
Tarveligt simple, poor, shoddy, acquisition, frugally
Testes acquisition, witnesses
Tidligere acquisition, past
Tiener, tjener, tjeneste acquisition, tjeneste- servant
Til acquisition, for
Tilbud acquisition, proposition
Tilbød acquisition, offered
Tidligere acquisition, earlier
Tidligt acquisition, soon
Tilgodehavender acquisition, receivables
Tilhører acquisition, to
Tilhørende acquisition, related
Tilkendegive declare, indicate, express, acquisition, inform
Tillade acquisition, let
Tillidsmænd acquisition, representatives
Tilladelse acquisition, permission
Tillige also, along with, acquisition, together
Tilligemed acquisition, also
Tillynsing acquisition, posting
Tilspurgte acquisition, asked
Tilstand acquisition, status
Tilstede, til stede til, stede- present, present, in attendance; also permit, acquisition, allow
Tilstedeværende acquisition, present
Tilstillede acquisition, given
Tilstaa testify, swear, acquisition, acknowledge
Tilstaaelse acquisition, acknowledgement
Tilsvar acquisition, amount
Tilsvarende corresponding, equivalent, similar, acquisition, responsible for
Tilsværge acquisition, swear
Tilsynsværge acquisition, guardian
Tiltage acquisition, grow
Tiltale prosecute, charge, acquisition, speak to
Ting acquisition, court
Tingmanden acquisition, officer
Tjenende acquisition, serving
Tjener, tiener acquisition, tiener- serve
Troloved, trolovet acquisition, trolovet- engaged
Trykt acquisition, printed
Tømmer acquisition, timber
Tømrer acquisition, carpentry


Danish English
Ubetydelig insignificant
Udbetal, udbetaling cash, cash out, withdraw, payment
Udgang end, exit, output
Udelt undivided, entirely
Uden without
Ude out, away
Uden without
Udflytning moving out
Udgift expense, cost
Udi in, at, of, from
Udlagt laid out, reported
Udlæg costs, outlay, expenses
Udnævnte appointed
Udskifteligt replacable, removable, interchangable
Udøbt unbaptized
Uge week
Uger weeks
Ugift unmarried
Umage, Umagelig effort, pains, uncomfortable
Umindelig as far as can be remembered, immemorial
Umulig, Umuligt impossible
Umyndig underage, minor
Umyndiges vegne minors behalf
Umådelig extremely, immensely
Unde underage; also give, wish, grant
Under under
Underrets dommer court judge-lower
Underrretssay Fører court judge lower
Underskrevet undersigned
Underskrevne signed
Undertegnede the undersigned
Undgaas avoided
Undladt, Undlod failed, omited, left undone
Undtagen except
Ungk., Ungkarl- bachelor bachelor
Ugift unmarried
Ung young
Uskiftet bo (boe) unprobated estate, undivided estate
Utlagt, udladt announced, reported
Uægte illegitimate

V and W

Danish English
Vanvittig retarded
Var, Varnede, Værende, Været was, were, being, been
Ved at or by
Vedbørlig legal
Ved Døden er afgaaet with death has departed, who died
Vederlag compensation, renumeration, proceeds
Vedgå admit, own, acknowledge
Vedkomme, Vedkommende person concerned
Vegne, Wegen behalf
Velædle noble
Velbegavet well endowed
Vel som as well as), unable
Velbe., Vel begavet well endowed
Velbyrdige, Vel byrdige noble lineage
Vellærde well educated
Vid wide, extensive, open; also wit
Vide know
Videre further, forward, continue
Vidner witnesses
Vidste did, knew, know, did not know
Vil, Vilde shall, would, want, will
Villig willing, prepared, ready
Vis show, certain, view, some, degree
Vitterlig known
Vitterlighedsmænd witnesses, notaries, attestors
Vor our
Vurder rate, assess, evaluate
Vurdere to value, price, appraise
Vurderet, Vurderede assessed, appraised
Vurdering appraisal, evaluation, estimation
Vurderingsmand appraiser
Vurderingsmænd appraisers
Værd worth, value
Være be, have, to be, to
Værende umlyndige being minors
Værende living
Været been
Værge guardian. All minors (umyndige) were appointed
a guardian, after a parents death, to
represent them throughout the probate process.
The Guardian appointed was typically the father’s
eldest brother (if the father had died), or the
father himself (if the mother had died). By law,
the guardian must be from the father’s side
unless there were no living male relatives
of the father, in which case the guardian
would be from the mother’s male relatives


Danish English
Yderligere additonal, more
Ydre outer
Ygste youngest
Ytre utter, express, speak


Danish English
Ægte real, true, authentic, legitimate
Ægteskab marriage
Ældste oldest
Æta (Latin) age
Ætas (Latin) age, days, time, period


Danish English
Øge increase
Ønsker do, want, wish, need
Øvrige other, additional, remaining


Danish English
År year

Word List of Household and Farm Items Often Listed in Probates


aag, åg shoulder yoke for carrying buckets
alenstok yardstick (equivalent of 24 inches, or 0.63 modern-day meters)
alkove alcove, bed closed with doors or curtains, shared by 2-3 people
arbejdsvogn wagon


bagetrug bakers trough for kneading dough
baller, baljer, ballie, balge med jernbånd wooden tub with iron bands
band bands
baandknif, båndkniv small chopping knife
becken, bækken pan containing hot coals to heat the bed
beester beasts
bench bench
beholder container
benklæder, beenklæder trousers
beslag brackets, hardware
beslagen vogn wagon with metal brackets, not entirely of wood
besætningen herd
bikube beehive
bilægerkakkelovn stove
bimpel small barrel, used for transporting beer to/from the fields
bismer small portable scale
blaa, blå blue
blaargarns, blårgarns wool or linen cloth
blaastribed blue striped
blick, blech lygte small portable tin lamp
boghylde bookshelf
bor auger
bord table
bornholmer grandfather clock
bryggerkedel brewing kettle
bryggkar, bryggekar brewing vat
brystdug vest
brændevin alcohol
bukser, buxer trousers
bulle, bol a short top for women
bul øxe, buløkse forest ax
bænk bench
bæster beasts
båbdknif small chopping knife


carter cards for carding wool


degntrug wooden trough for bread kneading
dejtrug dough trough, used for kneading and raising bread overnight
dragkiste chest of drawers
drejels, dreeils hinge, pivot
driftetrug, drøftetrug low, open basket with handle which was used for cleaning grain
drægtig pregnant (livestock)
drøftetrug sifting trough, used to clean chaff from the grain
dug cloth, tablecloth
dyne quilt, duvet
dørslag colander
dørslag colander


ege, eege oak
egebord oak table
egedragkiste- oak chest oak chest
egekar oak vat oak vat
egeskrin- keepsake box, sometimes with a lock keepsake box, sometimes with a lock


faar- sheep sheep
filtes- felted, made of felt felted, made of felt
fierding- a tub that can hold 25 kg a tub that can hold 25 kg
fleske olle- meat brining vat meat brining vat
fluefanger fly catcher
forklæde- apron apron
fuglebur birdcage
fyrre- pine pine
fyrrebord- pine desk pine desk
føl, følle- foal foal
får- sheep sheep
får med grøde- pregnant sheep pregnant sheep


garvinde- yarn reel yarn reel
gestlinge- goslings goslings
giæs- geese geese
giæs med grøde- geese with goslings geese with goslings
glas- glass glass
graa, grå- gray gray
gravspade, grevespade- grave spade grave spade
greeb, greb- grip, lever, handle grip, level, handle
grise, grisse- pigsgryde- piglets piglets
gryde- pot pot
gul- yellow yellow
grøn- green green
grøde- pregnant or with eggs (livestock) pregnant or with eggs (livestock)
gæs, giæs- geese geese
gæslinger, geslinge- goslings goslings
gåse-hilde goose tether


haand qvern, håndkværn hand mill, often used to grind malt for beer brewing
haandøxe, håndøkse hand ax
haankattunsklæder, håndklæder towels
hakkebret, hakkebræt chopping board
hakkekniv chopping knife
halskobbel, halskoppel horse harness
halstørklæde scarf or muffler
hampe hemp
hand qvern hand mill
haspe type of yarn winder
hat hat
hauger, haver removable wagon sides
hempharve, harver harrow or cultivator
hengeskab hanging cupboard
hest, hæst horse
hestføl very young foal
hestplag colt
himmelseng poster bed/canopy bed
hingst stallion
hingsteføl very young foal
hjørneskab corner cabinet
hoppe mare
hose hose, knitted long stockings
hoveddyne pillow
hovedpude, hoved pude pillow
hue cap
huge block, huggeblok chopping block
huggehus workshop
hvergarns linsey-woolsey
hvid white
hæst, hest horse
høelee, høle scythe
hør linen
hørlærritz, hørlærred made of linen
håndklæder towels
håndkværn, haand qvern hand mill, often used to grind malt for beer brewing


ildtag fire poker


jagtbøsser hunting rifles - originally for nobles, but lower classes were allowed to hunt after 1840
jakke jacket
jern iron, stove
jernbilæggerkakkelovn stove
jernbaand, jernbånd iron bands
jernbismer small portable scale made of iron
jerngryde iron pot
jernpande iron pan
jern vægge iron wedge for wood splitting, etc.


kaabe cloak
kaaber copper
kaarsklæder light, usually fitted, scarf to put over a woman's hat
kakkelovn stove
kalfve, kalve calf
kande jug
kappe cloak
kar vessel, vat
karter wool carders, a flat brush for straightening wool strands before spinning them into yarn
karstol three-legged stool or stand for holding vats and tubs
kasket cap
kartuns, kattuns made of cotton
keddle, kiedel kettle
kedelkrog, kedelskrog, kjedelskrog kettle hook
kierne churn
kiol mens formal jacket
kiør cows
kjedelskrog kettle hook
kjole men's formal jacket
kjole og hvidt women's formal dress
kiste chest
klinket fad mended dish, sometimes mended with staples inserted in small drilled holes
klæde kiste dress chest
klæde skab wardrobe, upright clothes chest
knapper buttons
kniplinger lace
kniv knife
koe, ko cow
komfur stove
konvolut cap
kopper copper
kornharpe type of upright sieve machine for cleaning grain
krave collar
krukke crock
kuvert hat
krage til flæsk bacon rack, for smoking meat in the chimney
krave cows
krus pottery mug
kvern mill
kvie, qvie heifer
kviekalve- heifer calf heifer calf
kvæg, qveeg cattle
kærne churn
køer cows
kørekappe driving jacket, cloak, or cap
kåbe cloak


lagen sheet
lam, lamb lamb
langbænk bench, used at a dining table
lehnestoel, lænestol armchairs
ler clay
leerfad, lerfad pottery dish, plate, cup, etc.
lin, liin linen
lyddæmper muffler
lysesaks, lyse sax candle snuffer with a scissor-like hinge
lysestøbekar candle maker
læder leather
lædersele leather harness for a horse
lænestol, lehnestoel armchairs
løgte lamp


madskab wooden upright food pantry
mangle fiel og stok clothes press that used a wooden roller
manglebrædt og stok clothes press that used a wooden roller
malkekande, mælkekande milk jug
malet painted
messing brass
messingbækken brass pan which held hot coals to heat the bed
meye or meje jern, mejetøj, mejered iron tool for harvesting corn
morter mortar (for use with pestle for grinding)
møbler furniture
mønstrede patterned


nattrøye night shirt
naur auger
navneklud embroidery
nederdel skirt


okse ox
olmerdug, ulmerdug striped fabric made in Olmer, Germany
olle oil
omdannet ostekar re-used cheese vat
otting container that held an exact measurement of 12.5 kg
overdyne duvet cover
ovn stove


pande pan
papir paper
penge cash
peber qvern, peverkværn pepper mill
plag colt
plove plow
plove med behor plow with accessories
porcellæn porcelain
prykket dotted
pude, puude pillow
pudevår pillowcases
pynteærmer interchangable dress sleeves
pyntetørklæde decorative scarf
pyramide, pyramidehylde pyramid-shaped shelf, used for displaying a household's finest items until abt 1920s-1930s


qveeg, kvæg cattle
qvern mill
qvie, kvie heifer
qvie kalfe heifer calf


rede penge ready cash
redskaber tools
rist 3-legged grill rack
riveiern, rivegern grater
roekniv beet knife
rok spinning wheel
rød red


saks, sax scissors
saltkar small salt container
selde flat straw basket for sifting flour
seletøj harness for a horse
seng bed
sengested bedstead
serker, særke petticoat
siebøtte wooden bowl with a cloth in the bottom for straining milk
sigte sieve
sikar wooden bowl with a cloth in the bottom for straining milk
sjal shawl
skab cabinet
ske, skeer spoon, spoons
skieppe, skæppe 20-liter container
skind skins, pelts, or leather
skindbuxor buckskin pants
skiorte, skjorte shirt
skiær, skære bænk cutting bench, workbench
skiære kiiste, skærekiste "cutting chest", or chest holding mounted tools which were used for cutting animal feed
skielderier, skilderier painting or photgraph
sko, skoe shoes
skæppemål bushel measure; abt 1/8 of a grain barrel, or about 17 liters
skære (skiær) bænk og kniv cutting table and knife
skørt, skiordt skirt
slagbenk, slagbænk daybed, bench
sliibe steen, slibesten grindstones
slæde sled
småsvin piglets
cutting bench, work bench
sold sieve or screen
spade spade or shovel
spand bucket
spejl mirror
spinderok spinning wheel
spisebord dining table
spiserkammer pantry
spender, spænder buckles
spæde kalve infant calf
stager candlesticks, usually with a stand
stampekærne butter/cream churn
standtønder food storage barrels
stander seng floor bed
steen kruuse med laag tea mug with lid
stegepande frying pan
stenform brick mold
stettins tallerken tin-enameled plate
stie, stige laddar
stol, stoele, stole chair, chairs
stort large, high
stribet striped
strippe wooden scoop
strygejern an iron, typically used on smaller items; early irons were made of brass, 18th/19th century irons were made of cast iron
strømber, strømper stockings
stud kalv, studekalv steer calf
studlinge steer calf
stueur, stueuhr clock
støvler boots
sukkertang sugar cutter
sulekammer larder
sviin, svin pigs
sæde seat


tabel table
taburet, taberet stool
taft taffeta
tallerkne, tallerken plate
tavle table
tel økse, tælleøkse small ax with a broad blade and a shaft that bent slightly outward
tengsel small ax for hollowing out wood
ternet checkered
thepotte teapot
tilbehør attachments, accessories
tin tin or pewter
tinkrus, tinkruus tin cup
tintalerkener tin or pewter plate
tragt funnel
trefoder tripod for placing cookware over a fire
tromle barrel or drum
tronestole throne (chair)
trug trough
træ wooden
træbismer small portable wooden scale
trækar wooden container
træskoe, træsko wooden shoes
træhaver, træe haver wooden extensions for wagon sides
trøje sweater
tækkelad a kind of wide ladder which can be hung below the roof thatching
tøj clothes
tønde barrel
tørklæde head scarf
tørvespade peat spade


ulmerdug, olmerdug striped fabric made in Olmer, Germany
underkjole petticoat
underdyne type of quilt where a person lies on one side and covers themselves with the other side
ungsvin young pig


vaar, vår pillowcases
vadmel homespun
valkebræt fulling board; used to full newly-knitted cloth, making it stronger
vandspand water bucket
vanter mittens
vaskebræt washboard
vest vest
vin wine
vindovn stove with combustion door facing the living room
vogn wagon
vraaskab corner cabinet
vugge crib
væder, vædder ram
vægge wedge
vægskab wall cabinet; lock placed near the end where the man would sit at the table, contained important items such as tobacco, money, papers, etc.


ærmer loose, dressy sleeves which were interchangable with different vests


øl, ølle ale, beer
ølanker beer barrel
øldunk beer jug
ølflaske beer bottle
øl kande, ølkande beer jug or pitcher
øltragt, ølle tragt funnel for pouring beer into bottles
øreballie, ørebalje wooden tub with ear-shaped handles
øxe, økse ax



  1. 1.0 1.1 The Family History Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “Family History Record Profile: Denmark,” Word document, private files of the FamilySearch Content Strategy Team, 1987-1998.