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Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy

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Guide to Delaware County, Pennsylvania ancestry, family history and genealogy courthouse sources including birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, wills, deeds and land records, Civil War records, Revolutionary War records, family histories, cemeteries, churches, tax records, newspapers, and obituaries.

This article is about a county of southeast Pennsylvania. For other uses, see Delaware (disambiguation)


Delaware County, Pennsylvania
Map of Pennsylvania highlighting Delaware County
Location in the state of Pennsylvania
Map of the U.S. highlighting Pennsylvania
Location of Pennsylvania in the U.S.
Founded September 26, 1789
County Seat Media
Delaware County, Pennsylvania Courthouse.jpg
Address The Courthouse and Government Center Complex
201 West Front Street
Media, PA 19063
Delaware County Website
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Delaware County Pennsylvania Historical Facts[edit | edit source]

Known Beginning Dates for Major County Records[1]
Birth* Marriage Death* Court Land Probate Census
1893 1885 1893 1897 1789 1790 1790
Statewide registration for births and deaths began in 1906. General compliance by 1915.

Parent Counties: Formed from Chester County 26 September 1789.[2]

County Seat: Media

Neighboring Counties: Delaware County residents may also have records in [3]Montgomery  • Chester  • York  • Philadelphia  • New Castle County, Delaware  • Gloucester County, New Jersey

  • Named for the Delaware River
  • The County seat prior to 1851 was Chester City and it was county seat for Chester County, too.
  • Since 1851, the county seat has been Media.

1641: Swedes and Finns spreading north from Fort Christina (present-day Wlimington, Delaware) first settle in Finland (Chamassungh), now Trainer, Pennsylvania[4][5][6] and Upland (Meckopenacka), now Chester, Pennsylvania.[7][8][9] The New Sweden Colony continues to expand northward with new settlements as far as Philadelphia in the following years.

1651-1655: The New Netherland Colony builds Fort Casimir[10][11][12] (now New Castle, Delaware), settle Sandhook,[13][14][15] and abandon Fort Beversrede (now Philadelphia) in 1651. In 1654 New Sweden captures Fort Casimir from the Dutch without a fight and renames it Fort Trinty (Trefaldighets).[16] In 1655 New Netherland returns with a large army and all of New Sweden in presend-day Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey submits to Dutch rule.[17]

1664: As part of the Second Anglo-Dutch War New Netherland including southeast Pennsylvania is surrendered to the English.[18]

1673-1674: A new war breaks out and the Dutch send a large armada to retake New Netherland for a few months. But as the war ends the colony is ceeded to England for the last time.[19]

1680s: William Penn founded the English colony of Pennsylvania after receiving a grant in 1681 from the king of England. His colony offered religious freedom, liberal government, and inexpensive land. Quakers established the city of Philadelphia.

Description[edit | edit source]

The county was named for the Delaware River. It is located in the Southeast tip of the state.[20]

Boundary Changes[edit | edit source]

For animated maps illustrating Pennsylvania county boundary changes, "Rotating Formation Pennsylvania County Boundary Maps" (1673-1878) may be viewed for free at the website.

Records Loss[edit | edit source]

There is no known history of courthouse disasters in this county.

Bible Records[edit | edit source]

Cemeteries[edit | edit source]

Tombstone Transcriptions Online Tombstone Transcriptions in Print List of Cemeteries in the county Family History Library
PA Cemeteries WorldCat BillionGraves
PAGenWeb Archives Linkpendium
Tombstone Photos PAGravestones
BillionGraves (name) Epodunk
See Pennsylvania Cemeteries for more information.

Additional Cemetery Resources

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The usage of "Mormon" and "LDS" on this page is approved according to current policy.

Census[edit | edit source]

For tips on accessing Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy Federal (or United States) census records online, see: Pennsylvania Census.

There are no county or state census records available for Pennsylvania. County and city tax records can be used as a substitute when census records are not available.

  • 1671 Transcription and Index

Church Records[edit | edit source]

Church records and the information they provide vary significantly depending on the denomination and the record keeper. They may contain information about members of the congregation, such as age, date of baptism, christening, or birth; marriage information and maiden names; and death date. In Pennsylvania, church records are often used as a substitute for birth, marriage, and death information. For general information about Pennsylvania denominations, view the Pennsylvania Church Records wiki page.

The Museum/Research Library of the History of Delaware County holds a number of Church Records related to Delaware County.

Finding Church Records at Other Repositories

Additional church records can sometimes be found using search phrases such as Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy Church Records  in online catalogs like:

County-wide Database - Multi-denominational[edit | edit source]
Delaware county pennsylvania churches.png
Contains the church records of:
  • Jonathan Worrall Justice of the Peace Docket
  • W.P.A. Project/Gravestone Inscriptions
  • Chadds Ford: St. Luke's Church, Chadds Ford
  • Chester: Chester Rural Cemetery Association; Madison Street United Methodist Church; Providence Avenue United Methodist Church; St. Paul's Episcopal Church; United Methodist Church
  • Essington: Protestant Episcopal Church of St. John the Evangelist
  • Gradyville: Record of Pastors
  • Manoa: Bethesda Methodist Episcopal Church
  • Marcus Hook: St. Martin's Episcopal Church
  • Media: First Methodist Episcopal Church
  • Middletown: Wesley United Methodist Church
  • Newtown: Newtown Cemetery Association
  • Norwood: Immanuel Evangelical Lutheran Church
  • Philadelphia: Benjamin Paschall Justice of the Peace Docket
  • Radnor: St. Martin's Episcopal Church
  • Rockdale: Calvary Episcopal Church of Rockdale
  • Rose Valley: Old Union Methodist Episcopal Burial Ground[21] Also known as: Union Methodist Church Cemetery, Old Union United Methodist Church Cemetery and Union M.E. Cemetery
  • Rosemont: Good Shepherd Episcopal Church; Radnor Methodist Church
  • Springfield: Springfield Friends Graveyard; St. John's Lutheran Church Springfield
  • Thornbury: Stony Bank Methodist Episcopal Church
  • Wallingford: Trinity Lutheran Church
  • Yeadon: Fernwood Cemetery; Holy Cross Roman Catholic Cemetery
  • 1682-1800 - Humphrey, John T. Pennsylvania Births, Delaware County, 1682-1800. Washington, D.C.: Humphrey Publications, 1995. FHL Book 974.814 K2h.
Contains the church records of Chester Monthly Meeting, Chester; Concord Monthly Meeting, Concord Township; Darby Monthly Meeting, Darby; Radnor Monthly Meeting, Radnor Township; St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church, Chester; St. David's Protestant Episcopal Church, Radnor Township.

Cyndie Enfinger has compiled a detailed list of Delaware County, Pennsylvania churches at PAGenWeb - free.

Episcopalian[edit | edit source]

St. David's Church, Radnor

Communion lists begin in 1722, baptisms in 1727, marriages and burials in 1800.[22]

St. John's Church, Concord

Early registers are lost.[22]

St. Paul's Church, Chester

Registers begin in 1704.[22]

  • 1704-1733 - Marriage Record of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Chester, 1704-1733 (Pennsylvania Archives, Series 2, Vol. 8, Part 5) at Ancestry ($); Google Books - free.

St. Martin's Church, Marcus Hook

Vestry books begin in 1724.[22]

Presbyterian[edit | edit source]

First Presbyterian Church of Darby, Glenolden

Presbyterian Church, Chester

Presbyterian Church, Darby

Court Records[edit | edit source]

Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy court records are housed at the Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy Courthouse. For many counties copies of court records may be found at the Pennsylvania State Archives and in the FamilySearch collection. Note that within these collections some films may contain the same records, but have different titles. Other titles are not duplicates. See Finding Court Records at other repositories within this section for links to the online catalogs for these two collections. Films at the Pennsylvania State Archives are not available for inter-library loan. If court records are available FamilySearch films may be available at a local Family History Center. Call ahead for availability.

Court of Common Pleas[edit | edit source]

The Courts of Common Pleas are the trial courts of Pennsylvania. Major civil and criminal cases are heard in these courts. Judges also decide cases involving adoption, divorce, child custody, abuse, juvenile delinquency, estates, guardianships, charitable organizations and many other matters. The Common Pleas courts are organized into 60 judicial districts. Delaware County has its own judicial district. Judges of the Common Pleas courts are elected to 10-year terms. A president judge and a court administrator serve in each judicial district.[26]

Clerk of the Courts[edit | edit source]

The Clerk of Courts prepares and maintains the records for the Criminal Division of the Court of Common Pleas. The Clerk signs and affixes the Seal of the Courts to all writs and processes, administers oaths and affirmations, and assumes custody of the seal and records of the Courts. The Clerk certifies and distributes orders of the Court. The Clerk also certifies and prepares bills of costs for the defendants and utilizes the computerized financial management system to disburse fines, costs and restitution.[27] For the Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy Clerk of Courts address see the Courthouse section on this page.

Prothonotary[edit | edit source]

The office of the Prothonotary is the custodian of all civil matters in the county. This includes naturalization, immigration, equity actions, judgements, federal and local tax liens, city liens, family court, arbitrations, license suspension appeals, appeals to higher court, commercial code filings, applications for passports and divorce proceedings. See the Courthouse section on this page for the Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy Prothonotary office information.

The Office of the Prothonotary in Delaware County has been merged into a new department called the Office of Judicial Support
Director: Angela L. Martinez, Esquire
Government Center, Room 126
201 W. Front Street
Media, PA 19063
Phone: 610-891-4370

Orphan's Court (see Vital Records)[edit | edit source]

See Vital Records
The Orphans' Court is responsible for a wide range of matters. The name of the Court is derived from the more general definition of "orphan," that being a person or thing that is without protective affiliation or sponsorship. This would include those not capable of handling their own affairs, minors, incapacitated persons, decedents estates, nonprofit corporations and trusts. It is the role of the Court to ensure that the best interests of the person or entity are not compromised.

It is believed the name of this court was borrowed from the Court of Orphans of the city of London, England which had the care and guardianship of children of deceased citizens, in their minority.[28]

For Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy Orphans' Court contact information see the Courthouse section on this page.

If you are looking for a birth record between 1893 and 1906, please visit the Register of Wills department located at the Government Center.

Register of Wills & Clerk of Orphans' Court Division
Director: Hugh A. Donaghue, Esquire
Government Center
201 W. Front Street
Media, PA 19063
Phone: 610-891-4400

Finding Court Records at Other Repositories

Additional court records can sometimes be found using search phrases such as Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy Court Records in online catalogs like:

Emigration and Immigration[edit | edit source]

For information about emigration into Pennsylvania, see the Pennsylvania Emigration and Immigration page.

Ethnic Groups[edit | edit source]

Germans[edit | edit source]

Gazetteers[edit | edit source]

United States Geographic Survey Place Names - GNIS for Delaware County (over 1500)
(may not always be present in alphabetic order on first try.)

Genealogy[edit | edit source]

History[edit | edit source]

Published Histories[edit | edit source]

Land and Property[edit | edit source]

Land records in Delaware County began in 1770. These records are filed with the Recorder of Deeds office in Media, Pennsylvania.

Land and property records can place an ancestor in a particular location, provide economic information, and reveal family relationships. Land records include: deeds, abstracts, indexes, mortgages, leases, grants, sheriff sales, land patents, and maps. Property records include liens as well as livestock brands and estray records.

The following are examples of available resources:

Online Land Records

  • 1982–present Delaware County offers online access to records. Fees apply.

Land Records on Microfilm

Additional Resources

Media:Delaware county pennsylvania townships.pngDelaware county pennsylvania townships.png
About this image
Click the image to view an enlarged version

Note that the "Maps" section below includes maps related to land ownership.

See Pennsylvania Land and Property for more information about using land records, especially about original land warrants, surveys, and patents filed at the state land office.

Additional resources can sometimes be found using search phrases such as Delaware County Pennsylvania Land in online catalogs such as:

Maps[edit | edit source]

Delaware County

Migration[edit | edit source]

Military[edit | edit source]

Revolutionary War[edit | edit source]

Men in what is now Delaware County (then Chester County) served in the 5th Pennsylvania Regiment.[29]

Naturalization and Citizenship[edit | edit source]

Naturalization records can contain information about immigration and nativity. Prior to 1906, it is rare to find the town of origin in naturalization records. See Pennsylvania Naturalization for more information about the types of records and availability.

Naturalizations granted at the county level were kept by the office of the Prothonotary. Naturalizations could also be granted on the Federal Court level.

Online Naturalization Indexes and Records

Original Naturalization Records on Microfilm

Finding Naturalization Indexes at Other Repositories

Additional naturalization indexes can sometimes be found using search phrases such as Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy naturalization in online catalogs like:

Newspapers[edit | edit source]

Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy newspapers may contain genealogical value including obituaries, births, marriages, deaths, anniversaries, family gatherings, family travel, achievements, business notices, engagement information, and probate court proceedings.

To access newspapers, contact public libraries, historical/genealogical societies, college or university libraries, or state archives in the area where the newspaper was published.

For information on state-wide newspapers see Pennsylvania Newspapers

Newspapers of Delaware County

Online Newspapers

To learn if there are newspapers online for a specific town or city in Pennsylvania, see and search for the town or the name of a newspaper.

Online Newspaper Abstracts

Obituaries[edit | edit source]

Obituaries are generally found in local newspapers where the person died. However, sometimes an obituary is found in the location from which he or she originated. To find an obituary, see the information under the Newspaper heading

Online Obituary Abstracts

Occupations[edit | edit source]

Indentured Servants[edit | edit source]

Periodicals[edit | edit source]

Poorhouse, Almshouse[edit | edit source]

Probate Records[edit | edit source]

Probate matters in Delaware County are handled by the Orphans' Court and start when the county was created.

In addition to wills and administrations, the Orphans' Court also handles: audits of accounts of executors, administrators, trustees, and guardians; distribution of estates; appointments of guardians; adoptions; appeals from the Register of Wills; inheritance tax appeals, and various petitions and motions.

Additional Probate Indexes and Abstracts

Additional probate indexes or abstracts can sometimes be found using search phrases such as Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy probate wills in online catalogs like:

Online Probate Records

Many original Delaware County probate records are available free online as digital images at:

  • 1789-1973 - Pennsylvania, Probate Records, 1683-1994 at - free. Includes Delaware County Wills and Administration Record Index (1789-1973), Will Books A-U (1789-1908); Letters of Administration Vols. 1-4 (1789-1917); Orphans' Court Docket Index (1789-1865), Orphans' Court Dockets Vols. A-J (1790-1882); Recognizance Book (1835-1888).

Probate records can  be found at the Delaware County Archives

Online Probate Indexes

Online Will Abstracts

Original Probate Records on Microfilm

Repositories[edit | edit source]

Archives[edit | edit source]

The archives has will administrations 1790-1935; county home records 1806-1929; birth 1852-1906; marriage records 1852-1854 and 1885-1940; death records 1852-1854 and 1893-1906; court records 1790-1929; veterans' graves registration 1775-2010; prison records 1873-1917; naturalization records 1795-1990; wills 1789-1935; and more.

  • The Pennsylvania Archives collection contains county archive records that can be searched onsite. Currently the Archives' staff cannot provide research or make copies of these records. Their collections include Almshouse Registers; Tax records; Birth, Death and Marriage Indexes and Records; Midwife records; African American records; Wills; Deeds; Naturalizations; Coroner's inquests; and Orphan's Court dockets. A list of the Archive's county holdings are on Microfilm or Manuscript form.

Courthouse[edit | edit source]

Delaware County Courthouse
The Courthouse and Government Center Complex
201 West Front Street
Media, PA 19063
Phone: (610)-891-4000

Offices of County are found in the Departments link on any of the pages. Departments of interest to genealogists include:

Family History Centers[edit | edit source]

Family History Centers provide one-on-one assistance and free access to premium genealogical websites. In addition, many centers have free how-to genealogy classes.

Family History Centers (FHCs) are branches of the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah, and are located all over the world. Their goal is to provide resources for family history research.

Libraries[edit | edit source]

Delaware County Library System (DCLS)
Administrative Headquarters
340 N. Middletown Rd., Fair Acres Bldg. 19,
Media, PA 19063
Phone: 610-891-8622
Fax: 610-891-8641
Online Catalog

There are 22 libraries in the DCLS library system. They have a sizable genealogy and biography collection.

Museums[edit | edit source]
  • Christian C. Sanderson Museum
    P.O. Box 153
    1755 Creek Road (Old Route 100)
    Chadds Ford, PA 19317
    Phone: 610-388-6545
    The museum also has a family name index "for stories to augment your genealogy research."
    Founded in 1732. Has Research facilities.
  • Pennsylvania Veterans Museum
    Media Armory
    12 East State Street
    Media, PA 19063
    Phone: 610-566-0788
    Education is the main focus. It is also creating a living history database.
Societies[edit | edit source]

Delaware County Historical Society
408 Ave. of the States
Chester, PA 19013
Phone: 610-359-0826

The Delaware County Historical Society has been collecting and preserving items of the county's history. The research library contains an extensive collection of Bible, birth, burial, census, church, court, genealogical, land and marriage records, as well as maps, newspapers, telephone books, city directories, and yearbooks. The museum hosts four exhibits a year.

Taxation[edit | edit source]

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

For birth and death records prior to 1906 contact:

Delaware County Archives
340 North Middletown Rd
Building 19
Lima, PA 19063
Mailing Address:
201 West Front Street
Media, PA 19063
Phone: 610-891-5620

Vital records are handled by the County Orphans' Court. Between the years 1852-1855 Pennsylvania made a failed attempt to record birth, marriage and death events at the county level. While the records for that time period are available, there were few events recorded. County marriage records were kept in earnest in 1885. Births and deaths, at the county level, were begun in 1893 and kept through 1905. Abstracts and copies of vital records are available for some counties, but most are incomplete. For the most complete set of records, always contact the County Orphans' Court.

See also How to order Pennsylvania Vital Records

Birth[edit | edit source]
  • 1726-1930 - Pennsylvania, Births and Christenings, 1709-1950 - free index. Not complete for all years. This index is an electronic index for the years 1726 to 1930. It is not necessarily intended to index any specific set of records. This index is not complete for any particular place or region. This collection may include information previously published in the International Genealogical Index or Vital Records Index collections.
  • 1852-1854 - Birth Records, online index
  • 1852-1854 - Pennsylvania Births – ($) Index with images.
  • 1893-1906 - Birth Records, online index
  • 1889-1906 - Chester Birth Records, online index
  • 1893-1896 - Pennsylvania, Births and Christenings, 1709-1950 - free index. Not complete for all years.

Early births 1893–1905 are located at the County Orphans' Court. See the heading Court Records on this page for contact information.

Indexes for Pennsylvania birth records are available through the Department of of Health for 1906 and 1907. Once an individual is located in the index a non certified Birth certificate can be obtained by writing and sending $3.00 to:

Division of Vital Records
ATTN: Public Records
P.O. Box 1528
New Castle, PA 16103

Marriage[edit | edit source]

The following records are available at the Delaware County Archives:

Pennsylvania marriages are located at the county level. Contact the Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy clerk's office for these records.

Divorce[edit | edit source]

Divorce records are available through the office of the Prothonotary. The office of the Prothonotary is located in the courthouse building.

Death[edit | edit source]

The following records are available at the Delaware County Archives:

Early deaths 1893–1905 are located at the County Orphans' Court. See the heading Court Records on this page for contact information.

Indexes for Pennsylvania death records are available through the Department of Health for 1906 through 1962. Once an individual is located in the index a non certified death certificate can be obtained obtained by writing and sending $3.00 to:

Division of Vital Records
ATTN: Public Records
P.O. Box 1528
New Castle, PA 16103

Finding Vital Records at Other Repositories

Additional vital records can sometimes be found using search phrases such as Delaware County, Pennsylvania Genealogy Vital Records in online catalogs like:

Yearbooks[edit | edit source]

  • Swathmore College: 1883-1956 (Online at the Internet Archive)

Genealogy Societies and Libraries[edit | edit source]

Delaware County Pennsylvania Genealogy Websites[edit | edit source]

Delaware County Pennsylvania Places[edit | edit source]

Populated Places[edit | edit source]

  • City: Chester
  • Boroughs: Aldan . Brookhaven . Chester Heights . Clifton Heights . Collingdale . Colwyn . Darby . East Lansdowne . Eddystone . Folcroft . Glenolden . Lansdowne . Marcus Hook . Media . Millbourne . Morton . Norwood . Parkside . Prospect Park . Ridley Park . Rose Valley . Rutledge . Sharon Hill . Swarthmore . Trainer . Upland . Yeadon
  • Townships: Aston . Bethel . Chadds Ford . Chester . Concord . Darby . Edgmont . Haverford . Lower Chichester . Marple . Middletown . Nether Providence . Newtown . Radnor . Ridley . Springfield . Thornbury . Tinicum . Upper Chichester . Upper Darby . Upper Providence
  • Communities: Ardmore . Boothwyn . Bortondale . Bowling Green . Broomall . Cheyney . Drexel Hill . Elwyn . Folsom . Garden City . Garnet Valley . Garrett Hill . Glen Mills . Glen Riddle . Gradyville . Haverford . Havertown . Lenni . Lima . Linwood . Moylan . Pine Ridge . Radnor . Riddlewood . Rosemont . Rose Tree . Secane . South Media . St. Davids . Strafford . Villanova . Village Green-Green Ridge . Wallingford . Wawa . Wayne . Woodlyn

Delaware County Pennsylvania Genealogy References[edit | edit source]

  1. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Delaware County, Pennsylvania. Page 588-593 At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002; Alice Eichholz, ed. Ancestry’s Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources, Third ed. (Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2004), 579-581.
  2. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), [FHL book 973 D27e 2002].
  3. Wikipedia contributors, "Delaware County, Pennsylvania" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at,_Pennsylvania.
  4. "New Sweden" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at (accessed 7 November 2008).
  5. Albert Cook Myers, Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New Jersey and Delaware, 1630-1707 (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1912; reprint Barnes and Noble, 1959; digitized by Google, 2008), 69, note 3. "Chamassung or Finland, where the Finns dwelt, was on the west side of the Delaware River, between the present Marcus Hook in Pennsylvania, and the mouth of Naaman's Creek just over the circular state line in Delaware."
  6. Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, v. 3, (Philadelphia:M'Carty and Davis, 1834; digitized by Google, 2006), 11. "Chamassungh, or Finland. This place was inhabited by Finns, who had strong houses, but no fort. It lies at the distance of two German miles, east of Christina, by water; and, by land, it is distant two long Swedish miles."
  7. Amandus Johnson, "Detailed Map of New Sweden 1638-1655" in Amandus Johnson's book The Swedes on the Delaware 1638-1664 (Philadelphia: Swedish Colonial Society, 1915), 392.
  8. Johnson, Swedish Settlements, 372. "Johann Companius, who was called by the government to go to New Sweden in 1642, was placed on the new budget, with a salary of 10 R.D. a month and seems to have been looked upon as a sort of military preacher. He was stationed at Christina, but shortly after his arrival here he was transferred to Upland, where he settled with his family and conducted the service at New Gothenborg."
  9. Myers, 150. "If now [the land at] Upland, which belongs to the Company, and is large enough for the sowing of twenty or thirty bushels of grain, might be given to the parsonage for Nertunius, together with the small houses there, it would be very well; then he would need no other salary from the Company." and footnote 4, "Now Chester."
  10. Amandus Johnson, "Detailed Map of New Sweden 1638-1655" in Amandus Johnson's book The Swedes on the Delaware 1638-1664 (Philadelphia: Swedish Colonial Society, 1915), 392.
  11. "Fort Casimir" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at (accessed 7 November 2008).
  12. Philip S. Klein, and Ari Hoogenboom, "A History of Pennsylvania, 2nd ed." (University Park, Penn.: Penn State Press, 1980; digitized by Google at, 11.
  13. Johnson, Detailed Map.
  14. Peter Stebbins Craig, "Chronology of Colonial Swedes on the Delaware 1638-1712" in The Swedish Colonial Society [Internet site] at (accessed 10 November 2008). Originally published in Swedish Colonial News, vol. 2, number 5 (Fall 2001). "1651 - Dutch build Fort Casimir at Sand Hook (New Castle) and abandon Fort Bevers-reede in Schuylkill."
  15. Johnson, Swedes on the Delaware, 294. "In October, Novermber, and December the new freemen were ordered to clear their lands at various places, for the purpose of planting maize in the coming spring; and several fields at Sandhook, at Fort Christina and up at the [Christina] River were cleared and sewn for the benefit of the company with the grain which Mr. Lord had brought in . . ."
  16. "New Sweden" in Wikipedia.
  17. "New Sweden" in Wikipedia.
  18. "New Netherland" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at (accessed 13 December 2008).
  19. "New Netherland" in Wikipedia.
  20.,_Pennsylvania accessed 2/2/2017
  21. This is the name per Delaware County Cemetery Records at:
  22. Philip Syng Physick Conner,"Registers of the Anglican Church in Pennsylvania prior to 1800," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 12 (1888):341-349. For free online access, see WeRelate.
  23. Genealogical Society of Utah, Parish and Vital Records List (July 1998). Microfiche. Digital version at
  24. Genealogical Society of Utah, Parish and Vital Records List (July 1998). Microfiche. Digital version at
  25. Genealogical Society of Utah, Parish and Vital Records List (July 1998). Microfiche. Digital version at
  26. The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania accessed 10 July 2012.
  27. Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania, Clerk of Courts in (accessed 25 Aug 2012)
  28. The Philadelphia Courts at accessed 10 July 2012
  29. John B.B. Trussell and Charles C. Dallas, The Pennsylvania Line; Regimental Organization and Operations, 1776-1783 (Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1977). Digital version at Family History Archive.
  30. Genealogical Society of Utah, Parish and Vital Records List (July 1998). Microfiche. Digital version at
  31. Genealogical Society of Utah, Parish and Vital Records List (July 1998). Microfiche. Digital version at