Cumberland County, Pennsylvania Genealogy

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Guide to Cumberland County, Pennsylvania ancestry, genealogy and family history, birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, family history, and military records.

County Facts
County seat: Carlisle
Organized: January 27, 1750
Parent County(s): Lancaster[1]
Neighboring Counties
Perry  • Franklin  • Adams  • Dauphin  • York
See County Maps
Cumberland County, Pennsylvania Courthouse.jpg
Location Map
Cumberland County PA Map.png
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County Information[edit | edit source]

Description[edit | edit source]

The county is located in the south-central area of the state.[2]

County Courthouse[edit | edit source]

Cumberland County Courthouse
1 Courthouse Square
Carlisle, PA 17013
Phone: 717-240-6100
Toll Free: 1-888-697-0371
Fax: 717-24-.6571
Recorder of Deeds Phone: 717-240-6370 Toll Free: 888-697-0371 Extension: 6370 Email:
Register of Wills and Clerk of Orphans' Court Phone: 717-240-6345 Toll Free: 888-697-0371 Extension 6345
Prothonotary Office Phone: 717-240-6195 Email:
County Archives
Cumberland County Website

Many records stored at the courthouse are now available online.[3] County Archives holds deeds (1831-1908), mortgages (1839-1924), births, marriages, and deaths (1852-1855), letters of administration (1887-1937) and more.
Register of Wills has birth and death records from 1894-1905, marriage records from 1885 and probate records from 1750
Prothonotary Office has divorce and court records form 1751
Recorder of Deeds has land records from 1751[4]

Cumberland County, Pennsylvania Record Dates[edit | edit source]

Information for this chart was taken from various sources, often containing conflicting dates. This information should be taken as a guide and should be verified by contacting the county and/or the state government agency.

Known Beginning Dates for Major County Records[5]
Birth* Marriage Death* Court Land Probate Census
1894 1885 1894 1751 1751 1750 1790
*Statewide registration for births and deaths began in 1906. General compliance by 1915.

Record Loss[edit | edit source]

The courthouse in Carlisle burned down in 1845, but record loss was minimal. No lost record sets have been identified.

Boundary Changes[edit | edit source]

  • Formed from Lancaster County 27 January 1750.[6]
  • County seat: Carlisle[7]
  • 10 March 1682: Chester County was created from the Colonial lands, including the whole part of future Cumberland County.
  • 14 October 1728: Lancaster County was set off from Chester County, including the future Cumberland County.
  • 9 March 1771: Bedford County was created from Cumberland County. By this time, Cumberland County included all what is now of Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, Franklin, plus parts of Centre, Union, Snyder counties as well as the current county.
  • 9 September 1784: Franklin County was set off, no part of it was taken for any future counties.
  • 19 September 1789: Mifflin County was created from Cumberland and Northumberland counties, including the parts for future Centre and Juniata Counties.
  • 22 March 1820: Perry County was created from Cumberland County.[8]

For animated maps illustrating Pennsylvania county boundary changes, "Rotating Formation Pennsylvania County Boundary Maps" (1673-1878) may be viewed at the website.

Populated Places[edit | edit source]

For a complete list of populated places, including small neighborhoods and suburbs, visit HomeTown Locator. The following are the most historically and genealogically relevant populated places in this county:[9]

Unincorporated communities
Census-designated places

History Timeline[edit | edit source]

Resources[edit | edit source]

Bible Records[edit | edit source]

Biographies[edit | edit source]

Business, Commerce, and Occupations[edit | edit source]

  • Immigrant Servants Database hosted by Price Genealogy - Includes indentured/imported servants and transported convicts who served labor terms in Colonial York County, Pennsylvania.

Cemeteries[edit | edit source]

Cemeteries of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania online and in print
Tombstone Transcriptions Online
Tombstone Transcriptions in Print (Often more complete)
List of Cemeteries in the County
See Pennsylvania Cemeteries for more information


Additional Cemetery Resources

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The usage of "Mormon" and "LDS" on this page is approved according to current policy.

Census Records[edit | edit source]

Federal Census

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 18,208
1800 25,386 39.4%
1810 26,757 5.4%
1820 23,606 −11.8%
1830 29,226 23.8%
1840 30,953 5.9%
1850 34,327 10.9%
1860 40,098 16.8%
1870 43,912 9.5%
1880 45,977 4.7%
1890 47,271 2.8%
1900 50,344 6.5%
1910 54,479 8.2%
1920 58,578 7.5%
1930 68,236 16.5%
1940 74,806 9.6%
1950 94,457 26.3%
1960 124,816 32.1%
1970 158,177 26.7%
1980 178,541 12.9%
1990 195,257 9.4%
2000 213,670 9.4%
2010 235,406 10.2%
Source: "".

Church Records[edit | edit source]

Church records and the information they provide vary significantly depending on the denomination and the record keeper. For members, they may contain: age, date of baptism, christening, or birth; marriage date and maiden name; death/burial date. For general information about Pennsylvania denominations, see Pennsylvania Church Records.

Cumberland county pennsylvania churches.png

County-wide Database - Multi-denominational

Contains church records of:
  • Jonathan Worrall, J.P./Misc. Marriae Licenses, 1890-1915
  • Big Spring: United Brethren in Christ
  • Boiling Springs: Boiling Springs Methodist Episcopal Church; Otterbein United Methodist Church; St. John's Lutheran Church; United Brethren in Christ
  • Bridgeton: First United Methodist Church
  • Carlisle: Allison United Methodist Church; First Presbyterian Church; First United Methodist Church; German Reformed Church; Grace United Methodist Church; Historical Society Carlisle Marriages and Deaths; Second Presbyterian Church; St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church; United Brethren in Christ
  • Chambersburg: United Brethren in Christ
  • Maurice River: Cumberland Circuit Methodist Episcopal Church; Harmony Circuit Methodist Episcopal Church; Port Elizabeth Methodist Episcopal Church
  • Mechanicsburg: Silver Spring Presbyterian Church; Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church; United Methodist Church
  • Millville: First Presbyterian Church on Maurice River
  • Mount Holly Springs: Wesley United Methodist Church
  • New Cumberland: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church; United Brethren in Christ
  • New Kingstown: Trinity United Methodist Church
  • Newville: Big Spring Presbyterian Church
  • Philadelphia: Cohansey Baptist Church
  • Shippensburg: German Reformed Church; Grace United Church of Christ; Memorial Lutheran Church; Middle Spring Presbyterian Church; Presbyterian Church; United Methodist Church
  • Walnut Bottom: Trinity United Methodist Church
  • 1737-1898 Cumberland County, Pennsylvania Church Records at Ancestry ($). Big Spring Presbyterian Church (Newville, Pa.), Bobenmayer Church (Upper Frankford, Pa.), First Evangelical Lutheran Church (Carlisle, Pa.), Meeting-House Springs, Middle Spring Presbyterian Church, Poplar Evangelical Lutheran Church (Shiremanstown, Pa.), German Reformed Church (Shippenstown, Pa.), St. James Episcopal Church, St. Stephen's Evangelical Lutheran Church (New Kingston, Pa.), First Presbyterian Church (Carlisle, Pa.), Trindle Spring Lutheran Church, Ziegler's Church (Mifflin Twp., Pa.) and other miscellaneous church records.

St. Patrick's, located in Carlisle, was constructed in 1807. Prior to it's construction the area was used as a supply station for the Jesuits.[10]

  • "100 years of the Pittsburgh Catholic Diocese 1843 -1943". Western Pennsylvania Genealogical Society Quarterly, 17:1. FamilySearch Library book 974.8 B2wg. Contains chronolgy, map, county-by-county information.

Attempts to establish a congregation date from as early as 1753 with a permanent structure being built about 1825.[11]

St. John's Church, Carlisle

Registers begin in 1793.[12]

Lutherans began to establish their denomination in the county about the mid 1700s. However, major strides in the growth of the denomination did not occur in Cumberland County, until the mid 1800s.[13]

First Evangelical Lutheran Church, Carlisle

St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Shiremanstown

St. Stephen Evangelical Lutheran Church, New Kingstown

Trindle Spring Evangelical Lutheran Church

Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church, Lemoyne

Silvers' Spring Presbyterian Church, near the present site of Mechanicsburg, was organized in 1734. Meeting House Spring Presbyterian Church was organized in Middleton Township (present site of Carlisle) in 1734. Big Spring Presbyterian Church was organized in what is now the town of Newville by 1737. Falling Spring Presbyterian Church was organized, at a Scotch-Irish settlement in what is now Franklin (formerly Lancaster and then Cumberland counties), in 1738. Middle Spring Presbyterian Church, in Southampton Township, was organized by the 1740s. Upper West Conococheague Presbyterian Church was organized at what is now the town of Mercersburg in 1738. Another Presbyterian church at the "Conococheague Settlement" (present-day Greencastle) was organized by 1738.[15]

First Presbyterian Church

  • 1785-1812 Marriage Record of the First Presbyterian Church, at Carlisle, 1785-1812 (Pennsylvania Archives, Series 2, Vol. 8, Part 4) at Ancestry ($); Google Books

Silver Spring Presbyterian Church

List of Churches and Church Parishes

Court Records[edit | edit source]

For information about records kept in the Orphan's court, Prothonotary Court, Court of Common Pleas, and other courts in counties of Pennsylvania, visit the Pennsylvania Court Records Wiki page.

Thousands of commissioners orders from the 1820s and 1830s have been indexed and digitized at the Cumberland County, PA Archives website.

Court of Common Pleas

  • 1769-1905 Appearance dockets; Adsecturm index, 1750-1894 FHL Film 1010167 (first of 40). Consult listings in both individual volumes and Adsectum index for all parties concerned.

Quarter Sessions

  • 1750-1785 - Greene, Diane E. Cumberland County, Pennsylvania Quarter Session Dockets 1750-1785. Baltimore, Md.: Clearfield, 2001. Digital version at Ancestry ($); FHL Book 974.843 P2g.

Directories[edit | edit source]

Emigration and Immigration[edit | edit source]

For online resources, passenger lists, and specific groups coming to Pennsylvania, see Pennsylvania Emigration and Immigration.

  • Immigrant Servants Database hosted by Price Genealogy - Includes indentured/imported servants and transported convicts who served labor terms in Colonial York County, Pennsylvania.

Ethnic, Political, and Religious Groups[edit | edit source]

For groups that came, see People section of the Pennsylvania Emigration page.

African American

Funeral Homes[edit | edit source]

Genealogies[edit | edit source]

Guardianship[edit | edit source]

The Orphan's Court ensures the best interests of those not capable of handling their own affairs: minors, incapacitated persons, decedents' estates, and more.[16]

Land and Property Records[edit | edit source]

Land and property records can place an ancestor in a specific location and reveal family relationships. Records include: deeds, abstracts, indexes, mortgages, leases, grants, sheriff sales, land patents, maps and more. For more information, see Pennsylvania Land and Property.

Media:Cumberland county pennsylvania townships.pngCumberland county pennsylvania townships.png
About this image

Land records in Cumberland County began in 1750. These records are filed with the Recorder of Deeds office in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

Online Land Indexes and Records

Many records related to land and property can be found at the Cumberland County Archives throughout their record collections, many of which are available online.

Local Histories[edit | edit source]

Maps and Gazetteers[edit | edit source]

Perry CountyDauphin CountyYork CountyAdams CountyFranklin CountyPA CUMBERLAND.PNG
Click a neighboring county
for more resources


Migration[edit | edit source]

Military Records[edit | edit source]

French and Indian War
In 1756, Colonel Armstrong recruited many Scotch-Irish men from Cumberland County. They attacked and destroyed the Indian village at Kittanning (present-day Armstrong).[17]

Colonel Henry Bouquet led a group of Scotch-Irish men from Cumberland County to rescue Fort Pitt. They decisively defeated the Indians at the Battle of Bushy Run.

Reverend John Elder, pastor of Derry and Paxtang churches, recruited Scotch-Irish rangers from his congregation in Cumberland County. Known as the Paxton Rangers or Paxton Boys, they provided security for white settlements between the Blue Mountains and the Susquehanna River. They are remembered for playing a prominent role in Pontiac's War.

Revolutionary War
Local men served in the Cumberland County Militia. A guide at the Pennsylvania State Archives website identifies townships where specific companies recruited soldiers, see Revolutionary War Militia Battalions and Companies, Arranged by County.

Cumberland County men also served in the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment,[18] the 8th Pennsylvania Regiment[19] and the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment.[20]

Civil War

World War II

Later Records
Various military records, including Civil War Board of Relief (1861-1862), Military Bounty Correspondence (1862), Military Enrollment (1870-1874), Military Exonerations (1846-1865), Military Fund (1845-1873), Military Papers Miscellaneous (1840-1923), and Militia Rolls (1849-1861) have been digitized at the Cumberland County, PA Archives website

Naturalization and Citizenship[edit | edit source]

Naturalization records can contain information about immigration and nativity. Prior to 1906, it is rare to find the town of origin in naturalization records. For more information, see Pennsylvania Naturalization The Cumberland County Archives holdings website (see Naturalizations on page 5) has many record groups related to naturalizations, some of which are digitized and available online.
Online Naturalization Indexes and Records

Newspapers[edit | edit source]

Newspapers may contain obituaries, births, marriages, deaths, anniversaries, family gatherings, family travel, achievements, business notices, engagement information, and probate court proceedings. Newspapers are often found in local or university libraries, historical or genealogical societies, or state archives in the area where the newspaper was published. See Pennsylvania Newspapers for more information.

Newspapers of Cumberland County

Online Newspapers

Online Newspaper Abstracts

Obituaries[edit | edit source]

Obituaries are generally found in local newspapers where the person died or where family members lived. Local libraries or societies may have indexes or other sources.

Online Obituary Abstracts

Other Records[edit | edit source]

Poorhouse, Almshouse


Cumberland County has preserved records of local men who served in various government capacities during the 1700s and 1800s, including assessors, attorneys, auditors, clerks of court, commissioners, constables, coroners, election officials, judges, juries, justices of the peace, lumber inspectors, notaries, policemen, poorhouse directors, prothonotaries, recorders of deeds, registrars of wills, sheriffs, surveyors, and treasurers. The records have been indexed and digitized at the Cumberland County, PA Archives website


Constables helped maintain law and order in the community. Many can be identified:

If your ancestors served as a tax collector, you may be able to identify him in these collections:

Voter Registration

  • 1874-1893 Voter Oaths at Cumberland County, PA Archives. Identifies individuals by name, naturalization status, and often township of residence.

Periodicals[edit | edit source]

Probate Records[edit | edit source]

Probate matters in Cumberland County are handled by the Orphans' Court and start when the county was created.

In addition to wills and administrations, the Orphans' Court also handles: audits of accounts of executors, administrators, trustees, and guardians; distribution of estates; appointments of guardians; adoptions; appeals from the Register of Wills; inheritance tax appeals, and various petitions and motions.

Online Probate Indexes and Records

School Records[edit | edit source]

Social Security Records[edit | edit source]

Tax Records[edit | edit source]

  • 1736-1853 Probably the most comprehensive tax-related records available for Cumberland County are not strictly classified as tax records at all. These records are in fact the Tax Rates Books, which are records of the Cumberland County Commissioner's Office (now housed in the Cumberland County Archives). They serve as a precursor to County Assessor Records, but they are very easily overlooked when hunting for records. These records, which appear comprehensive and consistently available annually, are online at the Cumberland County Archives in their online archival platform under the Commissioners Record Group. Click HOLDINGS to access to records starting about 1736 intermittently but available annually beginning about 1767 onwards.

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

Vital records are handled by the County Orphans' Court. Between the years 1852-1855 Pennsylvania made a failed attempt to record birth, marriage and death events at the county level. County marriage records were kept in earnest in 1885. Births and deaths, at the county level, were begun in 1893 and kept through 1905. For the most complete set of records, contact the County Orphans' Court.

Birth[edit | edit source]

Early births 1893–1905 are located at the County Orphans' Court. For more information, see Pennsylvania Vital Records.

Marriage[edit | edit source]

Pennsylvania marriages were created by county officials. Contact Cumberland County Courthouse

Death[edit | edit source]

Early deaths 1893–1905 are located at the County Orphans' Court. For indexes and records, 1906 and later, see Pennsylvania Vital Records.

Divorce[edit | edit source]

Divorce records are available through the office of the Prothonotary.

Research Facilities[edit | edit source]

Archives[edit | edit source]

Listed below are archives in Cumberland County. For state-wide archival repositories, see Pennsylvania Archives and Libraries.

Cumberland County Archives
1 Courthouse Square
Carlisle, PA 17013
Phone: 717-240-7886
The Archives holds deeds (1831-1908), mortgages (1839-1924), births, marriages, and deaths (1852-1855), letters of administration (1887-1937) and more.

National Archives at Philadelphia
14700 Townsend Road
Philadelphia, PA 19154-1096
Phone: 215-305-2044
Fax: 215-305-2052

Local Archives[edit | edit source]

Cumberland County Archives
1 Courthouse Square
Carlisle, PA 17013
Phone: 717-240-7886
Hours: Monday 10-3 OR by appointment (Mon-Fri)

Cumberland County is one of many jurisdictions which increasingly digitizes its archival collections. As such, they have an online platform with many types of records, many quite obscure, which can be viewed by the public. This platform can be reached directly here.

The Cumberland County Archives Department holdings are organized into record collections. All their archival holdings, digital or otherwise, are summarized and listed in this online platform, so this can be a good resource to help plan a research trip. Collections with digital content have a camera icon next to them. The contents available online are likely to increase over time, so it makes sense to check back with them regularly.
Selected Highlights of available digital content at the archives includes (by record group):

Clerk Of Courts Record Group

  • Appointments and Petitions 1791-1956
  • Bastardy Bonds 1788-1908
  • Coroner Inquests 1769-1919
  • Election Returns (Municipal) 1792-1949
  • Elections - Polling Place Changes 1845-1941
  • Grand Jury Reports - Series #1 1788-1888
  • Hawkers And Peddlers License Applications 1758-1899
  • Indentured Servant & Apprentice Matters 1774-1818
  • Indictments 1750-1889
  • Marriage Bonds c. 1761-1786
  • Oyer & Terminer Case Papers 1798-1969
  • Poorhouse Directors Statements 1814-1922
  • Prison Discharges - Eastern State Penitentiary 1873-1887
  • Quarter Sessions Miscellaneous Documents Series #1 1778-1924
  • Retailer Classifications 1823-1846
  • Road & Bridge Papers - Civil Divisions 1750-1949
  • Slave & Slaveowners Register 1779-1841
  • Slave Matters - Miscellaneous 1801-1838
  • Slave Returns 1780-1841
  • Tavern License Petitions 1750-1881
  • Tavern Licenses Unpaid 1813-1837
  • Tax Collector Oaths 1890-1908
  • Trial Lists - Criminal Court 1789-1939
  • Voter Oaths 1874-1893
  • Commissioners Record Group
  • Appointments & Resignations 1817-1952
  • Board Of Relief - Civil War 1861-1863
  • Collateral Inheritance Valuations 1827-1849
  • Contracts & Agreements 1805-1904
  • Correspondence - Miscellaneous 1790-194
  • Eastern State Penitentiary Accounts 1807-1873
  • Military Papers - Miscellaneous 1840-1923
  • Militia Rolls 1849-1861
  • Orders 1784-1947
  • Soldiers Burial Applications 1894-1906
  • Tax Assessors Duplicates 1781-1852
  • Tax Assessors' Returns - Taverns 1832-1859
  • Tax Rates Books 1736-1930
  • Orphan's Court Record Group
  • Marriage Returns 1852-1855
  • Pension Applications - Revolutionary War Series #1 1779-1804
  • Pension Applications - Revolutionary War Series #2 1820-1838
  • Poorhouse Record Group
  • Indentures & Apprenticeships - Children 1870-1912
  • Orders 1812-1948
  • Poorhouse records
  • Prothonotary Record Group
  • Civil Case Papers 1761-1965
  • Insolvent Debtor Petitions Series #1 1750-1764
  • Insolvent Debtor Petitions Series #2 1765-1799
  • Insolvent Debtor Petitions Series #3 1799-1860
  • Mechanics Liens 1836-1993
  • Naturalization Petitions 1798-1942
  • Oaths Of Office - numerous categories 1785-
  • Treasurer Record Group
  • Miscellaneous Accounts - Revolutionary War 1779-1781
  • Miscellaneous Documents - Land Sales 1769-1839
  • Tax Collectors Accounts - Delinquent Taxes 1788-1861

In its physical holdings, the Archives holds deeds (1831-1908), mortgages (1839-1924), births, marriages, and deaths (1852-1855), letters of administration (1887-1937) and much more.

Family History Centers[edit | edit source]

Family History Center and Affiliate Library Locator map - link to search for local Family History Centers or Affiliate Libraries

  • Family History Centers provide one-on-one assistance, free access to center-only databases, and to premium genealogical websites.
  • FamilySearch Affiliate Libraries have access to most center-only databases, but may not always have full services normally provided by a family history center.

Local Centers and Affiliate Libraries

Libraries[edit | edit source]

Listed below are libraries in Cumberland County. For state-wide library facilities, see Pennsylvania Archives and Libraries.
Gardner Digital Library is maintained by the Cumberland County Historical Society

Cumberland County Library System Headquarters
400 Bent Creek
Mechanicsburg, PA 17050
(717) 240-6175

Cumberland County Library System (CCLS) leads the way in the delivery and support of Cumberland County's public library services. We're the busiest library system in Pennsylvania! We circulate more books per person than any other library system in the state each year. website

Museums[edit | edit source]

Societies[edit | edit source]

Listed below are societies in Cumberland County. For state-wide genealogical societies, see Pennsylvania Societies.

Cumberland County Historical Society
21 North Pitt Street
P.O. Box 626
Carlisle, PA 17013
Phone: 717-249-7610

Websites[edit | edit source]

Research Guides[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Pennsylvania.At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  2.,_Pennsylvania accessed 2/2/2017
  3. Dick Eastman, "Cumberland County, Pennsylvania Archives Go Online," Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter, 15 July 2009,, accessed 5 September 2012.
  4. The Handybook for Genealogists : United States of America, 10th ed., (Draper, UT: Everton Publishers, 2002) Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, p.589
  5. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Pennsylvania.At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  6. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Pennsylvania.At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  7. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Pennsylvania.At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  8. Pennsylvania line : a research guide to Pennsylvania genealogy and local history, 1990 ed (Laughlintown, Pa.: Southwest Pennsylvania Genealogical Services, 1990), [FHL book 974.8 D27p 1990].
  9. Wikipedia contributors, "Cumberland County, Pennsylvania," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia,,_Pennsylvania, accessed 17 January 2020.
  10. Pliny A. Durant, J. Fraise Richard, Bennett Bellman, "History of Cumberland and Adams Counties, Pennsylvania" (Chicago: Warner, Beers and Company, 1886), 216. WorldCat 4592541; FHL book 974.84 H2h
  11. Pliny A. Durant, J. Fraise Richard, Bennett Bellman, "History of Cumberland and Adams Counties, Pennsylvania" (Chicago: Warner, Beers and Company, 1886), 212. WorldCat 4592541; FHL book 974.84 H2h
  12. Philip Syng Physick Conner,"Registers of the Anglican Church in Pennsylvania prior to 1800," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 12 (1888):341-349. For online access, see WeRelate.
  13. Pliny A. Durant, J. Fraise Richard, Bennett Bellman, "History of Cumberland and Adams Counties, Pennsylvania" (Chicago: Warner, Beers and Company, 1886), 217. WorldCat 4592541; FHL book 974.84 H2h
  14. Genealogical Society of Utah, Parish and Vital Records List (July 1998). Microfiche. Digital version at
  15. Wayland F. Dunaway, The Scotch-Irish of Colonial Pennsylvania (Chapel Hill, N.C.: The University of North Carolina Press, 1944), 59-64. Free digital version at PA's Past: Digital Bookshelf at Penn State.
  16. The Philadelphia Courts at Common Pleas accessed 10 July 2012
  17. Wayland F. Dunaway, The Scotch-Irish of Colonial Pennsylvania (Chapel Hill, N.C.: The University of North Carolina Press, 1944), 150-154. Free digital version at PA's Past: Digital Bookshelf at Penn State.
  18. John B.B. Trussell and Charles C. Dallas, The Pennsylvania Line; Regimental Organization and Operations, 1776-1783 (Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1977). Digital version at Family History Archive.
  19. Wikipedia contributors, "8th Pennsylvania Regiment,", accessed 31 May 2012.
  20. Wikipedia contributors, "9th Pennsylvania Regiment,", accessed 31 May 2012.