Cayuse Indians

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Guide to Cayuse Indians ancestry, family history and genealogy: birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, parish registers, and military records.

United States Gotoarrow.png American Indians Gotoarrow.png Oregon Gotoarrow.png Washington Gotoarrow.png Indians of Oregon Gotoarrow.png Indians of Washington Gotoarrow.png Cayuse Indians

-Cayuse girl with-her-proudly-decked-horse.jpg

Tribal Headquarters

The Umatilla Reservation was established in 1855 for the Cayuse, Umatilla, and Walla Walla Indians. They joined together as the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation in 1949.

Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation
PO Box 638
73239 Confederated Way
Pendleton, Oregon 97801
Phone: 1-541-276-3165
FAX: 1-541-276-3095


Brief Timeline

1836: Marcus Whitman and Henry Spalding and their wives founded a Presbyterian mission - Waiilatpu

1847-50: Cayuse War, one cause was the spread of measles; the Whitman's were killed.

1853: The tribe settled with the Umatilla and Walla Walla on a reservation in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington.

  • 1855 June 9, Treaty at Camp Stevens, with the Walla Walla, Cayuse, Etc.,

1855-59: the Cayuse supported the Yakama and Bannock in the Yakama War

1878: the Cayuse supported the Bannock and Yakama in the Bannock War


Ancestral homes along the Columbia River, Grande Ronde, Umatilla and Wallawalla Rivers in northeast Oregon and southeast Washington.


Umatilla Reservation

The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the following Superintendencies

Oregon Superintendency

Washington Superintendency

Additional References

A good history of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation is included on the tribal web site.

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Cayuse tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.

Robert H. Ruby. The Cayuse Indians, Imperial Tribesmen of Old Oregon. Norman, OK. University of Oklahoma Press, 1975. FHL Book 970.3 C318r

Clifford Earl Trafzer. Yakima, Palouse, Cayuse, Umatilla, Walla Walla and Wanapum Indians: an Historical Bibliography. FHL Book 970.1 T676y


The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Agency Records

Correspondence and Census

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records



M234 RG 75 Rolls

Roll Number




Post-1885 Census

M595 RG 75 Rolls

Roll Number




Cayuse Oregon and Washington Sup., 1842-80 Washington D.C. 607-30, 907-20 - 616-20 -


  • June 9, 1855, referred to in Yakima treaty
  • 1855 June 9, at Camp Stevens, with the Walla Walla, Cayuse, Etc.,

Important Websites

For Further Reading

See For Further Reading.