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Buckingham County, Virginia Genealogy

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Guide to Buckingham County Virginia ancestry, family history and genealogy birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, family history, immigration records, and military records.


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Buckingham County, Virginia
Map
Boundary map of Buckingham County, Virginia
Map of Virginia highlighting Buckingham County
Location in the state of Virginia
Map of the U.S. highlighting Virginia
Location of Virginia in the U.S.
Facts
Founded 1758
County Seat Buckingham
Courthouse
VirginiaBuckinghamCourthouse.jpg


County Information[edit | edit source]

Description[edit | edit source]

Buckingham County is located in the Central portion of the Commonwealth of Virginia and the origin of its name is unknown. Some surmise it was named for either a person or place in England; it is the only Buckingham County in the United States[1].

Buckingham County Virginia Courthouse[edit | edit source]

Buckingham County Courthouse
13061 W. James Anderson Hwy.
P.O. Box 107
Buckingham, Virginia 23921-0107
Phone 804-969-4734

Clerk Circuit Court has birth and death records from 1896
marriage, divorce and probate records from 1869[2]

Known Beginning Dates for Major County Records[3]
Birth* Marriage Death* Court Land Probate Census
1896 1869 1896 1868 1762 1869 1810
Statewide registration for births and deaths began in 1912.
General compliance year is unknown.

Buckingham County Virginia History[edit | edit source]

The origin of the county's name is disputed. Some argue it was named after the Duke of Buckingham, others point to the English city or county of Buckingham, while others point out that Archibald Cary's estate was named Buckingham.[4]

Parent County[edit | edit source]

1758--Buckingham County was created 14 September 1758 from Albemarle County. 
County seat: Buckingham [2]

Boundary Changes[edit | edit source]

For animated maps illustrating Virginia county boundary changes, "Rotating Formation Virginia County Boundary Maps" (1617-1995) may be viewed for free at the MapofUS.org website.

Record Loss[edit | edit source]

County court records were destroyed by fire in 1869. One plat book survived the fire along with a few colonial tithe lists and all the Personal Property and Land Tax lists beginning 1782. Some lost wills and deeds were rerecorded later.[5] [6]

Lost censuses: 1790, 1800, 1890

Benjamin Weisiger abstracted a valuable source that includes deed, will, and marriage information about Buckingham County, Virginia Genealogy residents:

  • Burned County Data 1809-1848 As Found in the Virginia Contested Election Files. 1986. By Benjamin B. Weisiger. Richmond, VA FHL Book 975.5 P2w.[7]

Elizabeth Shown Mills

  • Anderson of Buckingham: A Case Study in Family Reconstruction Within a ‘Burned County,’ Part 2: Parental Family of William Anderson (1788–1852). By Elizabeth Shown Mills. A study of the Anderson family of Buckingham County demonstrates how she succeeded in reconstructing a burned-county pedigree in this area: The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 30 (July–September 1986): 174–87, and (October–December 1986): 263–73. Online at: Historic Pathways.

Randy F. McNew Crouse has transcribed every extant personal property tithe and tax list through 1802. This indispensable source contains a vast amount of information on virtually every resident. In two volumes, easily the most complete and valuable publication on this burned county, serves as more than a substitute census, tax records fix time and location more precisely and contain much more information than census records, even when they do exist. For Buckingham, prior to 1820, they do not. "Valuable genealogical conclusions can be deduced from these records, nicknamed "annual censuses," such as: relationships, approximate years of birth, socio-economic status, identification of neighbors, the ability to distinguish between persons of the same name, evidence of land inheritance, years of migration, and years of death." Learn more about Virginia tax lists at Virginia Taxation.

  • Personal Property Tax Lists of Buckingham County Virginia, Vol. 1, 1764-1792. 2017. By Randy F. McNew Crouse. Available at: Lulu ($), FHL. Comprehensive transcription of all extant tithe and personal property tax lists (over 12,000 records) for Buckingham County, Virginia from its formation in 1761 through 1792. Includes 1764, 1773-1774, 1782-1792. All proprietors are named (male or female) along with many additional white males over the age of 16, number of white tithes, number of slave tithes, names of slaves over the age of 12 (until 1783), carriages, ordinary licenses, horses, cattle (1783-1788) and acres of land (1764). 428 pages.
  • Personal Property Tax Lists of Buckingham County Virginia, Vol. 2, 1792-1802. 2017. By Randy F. McNew Crouse. Available at: Lulu ($). Comprehensive transcription of all extant personal property tax lists (over 13,700 records enumerating over 47,000 tithes) for Buckingham County, Virginia from 1792-1802. All proprietors are named (male or female) along with many additional white males over the age of 16, number of white tithes, number of slave tithes, carriages, ordinary licenses and horses. 460 pages.

Buckingham County Virginia Places/Localities[edit | edit source]

Populated Places[edit | edit source]

Buckingham County Virginia Genealogy Resources[edit | edit source]

Research Guides[edit | edit source]

  • A Guide to the Counties of Virginia: Buckingham County. By John Frederick Dorman. The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 1962):121-124. CD available at: American Ancestors ($).
  • Buckingham County, Virginia, and the Southern Parts of Early Albemarle. By Anne Bradbury Peebles. Special Aids to Genealogical Research on Southern Families. National Genealogical Society Special Publications, No. 15, Washington, D.C., 1962.
  • Genealogical Records of Buckingham County, Virginia. 1984. By Edythe Rucker Whitley. Dayton, Ohio.

African American[edit | edit source]

Buckingham County, Virginia Genealogy cohabitation records are available online.

Bible Records[edit | edit source]

Images of the Virginia Historical Society's family Bible collection have been digitized:

  • Harris-Stinson-Carter-Wood-Branch Bible Record, Buckingham County, Virginia. By Hubert M. Stinson. The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1980):41-43. CD available at: American Ancestors ($).
  • Payne Family Bible, Buckingham County, Virginia, and Micapony, Florida. By Caroline Tiedeman Moore. The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1974):304. CD available at: American Ancestors ($).

Cemeteries[edit | edit source]

Tombstone Transcriptions Online Tombstone Transcriptions in Print List of Cemeteries in the county
Findagrave.com Family History Library Findagrave.com
VAGenWeb WorldCat Billion Graves
VAGenWeb Archives
Tombstone Project
Virginia Gravestones
Billion Graves
See Virginia Cemeteries for more information.

For a detailed list, including addresses, phone numbers, and external links, see Buckingham County, Virginia Cemeteries.

The following is a list of cemeteries in Buckingham County: [8]

  • Allen Cemetery
  • Ayers Cemetery
  • Bethel Cemetery
  • Bethlehem Cemetery
  • Bettie Cemetery
  • Branch Cemetery
  • Buckingham Community Cemetery
  • Cornerstone Cemetery
  • County Cemetery
  • Enon Cemetery
  • Fork Union Cemetery
  • Gold Mine Cemetery
  • Hale Cemetery
  • Hubbard Cemetery
  • Mann Cemetery
  • Mount Nebo Cemetery
  • Mourning Valley Cemetery
  • Mulberry Grove Cemetery
  • Newton Cemetery
  • Rocky Mount Cemetery
  • Saint Joy Cemetery
  • Salem Cemetery
  • Shepherd Cemetery
  • Smyrna Cemetery
  • Thomas Cemetery
  • Trinity Cemetery
  • Wade Cemetery
  • Ward Cemetery
  • Whitlock Cemetery

Census[edit | edit source]

Since the 1790 and 1800 Census were burned, tax lists may be used as a substitute. See the "Taxation" section below .

  • Census and Related Documents of Buckingham County. Online at: VAGenWeb.
1850 Census[edit | edit source]

In 1850, census enumerators uncharacteristically recorded both the state and county of birth of residents of half of Buckingham County's population.[9]

1890 Union Veterans[edit | edit source]

Church Records[edit | edit source]

  • Churches of Buckingham County. Online atVAGenWeb.
Baptist[edit | edit source]

Early Baptist churches (with years constituted):

  1. Buckingham (1771).[10] Records were published in 1993: FHL Book 975.5 A1 no. 306.[11]
Materials towards a history of the American Baptists. 1770. By Morgan Edwards. Philadelphia, PA : Joseph Crukshank and Isaac Collins. Online at: Internet Archive (1772), 83.
  1. Providence (1774)[10]
  2. Slate River (1805)[10]
  3. Union (1786)[10]
  4. Wreck Island (1784)[10]

The 10,000 name petition (dated 16 October 1776) has been digitized at the Library of Congress website. It was signed by people from all over Virginia who wanted an end to persecution of Baptists by the Established Church. Baptists and Baptist sympathizers alike signed the petition. To find your ancestor in this record, first check Hall's transcription in the Magazine of Virginia Genealogy (Vols. 35-38, with annotations in Vol. 39), which is available online at Ancestry ($). It is also available in book form at the Family History Library: FHL Book 975.5 B2vs v. 35-39. Then proceed to the Library of Congress website to see the original images.

Buckingham County fell within the bounds of the Appomattox Association.

Church of England[edit | edit source]

Meade's 1861 history of parishes in Buckingham County is available online.[12]

Presbyterian[edit | edit source]
  • History of Maysville Presbyterian Church, Buckingham Court House, Virginia, 1824-1996. c1997. By Carl Coleman Rosen. Buckingham, VA : Maysville Presbyterian Church. At various libraries (WorldCat).
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[edit | edit source]

Early LDS converts with Buckingham County connections:

  • Kitchen

Court[edit | edit source]

Genealogy [edit | edit source]

More than 150 genealogies have been published about Buckingham County families. To view a list, visit Buckingham County, Virginia Compiled Genealogies.

  • A History of Welcome Garrett and His Descendants, From His Birth in 1758 Down to a Recent Date. c1909. By Samuel Bond Garrett. Muncie, Indiana : Hoosier Printing Co. Online at: Google Books.
  • Buckingham Colonial Ancestors. 1920. By George Tracy Buckingham. Chicago, Illinois : n.p. Online at: Hathitrust.
  • Genealogical Records of Buckingham County, Virginia. 1984. By Edythe Whitley, Johns Rucker. Baltimore, MD : Genealogical Pub. Co. Available at FHL.
  • The Cabells and Their Kin : A Memorial Volume of History, Biography, and Genealogy. c1895. By Alexander Brown. Boston, MA : Houghton, Mifflin and Co. Online at: Hathitrust.
  • The Genealogy, in part, of Stephen and William Garrett of Buckingham, Virginia. By Rev. Clyde B. Garrett, Mary E. Gaither. Online at: Ancestry ($).

Land and Property[edit | edit source]

Grants and Patents

Land patents (pre-1779), land grants (after 1779) and surveys are available online at the Library of Virginia website. For step-by-step instructions on retrieving these records, read the Virginia Land and Property article.

Local Histories[edit | edit source]

Maps[edit | edit source]

Albemarle CountyFluvanna CountyCumberland CountyPrince Edward CountyAppomattox CountyNelson CountyVA BUCKINGHAM.PNG
About this image
Click a neighboring county
for more resources

Migration[edit | edit source]

  • Some Delinquent Taxpayers 1787-1790. By Robert Y. Clay. The Virginia Genealogist. Vol. 21, No. 2 (Apr.-Jun. 1977):113-118. CD available at: New England Ancestors ($), FHL. These records often identify migrants who left the county and their intended destinations. Buckingham County's 1787 Delinquent List appears on p. 115.

Military[edit | edit source]

  • Military Related Service Records of Buckingham County. Online at: VAGenWeb.
French and Indian War[edit | edit source]
  • Virginia's Colonial Soldiers. By Lloyd DeWitt Bockstruck. 1988. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co. FHL US/CAN Book 975.5 M2bL.
Revolutionary War[edit | edit source]

Regiments. Service men in Buckingham County served in various regiments. Men often joined a company (within a regiment) that originated in their county. Buckingham County supplied soldiers for the:

- 6th Virginia Regiment

Additional resources:

  • A Census of Pensioners for Revolutionary or Military Services: With their Names, Ages, and Places of Residence, as Returned by the Marshalls of the Several Judicial Districts, Under the Act for Taking the Sixth Census. 1841. Online at: U.S. Census Bureau, Google Books. 1967 reprint: FHL Collection 973 X2pc 1840. See Virginia, Eastern District, Buckingham County on page 129.
  • Rejected or Suspended Applications for Revolutionary War Pensions. Washington, D.C., 1852. Reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1969 and 1991. Reprints include an Added Index to States. Online at: Ancestry. FHL Collection. Virginia section begins on page 238.
  • Virginia Militia in the Revolutionary War: McAllister's Data. c1913. By J. T. McAllister. Hot Springs, Virginia : McAllister Pub. Co. Online at: Hathitrust, Internet Archive, Google Books; At various libraries (WorldCat).
War of 1812[edit | edit source]

Buckingham County men served in the 24th and 100th Regiments.[13]

  • List of Pensioners on the Roll, January 1, 1883; Giving the Name of Each Pensioner, the Cause for Why Pensioned, the Post-Office Address, the Rate of Pension Per Month, and the Date of Original Allowance... 1883. Washington, D.C : Government Printing Office. Online at: Internet Archive, Google Books. See Vol. 5, Virginia, Buckingham County, p. 65.
  • Roster of War of 1812, Southside, Virginia. 2007. By James L. Douthat. Signal Mountain, Tennessee : Mountain Press. Online at: Mountain Press ($) with Free online surname index. FHL Collection.
Civil War[edit | edit source]

Regiments. Service men in Buckingham County, Virginia Genealogy served in various regiments. Men often joined a company (within a regiment) that originated in their county. Listed below are companies that were specifically formed in Buckingham County, Virginia Genealogy:

- 4th Regiment Virginia Cavalry, Company K.
- 20th Regiment Virginia Infantry, Col. E "Lee Guards," and Co. F "Buckingham Institute Guard."[14]
- 21st Regiment Virginia Infantry, Co. E "Buckingham Leaches."[15]
- 44th Regiment Virginia Infantry, Co. C "Travis Rifles."[16]
- 56th Regiment, Virginia Infantry (Confederate). Company D (Buckingham Yancey Guards)[17]
- 57th Regiment, Virginia Infantry (Confederate). Company A (Buckingham Institute).[18]

Records and histories are available, see:

Miscellaneous Records[edit | edit source]

Naturalization and Citizenship[edit | edit source]

Newspapers[edit | edit source]

The Virginia Newspapers Project identifies local Buckingham County, Virginia Genealogy newspapers.

Indexed images of the Virginia Gazette (1736-1780) are available online through the Colonial Williamsburg website. In addition, Professor Tom Costa and The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia have created a database of all runaway advertisements for slaves, indentured servants, transported convicts, and ship deserters listed in this source and other Virginia newspapers (1736-1803), see: The Geography of Slavery in Virginia. These newspapers are valuable resources for all regions of Virginia.

Probate Records[edit | edit source]

  • Some Wills from the Burned Counties of Virginia and Other Wills Not Listed in Virginia Wills and Administrations 1632-1800. 1987. By William Lindsay Hopkins. Richmond, Virginia : W.L. Hopkins. Available at FHL.
  • Will of Joseph Cabell, Buckingham County, Virginia. By George Harrison Sanford King. The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1971):298-302. CD available at: American Ancestors ($).

Online Probate Records

Taxation[edit | edit source]

How can Virginia tax lists help me? "The census taker came every ten years and often missed people. The tax collector came every year and seldom missed anyone." - Carol C. Darrow and Susan Winchester, "The Genealogists Guide to Researching Tax Records"

  • 1764-1792 - Personal Property Tax Lists of Buckingham County Virginia, Vol. 1, 1764-1792. 2017. By Randy F. McNew Crouse. Available at: Lulu ($), FHL. Comprehensive transcription of all extant tithe and personal property tax lists (over 12,000 records) for Buckingham County, Virginia from its formation in 1761 through 1792. Includes 1764, 1773-1774, 1782-1792. All proprietors are named (male or female) along with many additional white males over the age of 16, number of white tithes, number of slave tithes, names of slaves over the age of 12 (until 1783), carriages, ordinary licenses, horses, cattle (1783-1788) and acres of land (1764). 428 pages. Comments and annotations are included, as found in the original lists, describe familial relationships, marital status (widow), physical characteristics, race, occupation, nationality, religion, place of residence and more.Transcribed records are ordered as they appear in the tax lists and, in addition, are ordered alphabetically in a 160 page index section. Includes an introduction and guide to use, a table and graphs to summarize statistics, extensive bibliography, table of alternate surname spellings, list of abbreviations and appendices.
  • 1764 - A Guide to the Buckingham County (VA) Tithable List A-G, 1764. c2012. By Library of Virginia. Richmond, VA : Library of Virginia. Online at: Virginia Heritage.
  • 1764 - Buckingham County, Virginia, Church and Marriage Records, 1764-1822. 1993. By Warren, Mary Bondurant et al. Athens, Georgia : Heritage Papers. Available at FHL Book 975.5 A1 no. 306.
  • 1764 - Virginia's District Courts, 1789-1809: Records of the Prince Edward District: Buckingham, Charlotte, Cumberland, Halifax, and Prince Edward Counties: (Wills to 1829, Deeds to 1816). 1991. By Mary Bondurant Warren and Eve Bondurant Warren Weeks. Danielsville, Georgia : Heritage Papers. Available at FHL. Buckingham County tithables list, 1764 found in the loose case papers.
  • 1773-1774 - Buckingham County, Virginia Tithables, 1773-1774. Original records, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia; also available on microfilm at FHL.
  • 1773-1774 - Virginia Tithables from Burned Record Counties: Buckingham, 1773-1774; Gloucester, 1770-1771, 1774-1775; Hanover, 1763 and 1770; James City, 1768-1769; Stafford, 1768 and 1773. 1970. By Robert F. Woodson, Isobel B. Woodson. Richmond, Virginia : I.B. Woodson. Available at FHL.
  • 1782-1810 - Buckingham County Personal Property Tax Lists 1782-1810. Online at: Binns Genealogy ($).
  • 1782-1826 - Buckingham County Personal Property Tax List 1796-1820. By Paul Heinegg. Online at: Free African Americans. Heinegg abstracted free blacks listed in these records.
  • 1782 - Virginia Tax Payers, 1782-87, Other Than Those Published by the United States Census Bureau. 1940. By Augusta B. Fothergill and John Mark Naugle. Baltimore, MD : Genealogical Publishing Co. Online at: FamilySearch Books Online, FHL 975.5 R4f 1978. 1782 personal property tax list of Buckingham County.
  • 1783 - Personal Property (or Land) Tax List, 1783. Online at: Revolutionary War Service.
  • 1787 - Some Delinquent Taxpayers 1787-1790. By Robert Y. Clay. The Virginia Genealogist. Vol. 21, No. 2 (Apr.-Jun. 1977):113-118. Online at: FHL, American Ancestors ($). These records often identify migrants who left the county and their intended destinations. Buckingham County's 1787 Delinquent List appears on p. 115.
  • 1787 - The 1787 Census of Virginia: An Accounting of the Name of Every White Male Tithable Over 21 Years, the Number of White Males Between 16 & 21 Years, the Number of Slaves over 16 & Those Under 16 Years, Together with a Listing of Their Horses, Cattle & Carriages, and Also the Names of All Persons to Whom Ordinary Licenses and Physician's Licenses Were Issued. c1987. By Netti Schreiner-Yantis and Florene Speakman Love. Springfield, Virginia : Genealogical Books in Print. At various libraries (WorldCat). The source of this publication is the 1787 personal property tax list. Buckingham County is included in Vol. 1.
  • 1788, 1800 - Indexed images of the 1788 and 1800 Personal Property Tax Lists of Buckingham County, Virginia - Binns Genealogy.
  • 1792-1802 - Personal Property Tax Lists of Buckingham County Virginia, Vol. 2, 1792-1802. 2017. By Randy F. McNew Crouse. Available at: Lulu ($). Comprehensive transcription of all extant personal property tax lists (over 13,700 records enumerating over 47,000 tithes) for Buckingham County, Virginia from 1792-1802. All proprietors are named (male or female) along with many additional white males over the age of 16, number of white tithes, number of slave tithes, carriages, ordinary licenses and horses. 460 pages.
  • 1792 - Personal Property Tax Lists of Buckingham County Virginia, Vol. 2, 1792-1802. 2017. By Randy F. McNew Crouse. Available at: Lulu ($). Comprehensive transcription of all extant personal property tax lists (over 13,700 records enumerating over 47,000 tithes) for Buckingham County, Virginia from 1792-1802. All proprietors are named (male or female) along with many additional white males over the age of 16, number of white tithes, number of slave tithes, carriages, ordinary licenses and horses. 130 page index. An illustrated appendix on Riding Carriages is a very interesting added feature.
  • 1800 - Buckingham County, Virginia 1800 Tax List. The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 1968):114-118; Vol. 12, No. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1968):162-168; Vol. 13, No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1969):23-27. CD available at: New England Ancestors ($).
  • 1815 - 1815 Directory of Virginia Landowners (and Gazetteer). By Roger D. Ward. c1997. Athens, Georgia: Iberian Pub. Co. FHL 975 E4w. At various libraries (WorldCat). The source for this publication is the 1815 land tax. Buckingham County is included in Vol. 1.

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

Indexes to Buckingham County, Virginia Genealogy births, marriages, and deaths are available online. These collections are incomplete, but are easy to search. Most records can also be ordered electronically online as well. Courtesy: FamilySearch. See also How to order Virginia Vital Records

Birth[edit | edit source]
Marriage[edit | edit source]
Divorce[edit | edit source]
Death[edit | edit source]
Vital Record Substitutes[edit | edit source]

The Virginia Historical Society's Marriage and Obituary Index, 1736-1820 (newspaper abstracts) is available at FamilySearch. Images of the original index cards are browseable, arranged alphabetically by surname.

Buckingham County Virginia Genealogy Societies and Libraries[edit | edit source]

Family History Centers[edit | edit source]

Family history centers provide one-on-one assistance and free access to premium genealogical websites. In addition, many centers have free how-to genealogy classes. See family history center for more information. Search the online FHC directory for a nearby family history center.

Buckingham County Virginia Genealogy Websites[edit | edit source]

Buckingham County Virginia Genealogy References[edit | edit source]

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckingham_County,_Virginia
  2. 2.0 2.1 Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Buckingham County, Virginia. Page 711 At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  3. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Buckingham County, Virginia . Page 710-723 At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002; Alice Eichholz, ed. Ancestry’s Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources, Third ed. (Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2004), 715-720.
  4. Wikipedia Contributors, "Buckingham County, Virginia," in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckingham_County,_Virginia, accessed 12 January 2012.
  5. Burned Record Counties (VA-NOTES). (n.d.). Library of Virginia. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from http://www.lva.virginia.gov/public/guides/va22_burnedco.htm.
  6. Lost Records Localities: Counties and Cities with Missing Records, 2, in Library of Virginia (accessed 4 April 2014).
  7. John Frederick Dorman, "Review of Burned County Data 1809-1848," in The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 31, No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1987):60-61.
  8. USGS Map, Topozone.com
  9. John Frederick Dorman, "Review of Buckingham County, Virginia, 1850 United States Census," in The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1985):64. FHL Book 975.5 B2vg v. 29 (1985); digital version at American Ancestors ($).
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Robert Baylor Semple and George William Beale, A History of the Rise and Progress of the Baptists in Virginia (Pitt and Dickinson, 1894), 272. Digital version at Google Books.
  11. Mary Bondurant Warren, Buckingham County, Virginia, Church and Marriage Records, 1764-1822 (Athens, Ga.: Heritage Papers, 1993). FHL Book 975.5 A1 no. 306.
  12. William Meade, Old Churches, Ministers and Families of Virginia, 2 vols. (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott and Co., 1861). Digital versions at Internet Archive: Vol. I and Vol. II.
  13. Stuart Lee Butler, A Guide to Virginia Militia Units in the War of 1812 (Athens, Ga.: Iberian Pub. Co., 1988), 59. FHL Book 975.5 M2bs.
  14. G.L. Sherwood and Jeffrey C. Weaver, 20th and 39th Virginia Infantry (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, c1994). FHL Book 975.5 M2vr v. 105.
  15. Susan A. Riggs, 21st Virginia Infantry (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, c1991). FHL Book 975.5 M2vr v. 72.
  16. Kevin C. Ruffner, 44th Virginia Infantry (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, 1987). FHL Book 975.5 M2vr v. 39.
  17. William A. Young Jr. and Patricia C. Young, 56th Virginia Infantry (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, 1990). FHL Book 975.5 M2vr v. 63.
  18. Charles W. Sublett, 57th Virginia Infantry (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, 1985). FHL Book 975.5 M2vr v. 21.