British Columbia First Nations
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History[edit | edit source]
The people inhabiting the British Columbia coastline were culturally distinct from other tribes on the continent. There were broad groups that were culturally similar but were subdivided into a number of tribes and bands. They were frequently enemies. Although there were differences in the degree to which the customs were practiced by each tribe or band, they all had social classes of royalty and/or nobles, commoners, and slaves. Each group practiced the custom of the potlatch. The potlatch was the custom of a man having a huge feast to which he invited others and gave away vast amounts of goods. There were positive and negative effects to this custom. In some tribes, slaves might be absorbed into the tribe while in others they were always slaves.
Vast trading routes existed up and down the coast as well as inland along the rivers. The tribes of the interior of British Columbia were already using metal implements and other items of European origin before first contact.
The northwest coast of the continent was touched by Europeans and Americans differently than was the east coast. The first contact was with explorers and traders, not those who intended to settle the land. The white men came for different reasons – to map the coastline, to find a passage that would connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and for the lucrative fur trade. Contact was made almost as early as it was on the east coast. Explorers and traders were present along the coast from the late 1500’s, including Russian, British, Spanish, and American expeditions. Trading posts and forts began to be established as early as the late 1700’s.
The coast of British Columbia is relatively narrow, 150 miles wide at the widest, and rises dramatically to a high desert plateau. The tribes in this area were more like the plains tribes further to the east although there were still influences from the coastal tribes.
First contact with the interior tribes was from fur traders who came overland. Notably Alexander McKenzie and Simon Fraser explored the area with the intent to establish the fur trade. Both men were instrumental in the establishment of trading posts.
The people did not escape the diseases that decimated other tribes across the continent. The diseases spread rapidly from east to west. Some tribes experienced smallpox epidemics before first contact with white men. Although pre-contact estimates of populations are unreliable, all the populations were dramatically reduced, some by two-thirds or more.
By the first half of the 1800’s, the native people were offered employment by the Hudson’s Bay Company and others who had established posts. Two major changes occurred in the traditional lifestyle of the people: they were offered employment by those who established the posts, usually causing them to leave their villages, and were introduced to new and destructive influences.
Tribes and Bands (First Nations) of British Columbia[edit | edit source]
Coast Salish, live on the Lower Fraser River and southern Vancouver Island.
Nootka, live on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
Kwakiut, live on the northeast coast of Vancouver Island and the mainland opposite.
Bella Coola, live in and around town of Bella Coola .
Tsimshiam, live on the Skeena and Nass Rivers.
Haida, on Queen Charlotte Islands.
- Map depicting general distribution of tribes in British Columbia can be found at British Columbia Ministry of Education
- British Columbia: Ministry of Native Affairs. The Aboriginal Peoples of British Columbia: A Profile. FHL book 970.1 Ab76a WorldCat
- Farrand, Livingston, Traditions of the Chilcotin Indians. New York: AMS Press. 1975. FHL book 970.1 B63j v. 2 pt. 1
- Goddard, Pliny Earle, Indians of the Northwest Coast. New York: Cooper Square Pub. 1972. FHL book 970.1 G541i or Film 1421588 item 9.
- Indians of British Columbia by Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. FHL Book 970.1 D44b WorldCat
- Jenness, Diamond. The Sekani Indians of British Columbia. FHL book 970.3 Se47j WorldCat
- A listing of federally recognized tribes of British Columbia is found at Native Tribes of the United States and Canada
Archives Libraries and Museums[edit | edit source]
Glenbow Archive, Library, and Museum
The Glenbow Archives and Library, has an excellent collection of resources for the study of Métis genealogy. Their sources cover predominantly Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and some parts of the Northwest Territories, Ontario, and British Columbia.
Most of our sources pertain to people who were living in the Prairie Provinces in 1900 or earlier.
One unique collection is the Gail Morin who donated her 40,000 name data base to the archive in 2011. The data base is ancestral quest format and all in families with sources.
Contact: Glenbow Archives
130 - 9 Avenue
SE Calgary, Alberta T2G 0P3
Reference Desk telephone: 403-268-4204
Important Websites[edit | edit source]
List of Indian Tribes in British Columbia and other locations in Canada and the United States, from the University of British Columbia Library.
A timeline of historic events is located at British Columbia History
Records[edit | edit source]
The "Ahousat" Indians Reserve located on Flores Island off the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Record contains some birth, marriage and death records. FHL Film: 924503 WorldCat
A detailed guide to researching aboriginal records is found at Library and Archives Canada
The 1877 Indian Reserve Commission Census of interior British Columbia can be found at Library and Archives Canada
Indian Registers, 1951-1984, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, are maintained at the Library and Archives in Ottawa. Access to these records is restricted. Inquiries must be directed to the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs.
Vital Records[edit | edit source]
"Indians as well as Chinese, were excluded from the Birth, Marriages and Deaths Act of 1872.In 1877 the exclusionary section was removed and in 1897 the Act was made applicable to "all races and nationalities, including all Indians and person of Indian blood, Chinese and Japanese. In1916 amended to allow the Registrar to "accept returns to be made monthly by the respective Indian Agents in the Province, those returns were made on special forms and kept separate and apart from the other returns. In 1943 the registration of Indian births, marriages and deaths was made mandatory; special forms and filing was continued. The special forms and separate filing were discontinued after 1956." 
- Leavitt, Flora Hilda. The "Ahousat" Indians reserve located on Flores Island off the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Includes birth, marriage and death records FHL film 924503 itme 1
References[edit | edit source]
- Bill Russell, Records of the Federal Department of Indian Affairs at the National Archives
of Canada: A source for genealogical research, The Ontario Genealogical Society, 1998
- Finding Aid (FA) 10-202: a guide to Indian bands and agencies in British Columbia, Library & Archives of Canada, Canadian Genealogy Center , http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/genealogy/022-607.002.01.01-e.html
- Canada Gazetteer Atlas, University of Chicago Press, 1980. Shows Reserves and smaller communities of First Nations.
- Schedule of Indians Bands, Reserves, and Settlements , Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Canada.
- Atlas of Indian Reserves and Settlements of Canada, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Canada
- Indian Registrations Guide. March 2011. by Royal British Columbia Museum
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Jenness, Diamond. Indians of Canada. National Museum of Canada, Bulletin 65, Anthropological Series No. 15
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145