Angola History

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History

Angola (/ænˈɡoʊlə/) is a west-coast country of south-central Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa, bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda.

Angola has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era and what is now Angola was molded by Portuguese colonization. For centuries limited to, coastal settlements and trading posts established starting in the 16th century. In the 19th century, European settlers slowly and hesitantly began to establish themselves in the interior. The Portuguese colony that became Angola did not have its present borders until the early 20th century because of resistance groups.

Independence was achieved in 1975 as the Marxist–Leninist People's Republic of Angola, a one-party state supported by the Soviet Union and Cuba. The civil war between the ruling People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola and the insurgent anti-communist National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, supported by the United States and apartheid South Africa, lasted until 2002. The sovereign state has since become a relatively stable unitary, presidential constitutional republic.

Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, and its economy is among the fastest-growing in the world however, the standard of living remains low for most of the population, and life expectancy in Angola is among the lowest in the world, while infant mortality is among the highest.

Angola is a highly multiethnic country, Angola's 25.8 million people span tribal groups, customs, and traditions. Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, in the predominance of the Portuguese language and of the Catholic Church.
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Timeline

1575 - Luanda was settled with a hundred families and four hundred soldiers
1617 - Benguela was fortified in 1587 and became a township in 1617
1641 - 1648 The Dutch occupied Luanda
1641 - 1681 Portugal gained control of the coast through a series of treaties and wars and life for European colonists was difficult
1836 - The slave trade was abolished in Angola
1854 - The colonial government freed all its existing slaves
1884–1885 - Berlin Conference in 1884–1885 set the colony's borders, delineating the boundaries of Portuguese claims in Angola
1961 - 1973 Angolan demands for self-determination provoked an armed conflict which erupted in into a protracted war of independence that persisted for the next twelve years
1974 - The collapse of Portugal's government following the Carnation Revolution suspended all Portuguese military activity in Africa
1975 - The Angolan Civil War was a major civil conflict in Angola that began immediately after Angola became independent from Portugal
1992 - The Marxist–Leninist Popular Movement secured a major electoral victory
1992 - National Union for the Total Independence of Angola objected to the results of both the presidential and legislative vote count and returned to war. Following the election, the Halloween massacre occurred from October 30 to November 1, where The Marxist–Leninist Popular Movement forces killed thousands of National Union for the Total Independence of Angola supporters
1975 - 2002 - The end of a 27-year-long civil war and the government continues to resettle internally displaced persons as its economy recovers and expands, The civil war internally displaced four million people, one third of Angola's population