Abenaki Tribe

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United States Gotoarrow.png American Indians Gotoarrow.png Vermont Gotoarrow.png Indians of Vermont Gotoarrow.png Abenaki Tribe

Basic Facts[edit | edit source]

Location: New England; Southeastern Quebec

Language: Algonquian

Eastern Abenaki: Penobscot and Passamaquoddy (two largest tribes), Houlton, Maliseet, Androscoggin, Kennebec, Ossipee, and Pigwacket.

Western Abenaki: Vermont Abenaki

Well known Leaders: Massasoit, son of Massasoit Metacom (King Phillip), Samoset,

Tribal Headquarters[edit | edit source]

Abenaki Tribal Council
P.O. Box 276
Missiquoi, Vermont 05488

History[edit | edit source]

Brief Timeline[edit | edit source]

War, famine and disease depopulation the tribes in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

1524: French expediton led by Giovanni da Verranzano was early recorded contact with non Indians

1600's: Fur trading began with the French and English.

1600'S: Their villages raided by the Iroquois.

1604: Samuel de Champlain a fur trader encountered many of the Abenaki tribes.

1675-1676: King Phillip's War

1689-1697: Joined the French against the English

Inter tribal conflict with the Micmac

Jesuit missionaries were the first, with the Roman Catholic and Protestant missionaries following

1702-1713: Queen Anne's War

1722- 1727: Dummer's War / Lovewell's War; initially an effort to defend their rights to their land supported and the French Jesuits.

1744-1748: King George's War -- the Abenaki, Missisquoi, St. Frances and Sokoki joined the French in fighting the English.

1756-1763 Seven Years' War or French and Indian War

1776-----: During the Revolutionary War the St. Francis Abenaki served with the British; the Panobscot, Passamaquoddy, Maliseet and Micmac supported the colonists

Migration into Canada as Vermont denied land to the Abenaki

1805: The British gave land to the Abenaki (Canada)

1980: President Carter signed a bill granting Passamaquoddy and Penobscot millions in restitution for the loss of their homelands.

1982: Vermont Abenaki applied for federal recognition

Reservations[edit | edit source]

Penobscot Reservation

Old Town, Maine

Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Band[edit | edit source]

Abenaki Indian Legends, Grammar and Place Names. by Henry Lorne Masta, Victoriaville, P.Q, La Voix des Bois-France 1932. FHL Book: 970.2 Ab7im

Abenaki Indians: Their Treaties of 1713 and 1717, and a Vocabularty, with a Historical Introduction. by Frederic Kindder, FHL Film 1688409

Records[edit | edit source]

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Census Records[edit | edit source]

Census Records census of various Abenaki groups, early 1800-1852.

Important Websites[edit | edit source]

  • Constitution of the Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook-Abenaki People of the Greater Abenaki Nation of the Wabanaki Confederation of N'dakinna approved 2005
  • Abenaki Wikipediadescribes subdivisions, history, culture, maps, notable people, and external links.

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published

References[edit | edit source]