United States Census, 1880 - FamilySearch Historical Records
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United States Census, 1880
|This article describes a collection of records at FamilySearch.org.|
|Flag of the United States of America|
|US Flag 1877-1890 (38 stars)|
|National Archives and Records Administration Logo|
|Record Type||Population Schedules|
|Record Group||RG 29: Records of the Bureau of the Census, 1790-2007|
|Microfilm Publication||T9. Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. 1454 rolls.|
|Arrangement||Arrange alphabetically by state, and by county or parish.|
|National Archives Identifier||2353572|
|National Archives and Records Administration|
What is in This Collection?[edit | edit source]
The collection consists of an index and images to population schedules listing inhabitants of the United States and place of residence on June 1,1880. The relationship given for each individual is to the head of household. The population schedules are from NARA publication T9 Tenth Census of the United States,1880 and is part of Record Group 29 Records of the Bureau of the Census.
Population schedules were recorded on large sheets with rows and columns. The schedules are arranged by state, county, place, and enumeration district. The districts are not always filed in sequential order. The arrangement of families on a schedule is usually the order in which the enumerator visited the households.
Federal census takers were asked to record information about all the people who were in a household on the census day, which was June 1 for the 1880 census. A census taker might have visited the residence on a later date, but the information collected was to have been about the people in the residence on the census day. The basic census enumeration unit was the county. Each county was divided into enumeration districts, one for each enumerator. The completed forms were sent to the Census Office of the Commerce Department in Washington, D.C. The schedules cover 95 to 97 percent of the population.
The U.S. federal census has been taken at the beginning of every decade, beginning in 1790, to apportion the number of representatives a state could send to the House of Representatives. In the absence of a national system of vital registration, many vital statistics and personal questions were asked to provide a statistical profile of the nation and its states.
Federal censuses are usually reliable, depending on the knowledge of the informant and the care taken by the census enumerator. Realize that any family member or even a neighbor may have supplied information to the census taker. Some information may have been incorrect or deliberately falsified.
- Related Collections
- United States Census Records County Copies, 1850-1880
- United States Census Records Nonpopulation Census Schedules-1820, 1850-1880
Additional records and/or images may be added to this collection in the future.
Image Visibility[edit | edit source]
Whenever possible FamilySearch makes images and indexes available for all users. However, rights to view these data are limited by contract and subject to change. Because of this there may be limitations on where and how images and indexes are available or who can see them. Please be aware some collections consist only of partial information indexed from the records and do not contain any images. For additional information about image restrictions see Restrictions for Viewing Images in FamilySearch Historical Record Collections.
To Browse This Collection[edit | edit source]
|You can browse through images in this collection using the waypoints on the Collection Browse Page for United States Census, 1880.|
What Can These Records Tell Me?[edit | edit source]
The following information may be found in these records:
- Town/city, county and state in which census was taken
- Enumeration date of census
- House number and family number
- Name of head of household
- Name of all persons living in household
- Gender and race of each person in household
- Age prior to June 1st of 1880
- Month of birth if born in 1880
- Relationship to head of household
- Marital status of each person (single, married, widowed or divorced)
- Note if married during census year
- Occupation of each member of household
- Note if each member of household can read and write
- Place of birth for each member of household
- Place of birth of father of each member of household
- Place of birth of mother of each member of household
How Do I Search This Collection?[edit | edit source]
To begin your search it is helpful to know the following:
- The name of your ancestor
- The approximate age and birth place of your ancestor
- The state and county where your ancestors lived
- The names of other family members and neighbors
Search the Index[edit | edit source]Search by name on the Collection Details Page.
- Fill in the search boxes in the Search Collection section with the information you know
- Click Search to show possible matches
View the Images[edit | edit source]View images in this collection by visiting the Collection Browse Page:
- Select State
- Select County
- Select Township, or other division of county
- Select Enumeration District to view the images
How Do I Analyze the Results?[edit | edit source]
Compare each result from your search with what you know to determine if there is a match. This may require viewing multiple records or images. Keep track of your research in a research log.
What Do I Do Next?[edit | edit source]
I Found the Person I Was Looking For, What Now?[edit | edit source]
- Add any new information to your records
- Use the age listed to determine an approximate birth date. This date along with the place of birth can help you find a birth record. Birth records often list biographical and marital details about the parents and close relatives other than the immediate family
- Use the race information to find records related to that ethnicity such as records of the Freedman’s Bureau or Indian censuses
- Use the naturalization information to find their naturalization papers in the county court records. It can also help you locate immigration records such as a passenger list which would usually be kept records at the port of entry into the United States
- Remember that as with any index, transcription errors may occur
I Can't Find the Person I'm Looking For, What Now?[edit | edit source]
- Check for variant spellings of the names
- Look for another index. Local historical and genealogical societies often have indexes to local records
- Search neighboring localities or states
- Try alternative search methods such as only filling in the surname search box (or the given name search box) on the landing page leaving the other box empty and then click on search. This should return a list of everyone with that particular name. You could then browse the list for individuals that may be your ancestor
- There is also the possibility that a family was missed in the census
- There may be more than one person in the records with the same name
- Your ancestor may have used different names, or variations of their name, throughout their life
- Even though these indexes are very accurate they may still contain inaccuracies, such as altered spellings, misinterpretations, and optical character recognition errors if the information was scanned
Research Helps[edit | edit source]
The following articles will help you in your research for your family in the United States.
- Strategies for Using U.S. Census
- United States, How to Use Census Records
- Using the Census to find other records about ancestors
- United States Guided Research
- United States Record Finder
- United States Research Tips and Strategies
FamilySearch Catalog[edit | edit source]
- United States Census, 1880
- Census descriptions of geographic subdivisions and enumeration districts, 1880 : NA T1224
- United States, Native American Indian census records : schedules of a special census of Indians, 1880
- Federal mortality census schedules and related indexes : 1850-1880
- Index (Soundex) to the 1880 Population Schedules of the tenth census of the United States
FamilySearch Historical Records[edit | edit source]
State Census Collections
- Illinois, Non-Population Census Schedules, 1850-1880
- Iowa Mortality Schedules, 1850-1880
- Massachusetts, Federal Census Mortality Schedule, 1880
- Michigan Mortality Schedules, 1850-1880
FamilySearch Digital Library[edit | edit source]
- The history and growth of the United States census : prepared for the Senate Committee on the Census
- Population of the state of Texas, by counties, at all censuses. From advanced sheets of certain population tables of the U.S. Census report of 1880
Known Issues[edit | edit source]
Citing This Collection[edit | edit source]
Citations help you keep track of places you have searched and sources you have found. Identifying your sources helps others find the records you used.
The citation for this collection can be found on the Collection Details Page in the section Citing this Collection.
When looking at a record, the citation can be viewed by clicking the drop-down arrow next to Document Information.
When looking at an image, the citation is found on the Information tab at the bottom left of the screen.