Poland Emigration and Immigration

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How to Find the Records[edit | edit source]

Online Resources[edit | edit source]

Index cards of settlement locations, the first group arranged alphabetically by village, which is cross-referenced to names of individual emigrants. Includes village name, jurisdictional unit, and province with "see" references to names of immigrants. The second group is arranged alphabetically by province or country, and by surname. Places of settlement include the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russia, Poland and Italy.
Index cards of German emigrants to eastern Europe, including Hungary, the Banat region (once in Hungary, now in Romania and Yugoslavia), Galicia (formerly in Austria, now divided between Poland and the Ukraine), and Poland. Arranged alphabetically by surname, provide information regarding place of origin and place of settlement, dates and places of birth, death, and marriage, spouse's name, religion, occupation, number of persons accompanying, documentary references, date of and route of emigration, when registered with officials in Vienna, and some biographical notes. Maiden names are cross-referenced to married names.
Index of names of settlers in Russia (includes localities in Hungary, Rumania, Poland, and other countries outside of the Russian Empire and Soviet Union. and those returning to Germany.) Many cards provide birth and death dates, marriage dates, names of spouses, the number of children, when and from where they emigrated, and other genealogical information.
Index cards, arranged alphabetically by governmental jurisdiction, village, and then surname, of German immigrants residing in Russia. Many cards provide birth and death dates, marriage dates, names of spouses, the number of children, when and from where they emigrated, and other genealogical information. A separate set, arranged alphabetically by former Russian town of residence, indicates those who moved back to Germany, but gives no information on where they eventually settled in Germany. Some cards are out of order, and include localities in Hungary, Rumania, Poland, and other countries outside of the Russian Empire and Soviet Union.
These records contain data on subjects of the Russian Empire (Jews, Poles, Ukranians, Lithuanians, Finns, and others) who came to the U.S. in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Includes passports and passport applications, visas, nationality certificates, certificates of origin, inheritance information, contracts, and correspondence. These documents include name, date of birth, exact place of birth, details on family relationships, relatives living in the U.S. and Russia, physical description, photographs, details of military service, reasons for immigration, date and place of immigration, religion, and other information.

Refugees and Holocaust Records[edit | edit source]

The German Government initiated a major expulsion from Germany to Poland of Jews designated as Polish, in 1938. This collection contains a list of children who did not have parents. The information contains the children's names, birth dates, parent's names, and last residence in Germany. The fate of these children is not known.
In 1939, a group of people escaped Poland and fled to Russia. Then in 1940, many of these Polish refugees were expelled to Siberia. They were eventually given amnesty and began to move toward the Asian territories. These people suffered cold, hunger, disease, and many hardships along the way. Many children lost family members. This collection contains the names of about 800 children who arrived in Israel in 1943. Other information included are their age, parents' names, and place of birth.

Finding the Town of Origin in Poland[edit | edit source]

If you are using emigration/immigration records to find the name of your ancestors' town in Poland, see Poland Locating Town of Origin for additional research strategies.

Poland Emigration and Immigration[edit | edit source]

"Emigration" means moving out of a country. "Immigration" means moving into a country.
Emigration and immigration sources list the names of people leaving (emigrating) or arriving (immigrating) in the country. These sources may be passenger lists, permissions to emigrate, or records of passports issued. The information in these records may include the emigrants’ names, ages, occupations, destinations, and places of origin or birthplaces. Sometimes they also show family groups.=== Immigration into Poland ===

  • Significant numbers of immigrants moved to Poland from 1770–1850.
  • Most of these came from Germany, but others came from the Netherlands, France, and even Scotland'. This wave of immigration was caused by offers to settle new lands in Russia. Many of these immigrants had suffered economic losses or religious persecution in their homelands.

Emigration from Poland[edit | edit source]

  • People emigrated from Poland to places such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, France, and South America beginning in the 1820s. *Most early emigrants came from areas under Prussian (German) rule to the United States and, to a lesser degree, France. These included both ethnic Poles and ethnic Germans.
  • The earliest emigrants from Russian-governed Poland were from the districts of Suwalki and Łomża. A great many of these people were Jewish.
  • Most of the early emigrants to the United States settled in Texas; Hamtramck, Michigan; and the Chicago area. Emigration was minimal until 1854, when Poles from Silesia began settling in Texas.
  • A great wave of Polish emigration started in the 1870s.
  • Most later emigrants left from Austrian-governed southern Poland (Galicia) and Russian Poland, destined largely for Illinois, Wisconsin, New York, Michigan, and other areas of the United States.
  • From 1900–15, many Poles settled in Chicago, New York City, Connecticut, New York State, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Massachusetts.
  • From 1870–1914, 3.6 million Poles left from the three empires that controlled Poland. The Russian Poles constituted 53%, those from Galicia 43%, and the Prussian Poles 4% of the total Polish immigration from 1895–1911.

Polish Diaspora[edit | edit source]

  • Wikipedia: The diaspora of the Poles started with the emigrations after the partitions of Poland, January Uprising and the November Uprising, enlarged by the Nazi policies, and later by the establishment of the Curzon line.
  • Historic Poland extended into nearby countries: Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine. For over 600 years, large waves of Polish Émigrés, refugees and guest workers moved across Europe, established themselves in Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK.
  • 19th- and 20th-century Polish immigration extended into the United States, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela, Israel and Australia, as well across the former USSR.
  • After Poland joined the E.U. in 2004, about a million Poles went to find work in the E.U. member states, the largest destinations were the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, France, Spain and Portugal. [1]

Passenger Lists[edit | edit source]

The Polish ports of Gdańsk (Danzig) and Szczecin (Stettin) were primarily freight ports. Not many passengers sailed from these ports. Most emigrants went by train to Germany and then embarked from a German port. The major ports of departure for emigrants from Poland were Hamburg and Bremen, but because Hamburg had more agents and advertising in Eastern Europe, it served more Polish emigrants than Bremen did. The passenger lists of Bremen have not been preserved, but those of Hamburg from 1850 to 1934 are preserved and accessible for research. Information in these lists varies but usually includes names, ages, occupations, and destinations. In addition, relationships and last residence or birthplace may be given. These passenger lists and indexes are most fully described in Hamburg Passenger Lists.

Records of Polish Emigrants in Their Destination Nations[edit | edit source]

Dark thin font green pin Version 4.png One option is to look for records about the ancestor in the country of destination, the country they immigrated into. See links to Wiki articles about immigration records for major destination countries below. Additional Wiki articles for other destinations can be found at Category:Emigration and Immigration Records.

For Further Reading[edit | edit source]

There are additional sources listed in the FamilySearch Catalog:

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "List of diasporas", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_diasporas#P, accessed 5 June 2021.