Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Genealogy

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Guide to Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania ancestry, genealogy and family history, birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, and military records.

This article is about a county in Pennsylvania. For the city, see Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Genealogy

County Facts
County seat: Philadelphia
Organized: March 10, 1682
Parent County(s): Original County
Neighboring Counties
Bucks  • Camden (NJ)  • Montgomery  • Gloucester (NJ)  • Burlington (NJ)  • Delaware
See County Maps
Philadelphia City Hall, Pennsylvania.jpg
Location Map
Philadelphia County PA Map.png
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County Information[edit | edit source]

Description[edit | edit source]

The county is located in the southeastern tip of the state.[1]

County Courthouse[edit | edit source]

Philadelphia County Courthouse
1 Broad and Market Streets 284
Philadelphia, PA 19107
Phone: 215-686-6653 or 215-686-7000
Philadelphia City Hall Phone: 215-686-7000
Clerk of Orphans' Court Phone: 215-686-2230
Recorder of Deeds Phone: 215-686-2260
Office of the Prothonotary Phone: 215-686-6652
Register of Wills Phone: 215-686-6250
Philadelphia County Courthouse

Clerk of Orphan Court has marriage records
Prothonotary Office has divorce and court records from 1874
Register of Wills has probate records
Department Records has land records[2]

Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Record Dates[edit | edit source]

Information for this chart was taken from various sources, often containing conflicting dates. This information should be taken as a guide and should be verified by contacting the county and/or the state government agency.

Known Beginning Dates for Major County Records[3]
Birth* Marriage Death* Court Land Probate Census
bef 1906 1682 bef 1906 1874 1684 1682 1790
*Statewide registration for births and deaths began in 1906. General compliance by 1915.

Record Loss[edit | edit source]

There is no known history of courthouse disasters in this county.

Boundary Changes[edit | edit source]

  • Formed as an original county 10 March 1682. [4]
  • County seat: Philadelphia[5]
  • 14 October 1751: Berks County set off.
  • 10 September 1784: Montgomery County set off.

For animated maps illustrating Pennsylvania county boundary changes, "Rotating Formation Pennsylvania County Boundary Maps" (1673-1878) may be viewed for free at the website.

Populated Places[edit | edit source]

For a complete list of populated places, including small neighborhoods and suburbs, visit HomeTown Locator. The following are the most historically and genealogically relevant populated places in this county:[6]

Historic communities

History Timeline[edit | edit source]

1633-1643: (-1647?) Dutch build a blockhouse (single log cabin fort) "at the Schuylkill" River (now Philadelphia). It was abandoned about 1643.[7] [8] See the New Sweden Genealogy and the New Netherland Genealogy Wiki article for details.

1641: Swedes and Finns spreading north from Fort Christina (present-day Wilmington, Delaware) first settle in Finland (Chamassungh), now Trainer, Pennsylvania[9] [10] [11] and Upland (Meckopenacka), now Chester, Pennsylvania. [12] [13] [14] The New Sweden Genealogy Colony continues to expand northward with new settlements as far as Philadelphia in the following years.

1642: The English build a blockhouse on Province Island (now Philadelphia airport) but are soon removed by the Dutch, probably with help from the Swedish.[15] [16] [17]

1648-1651: The Dutch built Fort Beaversrede (now Philadelphia) inland from the Delaware River to be the first contact for Indian fur traders coming down the Schuylkill River.[18] [19] [20] [21] The Swedes respond by building a blockhouse between the Schuylkill and the Dutch fort in order to obscure the view of the fort from the river.[22] [23]

1651-1655: The New Netherland Genealogy Colony builds Fort Casimir[24] [25] [26] (now New Castle, Delaware), settle Sandhook,[27] [28] [29] and abandon Fort Beversrede in 1651. In 1654 New Sweden Genealogy captures Fort Casimir from the Dutch without a fight and rename it Fort Trinty (Trefaldighets).[30] In 1655 New Netherland Genealogy returns with a large army and all of New Sweden Genealogy in presend-day Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey submits to Dutch rule.[31]

1664: As part of the Second Anglo-Dutch War New Netherland Genealogy including southeast Pennsylvania is surrendered to the English.[32]

1673-1674: A new war breaks out and the Dutch send a large armada to retake New Netherland for a few months. But as the war ends the colony is ceded to England for the last time.[33]

1680s: William Penn founded the English colony of Pennsylvania after receiving a grant in 1681 from the king of England. His colony offered religious freedom, liberal government, and inexpensive land. Quakers established the city of Philadelphia.

November 1682: William Penn selected the name Philadelphia which means Brotherly Love.

1700-1754: Welsh, German, and Scotch-Irish groups arrived.

Much of Philadelphia County's functions to exist with Act of Consolidation, 1854. Further consolidations took place in 1867, 1895, 1937, 1951, 1963 and finally 1965.

Resources[edit | edit source]

Bible Records[edit | edit source]

Biographies[edit | edit source]

Business, Commerce, and Occupations[edit | edit source]

Indentured Servants

  • Immigrant Servants Database hosted by Price Genealogy - Includes indentured/imported servants and transported convicts who served labor terms in Colonial York County, Pennsylvania.

Cemeteries[edit | edit source]

Cemeteries of Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania online and in print
Tombstone Transcriptions Online
Tombstone Transcriptions in Print (Often more complete)
List of Cemeteries in the County
See Pennsylvania Cemeteries for more information

Additional Cemetery Resources

Census Records[edit | edit source]

Federal Census

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 54,391
1800 81,009 48.9%
1810 111,210 37.3%
1820 137,097 23.3%
1830 188,797 37.7%
1840 258,037 36.7%
1850 408,762 58.4%
1860 565,529 38.4%
1870 674,022 19.2%
1880 847,170 25.7%
1890 1,046,964 23.6%
1900 1,293,697 23.6%
1910 1,549,008 19.7%
1920 1,823,779 17.7%
1930 1,950,961 7.0%
1940 1,931,334 −1.0%
1950 2,071,605 7.3%
1960 2,002,512 −3.3%
1970 1,948,609 −2.7%
1980 1,688,609 −13.3%
1990 1,585,577 −6.1%
2000 1,517,550 −4.3%
2010 1,526,006 0.6%
Source: "".

Church Records[edit | edit source]

Church records and the information they provide vary significantly depending on the denomination and the record keeper. For members, they may contain: age, date of baptism, christening, or birth; marriage date and maiden name; death/burial date. For general information about Pennsylvania denominations, see Pennsylvania Church Records.

County-wide Database - Multi-denominational

Philadelphia County Pennsylvania Churches
Contains records of:
  • Court of Quarter Sessions and Common Pleas
  • Chester: Trinity Protestant Episcopal Church
  • Frankford: St. Mark's Episcopal Church
  • Franklinville: Christ Episcopal Church
  • Germantown: St. John the Baptist Church
  • Hestonville: St. James Church
  • Lower Dublin: All Saints Church; All Saints Episcopal Church; Lower Dublin Baptist Church
  • Manoa: Epworth United Methodist Church
  • Perkasie: Heidelberg Reformed Church
  • Philadelphia: See Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Church Records for hundreds of additional church records included in this database
  • Roxborough: Roxborough Baptist Church; St. Alban Church
  • Torresdale: All Saints Episcopal Church
  • West Whiteland: Church of the Atonement
  • 1644-1780 Humphrey, John T. Pennsylvania Births, Philadelphia County, 1644-1780 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Humphrey Publications, 1994-1995. FHL Book 974.811 K2hj.
Contains records of Gloria Dei, Old Swedes, or Wicaco Church (established 1642); Philadelphia Friends Monthly Meeting (est. 1682); Christ Church (est. 1695); First Presbyterian Church (est. 1698); Second Presbyterian Church (est. 1743); Pennypack Baptist Church in Lower Dublin Township (est. 1688); First Moravian Church (est. 1742); St. Michael's (est. 1728) and Zion (est. 1766) Lutheran Church, Philadelphia; First Reformed Church, Philadelphia (est. 1727); St. Michael's Lutheran Church in Germantown (est. 1738); German Reformed Church in Germantown (est. 1727); St. Joseph's Catholic Church (est. 1733); Trinity Episcopal Church in Oxford Township (est. 1698); First Baptist Church in Philadelphia (est. 1762); Friends Monthly Meeting, Pine and Orange Streets (records from 1730s); Scots Presbyterian Church (est. 1767); Personal register of Rev. Blackwell (records from 1750s); Northern District Monthly Meeting at 6th and Noble Sts. (records from 1750s); Southern District Monthly Meeting (records from 1730s); St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church (est. 1760); St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church (est. 1769).
Churches listed in the 1840, 1850 and 1856 M'Elroy's Philadelphia City Directory
Contains Records of:
  • 18th Street Methodist Episcopal Church
  • All Saints (Protestant) Episcopal Church
  • Arch Street Presbyterian Church
  • Broad Street M.E. Church
  • Christ Church
  • German Reformed Chuch
  • First Reformed Church of Philadelphia
  • First Baptism Church
  • First, Second and Third Presbyterian Church
  • Immaculate Conception Church
  • Logan Baptis Church Directory
  • Moravian Church
  • Old St. Paul's P.E. Church
  • Pennepack Baptist Church
  • Philadelphia Monthly Meeting
  • Reformed Presbyterian Church
  • Salem Reformed Church
  • Sarah D. Cooper M.E. Church
  • St. Anne's Roman Catholic Church
  • St. Augustine Roman Catholic Church
  • St. Edward the Confessor Roman Catholic Church
  • St. James of Kingssesing (Episcopal)
  • St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church
  • St. Mary's Catholic Church
  • St. Michael Roman Catholic Church
  • St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church
  • Swede's Church
  • Trinity (Episcopal) Church, Oxford


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Ward and Branch Records

  • Philadelphia


St. Michael's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Germantown

  • 1834-1922 St. Michael's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Germantown, Baptism Index 1832-1922 in International Genealogical Index at FamilySearch. Batch C725832
  • Ziegenfuss, S.A. A Brief and Succinct History of Saint Michael's Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germantown, Pennsylvania, 1730-1905: One Hundred and Seventy-fifth Anniversary, November 12-14, 1905 Digital version at FamilySearch Digital Library.

Trinity Lutheran Church, Winchester Park

  • Trinity Lutheran Church, Winchester Park records in Evangelical Lutheran Church in America database at ($).


Market Square Presbyterian Church, Germantown

Wakefield Presbyterian Church, Germantown

List of Churches and Church Parishes

Court Records[edit | edit source]

For information about records kept in the Orphan's court, Prothonotary Court, Court of Common Pleas, and other courts in counties of Pennsylvania, visit the Pennsylvania Court Records Wiki page.

Salmon compiled an inventory of "The Court Records of Philadelphia County 1683-1800," as an appendix to:

  • Salmon, Marylynn. "The Court Records of Philadelphia, Bucks, and Berks Counties in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 107, No. 2 (Apr. 1983):249-292. Digital version at The Historical Society of Pennsylvania website

Office of the Prothonotary
First Judicial District of Pennsylvania
City Hall, Room 284
Philadelphia, PA 19107
Phone: 215-686-6652

Directories[edit | edit source]

  • Fold3 ($) has Philadelphia City Directories 1785, 1791, 1793-1922 (7 yrs. missing) available online.
  • City Directories by Year courtesy USGenWeb Archives 1825, 1830, 1833, 1835-1850, 1856, 1859-1861, 1863, 1867, 1868, 1880, 1882, 1885, 1888, 1890, 1895, 1897, 1900-1910, 1921, 1935, 1936.
  • Don's List contains 1785, 1791, 1793, 1796, 1797, 1799-1801, 1803-1809, 1811, 1813-1814, 1816, 1818-1819, 1822-1823, 1828, 1830, 1833-1835, 1837, 1839-1867, 1895 Philadelphia directories.

Emigration and Immigration[edit | edit source]

For online resources, passenger lists, and specific groups coming to Pennsylvania, see Pennsylvania Emigration and Immigration.

Indentured Servants

  • Immigrant Servants Database hosted by Price Genealogy - Includes indentured/imported servants and transported convicts who served labor terms in Colonial York County, Pennsylvania.

Ethnic, Political, and Religious Groups[edit | edit source]

For groups that came, see People section of the Pennsylvania Emigration page.

Funeral Homes[edit | edit source]

Funeral records issued by a funeral home include financial records (cost of casket, dressings, etc.), funeral cards given out at the time of the funeral, etc. These records usually give the name of the deceased, when and where buried, if shipped out to another funeral home, purchaser of cemetery plot, etc. Funeral home records from Philadelphia include:

  1. David H. Bowen and Son, Undertakers (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Funeral Records, 1845-1899

Genealogies[edit | edit source]

Guardianship[edit | edit source]

The Orphan's Court ensures the best interests of those not capable of handling their own affairs: minors, incapacitated persons, decedents' estates, and more.[36] Orphans Court

Land and Property Records[edit | edit source]

Land and property records can place an ancestor in a specific location and reveal family relationships. Records include: deeds, abstracts, indexes, mortgages, leases, grants, sheriff sales, land patents, maps and more. For more information, see Pennsylvania Land and Property.

Land records in Philadelphia County began in 1682. These records are filed with the Philadelphia City Archives office in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Online Land Indexes and Records

Media:Philadelphia county pennsylvania townships.pngPhiladelphia county pennsylvania townships.png
About this image

Local Histories[edit | edit source]

Maps and Gazetteers[edit | edit source]

Delaware CountyMontgomery CountyBucks CountyBurlington CountyCamden CountyGloucester CountyPA PHILADELPHIA.PNG
Click a neighboring county
for more resources


Migration[edit | edit source]

The migration routes used by early European settlers to and from Philadelphia County included:[37]

Military Records[edit | edit source]

Revolutionary War
Local men served in the Philadelphia County Militia. A guide at the Pennsylvania State Archives website identifies townships where specific companies recruited soldiers, see Revolutionary War Militia Battalions and Companies, Arranged by County.

Philadelphia County men also served in the 2nd Pennsylvania Regiment,[38] and the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment.[39]

Civil War

Regiments. Men in Philadelphia County served in various regiments. Men often joined a company (part of a large regiment) that originated in their county. Listed below are companies that were specifically formed in Philadelphia County:

- 1st Regiment, New York Veteran Cavalry, Company C
- 71st Regiment, New York Infantry, Company G

World War I

World War II

Naturalization and Citizenship[edit | edit source]

Naturalization records can contain information about immigration and nativity. Prior to 1906, it is rare to find the town of origin in naturalization records. For more information, see Pennsylvania Naturalization

Online Naturalization indexes and Records

Newspapers[edit | edit source]

Newspapers may contain obituaries, births, marriages, deaths, anniversaries, family gatherings, family travel, achievements, business notices, engagement information, and probate court proceedings. Newspapers are often found in local or university libraries, historical or genealogical societies, or state archives in the area where the newspaper was published. See Pennsylvania Newspapers for more information.

Newspapers of Philadelphia County

Online Newspapers

Online Newspaper Abstracts

Newspaper Excerpts and Abstracts

  • Edward W. Hocker and I. Pearson Willits, Genealogical Notes from the Incomplete Files of "The Germantown Telegraph" (SLC, Utah, 1973) FHL film 941584 item 2

Obituaries[edit | edit source]

Obituaries are generally found in local newspapers where the person died or where family members lived. Local libraries or societies may have indexes or other sources.

Online Obituary Abstracts

Obituary Extracts and Abstracts

Other Records[edit | edit source]

Periodicals[edit | edit source]

Probate Records[edit | edit source]

Probate matters in Philadelphia County are handled by the Orphans' Court and start when the county was created.

In addition to wills and administrations, the Orphans' Court also handles: audits of accounts of executors, administrators, trustees, and guardians; distribution of estates; appointments of guardians; adoptions; appeals from the Register of Wills; inheritance tax appeals, and various petitions and motions.

Online Probate Indexes

  • 1682-1782 Richard T and Mildred G Williams, Index of Wills & Administration Records, Philadelphia, Pennsylvnia, 1682-1782. (Danboro, Pennsylvania 1972). Available digitally online at: FamilySearch Digital Library.
  • 1682-1819 Philadelphia County Wills, 1682-1819 Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1900. Digital version at Ancestry ($).
  • 1682-1839 "Philadelphia Wills," Publications of the Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania, 1682-1692: Vol. 1 (Jul. 1986):45-89; 1692-1697: Vol. 2 (Jun. 1900):7-33; 1697-1700: Vol. 3, No. 1 (Jan. 1906):12-37; 1700-1701: Vol. 3, No. 2 (Jan. 1907):144-152; 1688-1745: Vol. 3, No. 3 (Jun. 1908):161-189, 1701-1702: Vol. 3, No. 3 (Jun. 1908):245-254; 1746-1812: Vol. 5, No. 2 (Mar. 1913):174-240; 1812-1839: Vol. 5, No. 3 (Mar. 1914):271-322. For online access to Vols. 1, 3, and 5, see WeRelate; see also FHL Book 974.8 B2p. Includes abstracts of Will Books A and B and Administration Book A.
  • 1682-1924 Philadelphia County (Pennsylvania). Register of Wills. Wills, 1682-1916; Indexes to Wills, 1682-1924. FHL Collection - images only; click on the camera icon to view images
  • 1682-1825 Will Abstract Indexes courtey USGenWeb Archives
  • Will and Estate Records courtesy [USGenWeb Archives]
  • 1682-1916 Wills FHL film 384803 (first of 330 films) - images only; click on the camera icon to view images; Indexes included: 1682-1924
  • 1683-1993 Pennsylvania Wills and Probate Records 1683-1993 at Ancestry $
  • 1683-1994 Pennsylvania Probate Records 1683-1994 at FamilySearch - How to Use this Collection; images only (by county)

School Records[edit | edit source]

Includes records of:
Central High School, 1895
Central Manuel Training School, 1905
Episcopal Hospital School of Nursing, 1890-1912
Frankford High School, 1942
Geo Clymer School, graduates, 1948, 1949, 1952
Jefferson Medical College
Kensington High School, Class of 1924
Philadelphia High School for Girls, 1962
West Philadelphia High School, Class of 1929

Social Security Records[edit | edit source]

Tax Records[edit | edit source]

  • 1693 Rawle, William Brooke. "The First Tax List for Philadelphia County. A.D. 1693," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 8 (1884):82-105. For online access, see WeRelate.
  • 1769, 1774, 1779 -Proprietary, Supply, and State Tax Lists of the City and County of Philadelphia: For the Years 1769, 1774 and 1779 (Pennsylvania Archives, Series 3, Vol. 14). Digital versions at Ancestry ($); Google Books
  • 1779-1781 Proprietary, Supply, and State Tax Lists of the City and County of Philadelphia: For the Years 1779, 1780 and 1781 (Pennsylvania Archives, Series 3, Vol. 15). Digital version at Ancestry ($).
  • 1781-1783 Supply, and State Tax Lists of the City and County of Philadelphia: For the Years 1781, 1782 and 1783 (Pennsylvania Archives, Series 3, Vol. 16). Digital version at Ancestry ($).
  • 1798 Pennsylvania, U.S. Direct Tax Lists, 1798 at Ancestry ($).
  • Philadelphia County Tax Lists courtesy USGenWeb Archives

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

Vital records are handled by the County Orphans' Court. Between the years 1852-1855 Pennsylvania made a failed attempt to record birth, marriage and death events at the county level. County marriage records were kept in earnest in 1885. Births and deaths, at the county level, were begun in 1893 and kept through 1905. For the most complete set of records, contact the County Orphans' Court.

Birth[edit | edit source]

Early births 1893–1905 are located at the County Orphans' Court. For more information, see Pennsylvania Vital Records.

Marriage[edit | edit source]

Pennsylvania marriages were created by county officials. Contact Philadelphia County Courthouse

Information on how to obtain a copy of the actual marriage record can be found this link.

Death[edit | edit source]

Early deaths 1893–1905 are located at the County Orphans' Court. For indexes and records, 1906 and later, see Pennsylvania Vital Records.

Divorce[edit | edit source]

Divorce records are available through the office of the Prothonotary.

Research Facilities[edit | edit source]

Archives[edit | edit source]

Listed below are archives in Philadelphia County. For state-wide archival repositories, see Pennsylvania Archives and Libraries.

Philadelphia County/City Archives
548 Spring Garden Street
Philadelphia, PA 19123
Fax: 215-685-9409
Philadelphia City Archives collections include records of births, marriages, deaths, deeds, naturalizations, city directories, tax records and more.

National Archives at Philadelphia
14700 Townsend Road
Philadelphia, PA 19154-1096
Phone: 215-305-2044
Fax: 215-305-2052
Census, passenger, naturalization, military records and more.

Family History Centers and Affiliate Libraries[edit | edit source]

Family History Center and Affiliate Library Locator map - search for local Family History Centers or Affiliate Libraries

  • Family History Centers provide one-on-one assistance, free access to center-only databases, and to premium genealogical websites.
  • FamilySearch Affiliate Libraries have access to most center-only databases, but may not always have full services normally provided by a family history center.

Local Centers and Affiliate Libraries

Libraries[edit | edit source]

Listed below are libraries in Philadelphia County. For state-wide library facilities, see Pennsylvania Archives and Libraries.

Free Library of Philadelphia
Over 50 branches within the city.

Museums[edit | edit source]

Philadelphia History Museum
15 South 7th Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Phone: 215-685-4830
Fax: 215-685-4837

The Mennonite Heritage Center
John L Ruth Library
565 Yoder Road
Harleysville, PA 19438-1020
Phone: 215-256-3020

Societies[edit | edit source]

Listed below are societies in Philadelphia County. For state-wide genealogical societies, see Pennsylvania Societies.

African American Genealogy Group (AAGG)
P.O. Box 1798
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Phone: 215-574-6063

Historical Society of Pennsylvania
1300 Locust Street
Philadelphia, PA 19107
Phone: 215-732-6200

Jewish Genealogical Society of Greater Philadelphia
Newman Building at Gratz College, 2nd Floor
7605 Old York Road
Melrose Park, PA 19027

Presbyterian Historical Society
425 Lombard Street
Philadelphia, PA 19147
Phone: 215-627-1852

Websites[edit | edit source]

Research Guides[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1.,_Pennsylvania accessed 2/12/2017
  2. The Handybook for Genealogists : United States of America, 10th ed., (Draper, UT: Everton Publishers, 2002) Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, p.592
  3. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Pennsylvania.At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  4. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Pennsylvania.At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  5. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Pennsylvania.At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  6. Wikipedia contributors, "Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia,, accessed 31 January 2020.
  7. Amandus Johnson, "Detailed Map of New Sweden 1638-1655" in Amandus Johnson's book The Swedes on the Delaware 1638-1664 (Philadelphia: Swedish Colonial Society, 1915), 392. This blockhouse is mentioned in Johnson's legend, but not displayed on his map, probably because it was replaced by a Swedish fort.
  8. Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, 2nd ed (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1855; digitized by Google, 2006), 2: 79. "The Swedes had already destroyed the trading-house, which the former [Dutch] had built at Schuylkill, and built a fort in its place."
  9. "New Sweden" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at New_Sweden (accessed 7 November 2008).
  10. Albert Cook Myers, Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New Jersey and Delaware, 1630-1707 (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1912; reprint Barnes and Noble, 1959; digitized by Google, 2008), 69, note 3. "Chamassung or Finland, where the Finns dwelt, was on the west side of the Delaware River, between the present Marcus Hook in Pennsylvania, and the mouth of Naaman's Creek just over the circular state line in Delaware."
  11. Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, v. 3, (Philadelphia:M'Carty and Davis, 1834; digitized by Google, 2006), 11. "Chamassungh, or Finland. This place was inhabited by Finns, who had strong houses, but no fort. It lies at the distance of two German miles, east of Christina, by water; and, by land, it is distant two long Swedish miles."
  12. Johnson, Detailed Map.
  13. Johnson, Swedish Settlements, 372. "Johann Companius, who was called by the government to go to New Sweden in 1642, was placed on the new budget, with a salary of 10 R.D. a month and seems to have been looked upon as a sort of military preacher. He was stationed at Christina, but shortly after his arrival here he was transferred to Upland, where he settled with his family and conducted the service at New Gothenborg."
  14. Myers, 150. "If now [the land at] Upland, which belongs to the Company, and is large enough for the sowing of twenty or thirty bushels of grain, might be given to the parsonage for Nertunius, together with the small houses there, it would be very well; then he would need no other salary from the Company." and footnote 4, "Now Chester."
  15. Johnson, Detailed Map.
  16. Arthur H. Buffington, "New England and the Western Fur Trade, 1629-1675" Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts 18 (1917): 168 digitized by Google, 2007. "Regardless of the rights of the Dutch and the Swedes, two large tracts of land were purchased in southern New Jersey, and another tract on the future site of Philadelphia. The colony of New Haven extended its jurisdiction over this territory and lent the Company its full support. A settlement was made the same year [1641] at Varkens Kill (Salem, New Jersey), but as it was below the Dutch and Swedish posts and therefore unfavorably situated for the fur trade, a trading post was erected the next year near the mouth of the Schuylkill and above the rival posts. So seriously did this new post interfere with trade that the Dutch, probably with the aid of the Swedes, destroyed the fort and took away the settlers to Manhattan. The settlement at Varkens Kill was not disturbed, but it amounted to little. Some of the settlers perished of disease, some straggled back to New Haven, and a few stayed on, submitting themselves to Swedish rule."
  17. Myers, 100. "There in 1642, on the present Fisher's or Province Island at the south side of mouth of the Schuylkill River, as Dr. Amandus Johnson makes clear in his Swedish Settlements, page 213, the New Englanders built a blockhouse, the first edifice definitely recorded as erected within the present limits of Philadelphia. Both the Dutch and the Swedes vainly protested against this competition, and finally the Dutch descended upon the place, burned the blockhouse and adjacent buildings, and carried the settlers to New Amsterdam."
  18. Johnson, Detailed Map.
  19. Philip S. Klein, and Ari Hoogenboom, "A History of Pennsylvania, 2nd ed." (University Park, Penn.: Penn State Press, 1980; digitized by Google at, 11. "Stuyvesant in the spring of 1648 sent an expedition to build a fort on the Schuylkill further inland than any of the Swedish posts. This he called Fort Beversreede — 'beaver road' — for its purpose was to be the first point of contact with the Minqua traders. But before the summer had passed, Printz built a Swedish fort, 'right in front of our Fort Beversreede,' wrote an indignant Dutchman. This building stood between the water's edge and the Dutch blockhouse, its back wall standing just twelve feet from the palisade gate of Fort Beversreede. The Indians thus found Swedes at the anchoring place, and could not even see the Dutch post from the water."
  20. Peter Stebbins Craig, "Chronology of Colonial Swedes on the Delaware 1638-1712" in The Swedish Colonial Society [Internet site] at (accessed 10 November 2008). Originally published in Swedish Colonial News, vol. 2, number 5 (Fall 2001). "[1648] Dutch build Fort Beversreede on east side of Schuylkill, but Swedes thwart Dutch attempts to build dwellings in area."
  21. John Thomas Scharf, and Thompson Westcott, History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884, vol. 2 (Philadelphia: L.H. Everets, 1884; digitized by Google, 2006), 1024. "The Dutch Fort Beversrede was built immediately opposite Minquas, or Mingo, or Eagle's Nest Creek, to command the trade in furs (skins) brought that way by the savages."
  22. Johnson, Detailed Map.
  23. Klein, and Hoogenboom."But before the summer had passed, Printz built a Swedish fort, 'right in front of our Fort Beversreede,' wrote an indignant Dutchman. This building stood between the water's edge and the Dutch blockhouse, its back wall standing just twelve feet from the palisade gate of Fort Beversreede. The Indians thus found Swedes at the anchoring place, and could not even see the Dutch post from the water."
  24. Johnson, Detailed Map.
  25. "Fort Casimir" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at (accessed 7 November 2008).
  26. Klein and Hoogenboom.
  27. Johnson, Detailed Map.
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