Norway, Digital Archives Transcription Marks

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When the Digitalarkivet (Digital Archives) of Norway began their project to transcribe records for publication on the Internet they developed a system of special transcription marks and abbreviations that would indicate to the reader that additional information may be found in the original manuscript. This is not the same as a full diplomatic transcription, a word-by-word transcription that represents the text of a document exactly as it appears, without any interpretation or editorial comment. This was especially important at the time as images of the records were generally not available online, and had to be examined on microfilm.

Even though the Digital Archives now publishes images along with indexes, the transcription marks are still used. The first version of their instructions were published in 2005 titled, Kyrre : Standard for dataregistering av kyrkjebøker i Noreg. The standard's name is an abbreviation of kyrkjebokregistrering (church book indexing).

The Norwegian Historical Data Centre (NHDC) has detailed instructions about how these marks were to be used when transcribing census records at HISTFORM - Felles registreringsinstrukser for folketellingene 1865-1910.

Transcription Marks[edit | edit source]

Character Meaning Example
?? Indicates a word in the record is illegible. The mark is used at the end of the word. Christopher??
@ Separates alternative transcriptions if it is not possible to determine which is correct Even @ Sven
% Indicates the text is struck through. The % appears at the beginning and end of the struck-through text and the struck-though text is entered last Peder Jensen %Hansen%
! Indicates the information is obviously wrong. Also used if there is no value to enter in the field being indexed.
* Information supplied by the indexer based on the context of the record. If the entry read, "Buried Peder Olsen's Son Mons", the indexer would record the child's surname as Pedersen*
E Indicates the entry is made by the indexer and is not found in the original record. Only information essential for proper interpretation of the indexed record should be entered and the indexer's own comments added in square brackets "[]". E: The item is crossed out in Church book. [The year is unreadable, but based on the context I understand the year must be 1832].

Abbrevations[edit | edit source]

The following abbreviations are found in transcribed records. A more extensive list including abbreviations found in census transcriptions specified by the HISTFORM standard can be found at Histform - Appendix

Gender[edit | edit source]

  • m = male (mand)
  • k = female (kvinne)
  • !! = unspecified (ubestemmelig kjønn)

Living Situation[edit | edit source]

  • b = resident (bosatt på stedet)
  • mt = temporarily resident (midlertidig tilstede)
  • f = absent (midlertidig fraværende)

Family Roles[edit | edit source]

  • hf = man of the house (husfader)
  • hm = woman of the house (husmoder)
  • hp = main person (hovedperson)
  • hu = housewife (hustru)
  • s = son (sønn)
  • d = daughter (datter)
  • tj = servant (tjenestetyende)
  • fl = lodger (losjerende, hørende til familien)
  • el = solitary lodger (enslig losjerende)
  • b = visitor (besøkende)

Civil Status[edit | edit source]

  • ug = unmarried (ugift)
  • g = married (gift)
  • e = widow (enke, enkemann)
  • s = separated (separert)
  • f = divorced (fraskilt)

Illness[edit | edit source]

  • b = blind (blind)
  • d = deaf/dumb (døv/døvstum)
  • s = psychiatric illness (sinnsyk/sinnssvak)
  • a = mentally challenged (åndssvak)

Citizenship and Ethnicity[edit | edit source]

  • n = Norsk
  • l = Lapp
  • lf = Lapp, permanent resident (lappisk, fastboende)
  • ln = Lapp, nomadic (lappisk, nomadiserende)
  • f = Finnish (kven)
  • k = Kven (finnish)
  • b = mixed ethnicity (blandet)

Languages[edit | edit source]

  • n = Norwegian
  • l = Lappish
  • f = Finnish (Kven)

Property[edit | edit source]

  • bu = shop (butikk)
  • ko = office (kontor)
  • ve = workshop (verksted)
  • fa = factory (fabrikk)
  • an = other (andre)