Madison County, Missouri Genealogy

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Guide to Madison County, Missouri ancestry, genealogy and family history, birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, and military records.

County Facts
County seat: Frederickstown
Organized: February 14, 1818
Parent County(s): Cape Girardeau, Ste. Genevieve[1]
Neighboring Counties
Bollinger  • Iron  • Perry  • St. Francois  • Wayne
See County Maps
Location Map
Map Madison County, Missouri.png

County Information[edit | edit source]

Description[edit | edit source]

The County was named for James Madison. The County is located in the southeast area of the state.[2]

County Courthouse[edit | edit source]

Madison County Courthouse
1 Courthouse Square
Fredericktown, MO 63645
Phone: 573-783-2176
Madison County Website

County Clerk has birth and death records 1883-1900 and local census 1876.
Clerk Circuit Court has marriage, divorce and court records from 1821 and military discharge records from 1943.
County Magistrate has probate records from 1820.
County Assessor has land records from 1821.[3]

Madison County, Missouri Record Dates[edit | edit source]

Information for this chart was taken from various sources, often containing conflicting dates. This information should be taken as a guide and should be verified by contacting the county and/or the state government agency.

Known Beginning Dates for Major County Records[4]
Birth* Marriage Death* Court Land Probate Census
1883 1821 1883 1821 1821 1821 1830
*Statewide registration started in 1910 for births and deaths. General compliance for births by 1927 and deaths by 1911.

Record Loss[edit | edit source]

There is no known history of courthouse disasters in this county.

Boundary Changes[edit | edit source]

For animated maps illustrating Missouri county boundary changes, "Rotating Formation Missouri County Boundary Maps" (1804-1889) may be viewed for free at the website.

Populated Places[edit | edit source]

For a complete list of populated places in Madison County, MO, including small neighborhoods and suburbs, visit HomeTown Locator.
The State Historical Society of Missouri has information on historical Missouri place names for all 114 Missouri Counties.
The following are the most historically and genealogically relevant populated places in this county:[6]

Unincorporated communities
Census-designated places
Ghost towns

History Timeline[edit | edit source]

Resources[edit | edit source]

Bible Records[edit | edit source]

Biographies[edit | edit source]

Business, Commerce, and Occupations[edit | edit source]

Cemeteries[edit | edit source]

Cemeteries of Madison County, Missouri online and in print
Tombstone Transcriptions Online
Tombstone Transcriptions in Print (Often more complete)
List of Cemeteries in the County
See Missouri Cemeteries for more information


Census Records[edit | edit source]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1820 2,047
1830 2,371 15.8%
1840 3,395 43.2%
1850 6,003 76.8%
1860 5,664 −5.6%
1870 5,849 3.3%
1880 8,876 51.8%
1890 9,268 4.4%
1900 9,975 7.6%
1910 11,273 13.0%
1920 10,721 −4.9%
1930 9,418 −12.2%
1940 9,656 2.5%
1950 10,380 7.5%
1960 9,366 −9.8%
1970 8,641 −7.7%
1980 10,725 24.1%
1990 11,127 3.7%
2000 11,800 6.0%
2010 12,226 3.6%
Source: "".






1876 State Agricultural Census

  • 1876 State Agricultural Census: The census book is in the courthouse, Fredericktown, MO, and has been microfilmed by the State Archives, although this record may be incomplete. This is the only Missouri state census that has survived for Madison County.
  • Madison County State Census 1876, book and digital images of Missouri State and Territorial Census Records. (FHL)
  • Miller, Michael G. 1876 State Census for Madison Co., Missouri: An Original Work. Fredericktown, MO: Foundation for Historical Preservation, 2001. Other Libraries


1890 Special Enumeration





State and Territorial Census Records

Church Records[edit | edit source]

Church records and the information they provide vary significantly depending on the denomination and the record keeper. They may contain information about members of the congregation, such as age, date of baptism, christening, or birth; marriage information and maiden names; and death date. For general information about Missouri denominations, view the Missouri Church Records wiki page.
List of Churches and Church Parishes

Court Records[edit | edit source]

At least one online source says that Madison County court records date back to 1827, but this appears to be incorrect. Court records for the county as microfilmed by the State Archives are extant from as early as 1820, with territorial records dating back to 1810. See Missouri State Archives Guide to County and Municipal Records on Microfilm: Madison County (pdf).

Directories[edit | edit source]

Emigration and Immigration[edit | edit source]

Ethnic, Political, and Religious Groups[edit | edit source]

African Americans[edit | edit source]

Funeral Homes[edit | edit source]

Genealogies[edit | edit source]

Guardianship[edit | edit source]

Land and Property Records[edit | edit source]

Land and property records can place an ancestor in a particular location, provide economic information, and reveal family relationships. Land records include: deeds, abstracts and indexes, mortgages, leases, grants and land patents.

See Missouri Land and Property for information about records of land transfers from the government to private ownership. After that transfer, transactions were usually recorded and are currently housed at the county courthouse.

Madison County land records date back to 1819. See Missouri State Archives Guide to County and Municipal Records on Microfilm: Madison County (pdf).

Local Histories[edit | edit source]

Local histories are available for Madison County, Missouri Genealogy. County histories may include biographies, church, school and government history, and military information. For more information about local histories, see the Wiki page section Missouri Local Histories.

  • A History of Madison County, Missouri. By Henry Clay Thompson. Abt 1940. (Originally published in installments in the Fredericktown Democrat News).
  • Chronicles of an Old Missouri Parish : historical sketches of St. Michael's church, Fredericktown, Madison County, Mo. By John Ernest Rothensteiner. 1917. St. Louis, Mo. : "Amerika" Print. Available online at FamilySearch
  • Historical Madison: The History of Madison County, Missouri 1818-1988. Fredericktown, MO: Heritage and Landmarks Commission and Madison County Historical Society, 1989.
  • History of Missouri's Counties, County Seats, and Courthouse Squares. 1983. by Marian M. Ohman. Missouri: Missouri State Library. Online at: Missouri Digital History
  • History of Southeast Missouri, Vol. 1. By Robert Sidney Douglass. 1912. Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Company. Available online at Google Books; | Internet Archive.
  • History of Southeast Missouri. 1888. Chicago: The Goodspeed Publishing Co. Online at: Missouri State Archives; and at Missouri Digital History
  • State of Missouri: an autobiography. 1904. By Walter Williams. Columbia, Mo: Press of E. W. Stephens. Online at: Missouri Digital History

Maps and Gazetteers[edit | edit source]

St. Francois CountyPerry CountyBollinger CountyWayne CountyIron CountyMO MADISON.PNG
Click a neighboring county
for more resources

Migration[edit | edit source]

Military Records[edit | edit source]

Civil War[edit | edit source]

Online Records

Civil War Battle
The following Civil War Battle was fought in Madison County:

World War I[edit | edit source]

World War II[edit | edit source]

Naturalization and Citizenship[edit | edit source]

Newspapers[edit | edit source]

Obituaries[edit | edit source]

Other Records[edit | edit source]

Periodicals[edit | edit source]

Probate Records[edit | edit source]

Probate records include wills, bonds, petitions, accounts, inventories, administrations, orders, decrees, and distributions. For further information, see United States Probate Records.

In Missouri, probate records have usually been recorded by the clerks of the probate courts, but in some counties the common pleas or circuit courts handled this function. They are frequently indexed.

Madison County probate records date from 1821.

Online Probate Indexes and Records

School Records[edit | edit source]

Social Security Records[edit | edit source]

Tax Records[edit | edit source]

Taxes were levied on free white males over 21 and slaves aged 21 to 60. These persons are referred to as "polls." Tax listings, or digests, of a county generally list the taxable landowners and other polls and the amount of tax. The records for each county are divided by militia district. For more information see the wiki page Missouri Taxation.

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

Vital Records consist of births, adoptions, marriages, divorces, and deaths. For additional guidance on researching and using vital records, see United States Vital Records or How to order Missouri Vital Records.

St. Louis and Kansas City recorded births and deaths starting as early as 1850 for deaths and 1870 for births.  The Missouri Department of Health began keeping birth and death records in 1909. County records vary by year and the county. A copy or an extract of most original records can be purchased from the Missouri Vital Records State Department of Health, the County Clerk's office or order electronically online.

Birth[edit | edit source]

Marriage[edit | edit source]

Death[edit | edit source]

Divorce[edit | edit source]

Research Facilities[edit | edit source]

Archives[edit | edit source]

Listed below are archives in Madison County. For state-wide archival repositories, see Missouri Archives and Libraries.

Family History Centers[edit | edit source]

Family History Center and Affiliate Library Locator map - search for local Family History Centers or Affiliate Libraries

  • Family History Centers provide one-on-one assistance, free access to center-only databases, and to premium genealogical websites.
  • FamilySearch Affiliate Libraries have access to most center-only databases, but may not always have full services normally provided by a family history center.

Local Centers and Affiliate Libraries

Libraries[edit | edit source]

Listed below are libraries in Madison County. For state-wide library facilities, see Missouri Archives and Libraries.

  • Ozark Regional Library
    115 South Main Street
    Fredericktown, MO
    Phone: 573-783-2120

Museums[edit | edit source]

  • Historic Madison County
    122 North Main Street
    Fredericktown, MO 63645

Societies[edit | edit source]

Listed below are societies in Madison County. For state-wide genealogical societies, see Missouri Societies.

Websites[edit | edit source]

  • Missouri Digital Heritage. Free. digital images of many types of records from institutions across the State
  • MOGenWeb. Free. Data may be submitted by individuals or complete transcriptions
  • Free. Data may be submitted by individuals or complete transcriptions
  • USGenWeb Archives. Free. Data may be submitted by individuals or may be complete transcriptions
  • FamilySearch Catalog . Free. - The FamilySearch catalog contains descriptions and access information for all genealogical materials (including books, online materials, microfilm, microfiche, and publications) in their collection.  Use Historical Records to search for specific individuals in genealogical records
  • RootsWeb resources. Free. Data may be submitted by individuals or may be complete transcriptions
  • Linkpendium. Free. Click links. Some sites they link to may have fees ($)
  • CyndisList. Free. Click links. Some sites they link to may have fees ($)
  • StateofUS. Free. family history resources and government records
  • Free. profile and links regarding Madison County
  • Missouri Genealogy. Free. Click links. Some sites they link to may have fees ($)

Research Guides[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Missouri. At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  2. Wikipedia contributors, "Madison, Missouri," in,_Missouri. accessed 9/12/2018
  3. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Missouri. At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  4. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Madison County, Missouri. Page 397-407 At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002; Alice Eichholz, ed. Ancestry’s Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources, Third ed. (Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2004), 393-397.
  5. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Missouri. At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  6. Wikipedia contributors, "Madison County, Missouri," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, Madison County Missouri, accessed Oct 2019.
  7. Heritage Preservation Services, Civil War Battle Summaries by State, (accessed 9 August 2012)
  8. Genealogical Society of Utah, Parish and Vital Records List (July 1998). Microfiche. Digital version at