Kickapoo Tribes

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Guide to Kickapoo Tribes ancestry, family history and genealogy: birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, parish registers, and other agency records.

To get started in American Indian Research

Either babeshikit, a Kickapoo, or Meraparapa (Lance), a Mandan; portrait, half-length, seated, with white paint on forehead and two-feather headdress, 1894. American Indian list--135indians-135a.jpg

Various Spellings: Kickapoo, Kikapo, Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma

Ancestral Homeland: Great Lakes area (Illinois); closely related to the Sac and Meskwaki (Fox); all three tribes lived in Wisconsin

Band: Vermilion

Federally recognized

Tribal Headquarters[edit | edit source]

Kickapoo of Kansas Kickapoo Tribal Office
1107 Goldfinch Road
Horton, Kansas 66439 Phone: 1-877-864-2746

Web site:

Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma
P.O. Box 7
Mc Loud, Oklahoma 74851 Phone: 1-405-964-7053

Official Website:

Kickapoo Tribe of Wisconsin

Kickapoo Tribe in Texas

History[edit | edit source]

Currently, there are groups of Kickapoo Indians in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

Brief Timeline[edit | edit source]

  • 1600's: Jesuit priest Claude Jean Allouez visited the tribe between the Wisconsin and Fox Rivers
  • 1790-94: Little Turtles' War; tribes stands against non-Indians
  • 1763: The tribe joined Pontiac in his rebellion.
  • 1809-11: Tecumseh's Rebellion, the tribe joined Tecumseh
  • 1819: Leave Illinois and Indiana and move to Missouri
  • 1832: Black Hawk War The tribe joined with Sac Chief Black Hawk
  • 1832: The tribe removed to Missouri
  • 1833: Census (M1831)
  • Late 1830's The tribe ceded their land in Illinois and Indian
  • 1839: Part of tribe moved to Texas and Mexico
  • 1852: A large group of Kickapoo left and went to Mexico, they became known as Mexican Kickapoo's. in 1873 most returned to the United States and settled in Indian Territory.
  • 1860's: The tribe migrated to the Illinois River in Illinois
  • 1862: Most of the tribe settled in northeastern Kansas.
  • 1873: Part of the tribe move to Indian Territory, granted a reservation along the North Canadian River; their descendants became the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma.
  • 1873-1875: Movement of Mexican Kickapoo from Mexico to Indian Territory

Additional References to the History of the Tribe[edit | edit source]

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Kickapoo tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.


Central Superintendency

Reservations[edit | edit source]

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[1], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[2], and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.

Shawnee Reservation

Kickapoo Reservation - Kansas

Kickapoo Reservation - Oklahoma

Sac and Fox Reservation

Superintendencies[edit | edit source]

St. Louis Superintendency

Central Superintendency

Agencies[edit | edit source]

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[3], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[4], and others.

Shawnee Agency

Fort Leavenworth Agency 1824-51

Great Nemaha Agency 1851-55

Kickapoo Agency 1855-76 (Mexican Kickapoo 1874-80)

Horton (Pottawatomie) Agency 1874-80

Sac and Fox Agency 1874-80

Records[edit | edit source]

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Slack, C.T. Genealogies of the Kickapoo Indians FHL Film: 928361

Allotment[edit | edit source]

Correspondence and Census[edit | edit source]

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence

M234 RG 75

Rolls 962

Roll Numbers




Post-1885 Census

M595 RG 75 Rolls 693

Roll Numbers




Kickapoo Shawnee Agency, 1890-1952 Fort Worth - - Rolls 210, 392-95 FHL Film:576899
Kickapoo Ft. Leavenworth Agency, 1824-51 Washington D.C. Rolls 300-03 - - -
Kickapoo, Kansas Great Nemaha, 1851-55 Washington D.C. Rolls 307-14 - - -
Kickapoo Kansas Kickapoo Agency, 1855-76 Washington D.C. Rolls 371-74 - - -
Kickapoo, Kansas Horton (Potawatomi) Agency, 1874-1963 Washington D.C. and Kansas City Rolls 691-95 - Rolls 176, 210, 392-95 FHL Films: 580771-580774
Kickapoo, Mexican Kickapoo Agency, 1873-75 Washington D.C. Rolls 373-74 - - -
Kickapoo, Mexican Sac and Fox Agency, 1874-80 Washington D.C. and Chicago Rolls 740-44 - - -
Kickapoo, Mexican Shawnee Agency, 1890-1952 Fort Worth - - - -FHL Films:581865-581871

Treaties[edit | edit source]

  • 1795 August 3, with the Wyandot
  • 1803 June 7, at Fort Wayne, with the Delaware
  • 1803 August 7, at Vincennes, with the Eel River, Etc.,
  • 1809 December 9, at Vincennes,
  • 1815 September 2, at Portae des Sioux
  • 1816 June 4, at Fort Harrison, with the Wea
  • 1819 June 30, at Edwardsville, Illinois
  • 1819 August 30, at Fort Harrison
  • 1820 July 19, at St. Louis
  • 1820 September 5, Kickapoo of the Vermillion
  • 1832 October 24, at Castor Hill
  • 1854 May 18, at Washington
  • 1862 June 28, at Kickapoo Agency

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

Important Websites[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  2. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)
  3. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  4. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published