Caroline County, Virginia Genealogy

From FamilySearch Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Guide to Caroline County, Virginia ancestry, genealogy and family history, birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, family history, and military records.

County Facts
County seat: Bowling Green
Organized: 1 May, 1728
Parent County(s): Essex, King and Queen, King William
Neighboring Counties
Essex  • Hanover  • King andQueen  • King George  • King William  • Spotsylvania  • Stafford
See County Maps
Location Map
Location of Caroline County, Virginia.png

County Information[edit | edit source]

Description[edit | edit source]

Caroline County is located in the eastern portion of the Commonwealth of Virginia and was named in honor of Caroline of Ansbach, wife of the then reigning King, George II of Great Britain.[1]

County Courthouse[edit | edit source]

Caroline County Courthouse
112 Courthouse Lane, Suite A / P O Box 309
Bowling Green, VA 22427
Phone: 804-633-5800
Caroline County Website

Clerk Circuit Court has marriage records 1787-1853, land records from 1836[2]

Caroline County, Virginia Record Dates[edit | edit source]

Information for this chart was taken from various sources, often containing conflicting dates. This information should be taken as a guide and should be verified by contacting the county and/or the state government agency.

Known Beginning Dates for Major County Records[3]
Birth Marriage Death Court Land Probate Census
1864 1787 1865 1665 1728 1732 1810
* Statewide registration for births and deaths began in 1912.
General compliance year is unknown.

Record Loss[edit | edit source]

  • 1864. Most antebellum probate prior to 1853, land records prior to 1836, and loose papers were lost during the American Civil War, 1861-1865[4] and, of those that are extant, many of those are scattered among the Virginia State Archives, the Caroline County Circuit Court, and the Circuit Court for the City of Fredericksburg. Postbellum land and probate records can be presumed to be housed at the Caroline County Courthouse.
  • Burned County Data 1809-1848 As Found in the Virginia Contested Election Files. 1986. By Benjamin B. Weisiger. Richmond, VA. Online at:FamilySearch Digital Library.

Boundary Changes[edit | edit source]

Populated Places[edit | edit source]

For a complete list of populated places, including small neighborhoods and suburbs, visit HomeTown Locator. The following are the most historically and genealogically relevant populated places in this county:[6]

Unincorporated communities
Census-designated places

History Timeline[edit | edit source]

This county was named after Queen Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach, also known as simply Caroline of Ansbach (1683-1737), consort of King George II of Great Britain.[7] The reason for this choice as to the county's name was because the county was organized in 1728 on the basis of a legislative act of 1727, the year that George assumed the throne.

Resources[edit | edit source]

Bible Records[edit | edit source]

For databases and indexes, see Virginia Bible Records.

Biographies[edit | edit source]

Business, Commerce, and Occupations[edit | edit source]

  • The Silversmiths of Virginia (together with Watchmakers and Jewelers) from 1694 to 1850. 1952. By George Barton Cutten. Richmond, Virginia : The Dietz Press, Incorporated. FHL US/CAN Book 975.5 U23c. Includes a section on Port Royal silversmiths.

Cemeteries[edit | edit source]

Cemeteries of Caroline County, Virginia online and in print
Tombstone Transcriptions Online
Tombstone Transcriptions in Print (Often more complete)
List of Cemeteries in the County
See Virginia Cemeteries for more information.

Census Records[edit | edit source]

For databases, indexes, and information online, see Virginia Census.

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 17,489
1800 17,438 −0.3%
1810 17,544 0.6%
1820 18,008 2.6%
1830 17,760 −1.4%
1840 17,813 0.3%
1850 18,456 3.6%
1860 18,464 0.0%
1870 15,128 −18.1%
1880 17,243 14.0%
1890 16,681 −3.3%
1900 16,709 0.2%
1910 16,596 −0.7%
1920 15,954 −3.9%
1930 15,263 −4.3%
1940 13,945 −8.6%
1950 12,471 −10.6%
1960 12,725 2.0%
1970 13,925 9.4%
1980 17,904 28.6%
1990 19,217 7.3%
2000 22,121 15.1%
2010 28,545 29.0%
Source: "".

1890 Veterans

Church Records[edit | edit source]

List of Churches and Church Parishes

Early Baptist churches (with years constituted):

  1. Bethel (1800)[8]
  2. Bethesda Church, Port Royal, Va. (1847; RootsWeb)
  3. Burrus's (1773)[8]
  4. County Line (1782)[8]
  5. Liberty Baptist Church, Port Royal, Va. (1796; RootsWeb)
  6. Reeds (1773)[8]
  7. Salem (1802)[8]
  8. Tuckahoe (1774), Port Royal, Va.[8] Later known as Upper Zion Baptist Church (RootsWeb).[9]
  9. Zoar Church, Port Royal, Va. (1902; RootsWeb)

Caroline County fell within the bounds of the Goshen Association and the Dover Association.

Church of England
go to See also Drysdale Parish
go to See also St. Anne's Parish
go to See also St. Asaph's Parish
go to See also St. Margaret's Parish
go to See also St. Mary's Parish

Early monthly meetings (with years of existence):

  • Caroline Monthly Meeting (1739-1844)Jay Worrall, The Friendly Virginians: America's First Quakers (Athens, Ga.: Iberian Publishing Company, 1994), 537-539. FHL Book 975.5 K2wj.
  • 1739-1793 Quaker Records of Cedar Creek Monthly Meeting, Virginia, 1739-1793 by Mary Marshall Brewer. Colonial Roots, Lewes, DE., 2002. FHL Book 975.5462 K2b

Court Records[edit | edit source]

County Court
Online Court Indexes and Records

  • 1772-1774 Order Book Abstracts of Caroline County, Virginia 1772-1774. 1993. By Ruth Sparacio and Sam Sparacio. McLean, VA : The Antient Press. 2 vols.
  • Court transcriptions and abstracts Caroline County U.S. GenWeb Archives

Chancery Court

  • Indexed images of Caroline County, Virginia Chancery Records 1787-1849 are available online through Virginia Memory: Chancery Records Index. Additional records are available at the Caroline County Courthouse. These records, often concerned with inheritance disputes, contain a wealth of genealogical information.[10]
  • In addition to the index listed above, unindexed chancery court records pre-1913 records are also available in the Caroline County Circuit Court Clerk's Office.
  • Suit -- Brown vs. Brown: Chancery Court Records in Caroline County, Virginia. 1950. By Anne Waller Reddy. MSS. Available at FHL. Rene (René, Rainey, or Renney) Parsons Brown of Caroline County was sued by John Brown of Franklin County.

District Court of Fredericksburg
The District Court of Fredericksburg and later the Superior Court of Chancery had jurisdiction over certain Caroline County court cases. An index has been compiled:

  • Indexes of Court Records in the Clerk's Office, Fredericksburg, Virginia, 1782-1904. Original records, Fredericksburg City Courthouse, Fredericksburg, Va., microfilmed reproduction available at FHL. [Indexes the following records: District Court law book v. 8, 1782-1792; District Court law books 1790-1793, v. A-F 1789-1811; Superior Court of Law law order books v. G-H 1812-1831; Superior Court of Chancery chancery order books 1814-1831; Hustings Court orders v. A-O 1782-1871; Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery law order books v. A-E 1831-1875; Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery chancery order books v. A-D 1831-1872; Circuit Court chancery order books v. A2, B-C 1875-1904; Fredericksburg District Court (1789-1808) had jurisdiction over the following counties: Spotsylvania (including Fredericksburg), Caroline, King George, Stafford, Orange, and Culpeper; Superior Court of Chancery (1802-1831) had jurisdiction over the following localities: city of Fredericksburg and the counties of Caroline, Culpeper, Fauquier, Fairfax, Lancaster, Northumberland, Madison, King George, Orange, Prince William, Richmond, Spotsylvania, Stafford, Essex, and Westmoreland.]

See also Historic Court Records for indexes of Apprentice Records, Clerk's Order Books, Court Records, Free Negro / Slave records, Inquests, Marriage Records, Mayor's Court, Military Records and Wills.

Directories[edit | edit source]

Emigration and Immigration[edit | edit source]

For databases and immigrant groups, see Virginia Emigration and Immigration

Port Royal, on the Rappahannock River, was established as a port in 1652. It was incorporated as a town in 1744. Many ships carrying settlers landed there during the colonial period.[11] No official passenger lists survive for the seventeenth or eighteenth centuries, but a general chronology of shipping activities for that period has been prepared.[12]

  • List of imported servants and transported convicts from Europe who served labor terms in Colonial Virginia are online at: Immigrant Servants Database.

Ethnic, Political, and Religious Groups[edit | edit source]

African American
From 1790 to 1860, Caroline County had one of the largest enslaved populations in the state (10,292 in 1790; 10,672 in 1860).[13] Search the Library of Virginia's Virginia Untold collection for digitized records related to African Americans in Caroline County.

Funeral Homes[edit | edit source]

Genealogies[edit | edit source]

Compiled Genealogies by Surname


Compiled Genealogies for Multiple Familes

  • The Suttons of Caroline County, Virginia. 1941. By T. Dix Sutton. Richmond, VA : Richmond Press, Inc. Online at: Ancestry ($).

Guardianship[edit | edit source]

Land and Property Records[edit | edit source]

For land indexes, records, and databases, see Virginia Land and Property, including Colonial and State Land Grants.

Grants and Patents
Online Land Indexes and Records
Land patents (pre-1779), land grants (after 1779) and surveys are available online at the Library of Virginia website. For step-by-step instructions on retrieving these records, read the Virginia Land and Property article.

  • Virginia Northern Neck Land Grants 1694-1742. 1987. By Gertrude E. Gray. Baltimore, MD : Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. Vol.1. Available at [1].
  • Hudgins. 371 patents dated 1650-1752 in what is now Caroline County, Virginia placed on a map. DeedMapper. [Names of those who received land patents, dates, land descriptions, and references may be viewed free of charge (click "Index" next to the county listing); however, in order to view the maps, it is necessary to purchase Direct Line Software's DeedMapper product.]
  • Deeds (transcriptions and indices) (Caroline County U.S. GenWeb Archives)
  • Sparacio, Ruth Trickey and Sam Sparacio. Caroline County, Virginia County Surveys, 1729-1762, and Proceedings of Committee of Safety, 1774-1776. McLean, Virginia: Antient Press, 1997. Available at FHL.

Local Histories[edit | edit source]

  • 1660-1800 Virginia Marriages 1660-1800 at Ancestry — index ($)
  • Caroline County In Howe's History Of Virginia 1845. 2008. By Alice Warner. Online at: Caroline County Virginia USGenWeb Archives
  • Every Name Index to a History of Caroline County, Virginia. c2012. By Cathy L. O'Connor. Online at: Every Name Index.
  • Historical Collections of Virginia : Containing a Collection of the Most Interesting Facts, Tradition, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, etc. Relating to its History and Antiquitites, Together with Geographical and Statistical Description, to Which is Appended an Historical and Descriptive Sketch of the District of Columbia. 1847. By Henry Howe. Charleston, South Carolina : Babcock. Online at: FamilySearch Digital Library.
  • Letters and Journal Written by Reuben Ellis McDaniel to His Wife (Delia Marie Richerson). 1842. Online at: RootsWeb.
  • Skeletons in the Closet: 200 Years of Murders in Old Virginia; a Genealogical and Historical Resource. 2001. By Therese Fisher. Bowie, Maryland : Heritage Books. Available at FHL. Identifies Caroline County's sheriffs 1729-1780.
  • Virginia Indexes at — Select the county.

Maps and Gazetteers[edit | edit source]

County and state maps, historical and more current, are valuable research tools. For map collections, online and in libraries, see Virginia Maps.

King and Queen CountyKing William CountyEssex CountyHanover CountySpotsylvania CountyStafford CountyKing George CountyVA CAROLINE.PNG
Click a neighboring county
for more resources

Migration[edit | edit source]

  • Some Delinquent Taxpayers 1787-1790. By Robert Y. Clay. The Virginia Genealogist Vol. 20, No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1976):29-34. CD available at: American Ancestors ($), FHL.

Military Records[edit | edit source]

French and Indian War

  • Caroline Men in the French and Indian War (RootsWeb)
  • Gleanings of Virginia History: An Historical and Genealogical Collection, Largely from Original Sources. By William F. Boogher. 2007. Baltimore : Genealogical Pub. Co. Online at: Google Books; At various libraries (WorldCat). Includes a chapter titled "Legislative Enactments connecting the preceding historic sketch (French and Indian War, Lord Dunmore's War) with the adjudication of the resulting accounts that follow; with the list of officers, soldiers and civilians entitled to compensation for military and other services rendered." For Caroline County, see p. 69.
  • Virginia's Colonial Soldiers. By Lloyd DeWitt Bockstruck. 1988. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co. FHL US/CAN Book 975.5 M2bL. Identifies some Caroline County militia officers, soldier enlistments, and veterans; see place name index.

Revolutionary War

  • A Census of Pensioners for Revolutionary or Military Services: With their Names, Ages, and Places of Residence, as Returned by the Marshalls of the Several Judicial Districts, Under the Act for Taking the Sixth Census. 1841. Washington : Blair and Rives. Online at: Internet Archive, Google Books; At various libraries (WorldCat). See Virginia, Eastern District, Caroline County on page 129.
  • Caroline County, Virginia County Surveys, 1729-1762, and Proceedings of Committee of Safety, 1774-1776. 1997. By Ruth Trickey Sparacio and Sam Sparacio. McLean, Virginia : Antient Press. FHL Collection
  • Proceedings of the Committees of Safety of Caroline and Southampton Counties, Virginia, 1774-1776. Richmond, Virginia: Division of Purchase and Printing, 1929. FHL Collection
  • Rejected or Suspended Applications for Revolutionary War Pensions. Washington, D.C., 1852. Reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1969, and 1991. Reprints include "an Added Index to States." FHL Book 973 M24ur; digital version at Ancestry ($). Includes veterans. Virginia section begins on page 238.
  • Revolutionary War Pension Affidavits. Online at: Caroline County U.S. GenWeb Archives.
  • Revolutionary War Soldiers from Caroline County. Online at: RootsWeb.
  • Virginia Militia in the Revolutionary War: McAllister's Data. c1913. By J. T. McAllister. Hot Springs, Virginia : McAllister Pub. Co. Online at: Hathitrust, Internet Archive, Google Books; At various libraries (WorldCat).

Regiments. Service men in Caroline County served in various regiments. Men often joined a company (within a regiment) that originated in their county. Caroline County supplied soldiers for the:

- 10th Virginia Regiment

War of 1812
Caroline County men served in the 6th and 30th Regiments.[14]

  • Guardian of the Star-Spangled Banner : Lt. Colonel George Armistead and the Fort McHenry Flag. 1999. By Scott Sumpter Sheads. Baltimore, Maryland : Toomey Press. FHL Book 921.73 Ar55.
George Armistead, son of John Armistead and Lucinda Baylor, was born in 1780 at Bowling Green, Caroline County, Virginia. George married Louisa Hughes, daughter of Christopher Hughes Sr., on 26 Oct 1810 in Baltimore. They had 3 children. He was the commanding officer of Fort McHenry in Baltimore, Maryland on 13-14 Sep 1814. He kept the flag that was flying over the fort and passed it along to his descendants. In 1912, it was given as a gift to the Smithsonian National Museum. George died 25 Apr 1818 in Baltimore, Maryland.
  • List of Pensioners on the Roll, January 1, 1883; Giving the Name of Each Pensioner, the Cause for Why Pensioned, the Post-Office Address, the Rate of Pension Per Month, and the Date of Original Allowance... Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1883. FHL Book 973 M2Lp v. 5; digital versions at Google Books and Internet Archive. See Vol. 5, Virginia, Caroline County, p. 66.

Civil War

Regiments. Caroline County men most often served in regiments (and companies) from their home county. At times, however, individuals and small groups can be found serving in a regiment of a neighboring county. Later in the war, Confederate units often reorganized. Men from Caroline County can be found in the following regiments:

- 9th Regiment, Virginia Cavalry (Confederate). Company B (Caroline Light Dragoons).
- 9th Regiment, Virginia Cavalry (Confederate). Company B (Caroline Light Dragoons).[15]
- 24th Regiment, Virginia Cavalry (Confederate). Company F.[16]
- 30th Regiment, Virginia Infantry (Confederate). Company E (Caroline Grays), Company F (Bowling Green Guards), Company G (Childsburg Light Infantry), and Company H (Sparta Grays).[17]
- 47th Regiment, Virginia Infantry (Confederate). Company E (Port Royal Guards).[18]
- Lightfoot's Battalion, "Caroline Light Artillery," (Confederate)

Civil War Battle
The following Civil War battle was fought in Caroline County.

  • May 23-26, 1864 North Anna, also known as Telegraph Road Bridge, Jericho Mill (May 23), Ox Ford, Quarles Mill, or Hanover Junction (May 24)[19]
Maps of Civil War battles in Virginia: 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865

World War I

  • Caroline County Men Who Served in World War I. RootsWeb.

World War II

Naturalization and Citizenship[edit | edit source]

Online Naturalization Indexes and Records

Newspapers[edit | edit source]

For online newspaper resources, see the Virginia Newspapers page.

  • The Caroline Progress, Bowling Green, VA (current newspaper).
  • Virginia Gazette: Indexed images of the Virginia Gazette (1736-1780) are available online through the Colonial Williamsburg website. In addition, Professor Tom Costa and The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia have created a database of all runaway advertisements for slaves, indentured servants, transported convicts, and ship deserters listed in this source and other Virginia newspapers (1736-1803), see: The Geography of Slavery in Virginia. These newspapers are valuable resources for all regions of Virginia.

Obituaries[edit | edit source]

Other Records[edit | edit source]

Miscellaneous Records

Periodicals[edit | edit source]

Probate Records[edit | edit source]

For probate records, indexes, and databases, see Virginia Probate Records.

Online Probate Indexes and Records

School Records[edit | edit source]

Social Security Records[edit | edit source]

Tax Records[edit | edit source]

For additional online collections and the value and use of Virginia's tax lists in your research, see Virginia Taxation.

Online Tax Indexes and Records

  • 1783 Caroline County Personal Property List, 1783. William and Mary College Quarterly, 1st Series, Vol. 27 (1919):154-163. Online at: JSTOR ($), Caroline County U.S. GenWeb Archives. Available at FHL. Reprint in Virginia Tax Records. 1983. Baltimore, MD : Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. available at FHL.
  • 1783 Virginia Tax Payers, 1782-87, Other Than Those Published by the United States Census Bureau. 1940. By Augusta B. Fothergill and John Mark Naugle. Baltimore, MD : Genealogical Publishing Co. Online at: FamilySearch Digital Library, FHL 975.5 R4f 1978. 1783 personal property tax list of Caroline County.
  • 1783-1799 Caroline County Personal Property Tax Lists 1783-1799. Online at: Binns Genealogy ($).
  • 1787 The 1787 Census of Virginia: An Accounting of the Name of Every White Male Tithable Over 21 Years, the Number of White Males Between 16 & 21 Years, the Number of Slaves over 16 & Those Under 16 Years, Together with a Listing of Their Horses, Cattle & Carriages, and Also the Names of All Persons to Whom Ordinary Licenses and Physician's Licenses Were Issued. By Netti Schreiner-Yantis and Florene Speakman Love. c1987. Springfield, Virginia : Genealogical Books in Print. At various libraries (WorldCat). The source of this publication is the 1787 personal property tax list. Caroline County is included in Vol. 1.
  • 1787-1789 Some Delinquent Taxpayers 1787-1790. By Robert Y. Clay. The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1976):29-34; Vol. 21, No. 2 (Apr.-Jun. 1977):113-118. FHL, American Ancestors by NEHGS ($). These records identify migrants who left the county and often their intended destinations. Some of Caroline County's 1789 Delinquent Lists appear on 20:29; 1787-1789 Delinquent Lists appear on 21:116-117.
  • 1789-1797 Caroline County Land Tax Lists 1789-1797. Online at: Binns Genealogy ($).
  • 1789, 1799 Land Tax Lists of Caroline County, Virginia. Online at: Binns Genealogy.
  • 1789, 1799 Personal Property Tax Lists of Caroline County, Virginia. Online at: Binns Genealogy.
  • 1800 Caroline County, Virginia, 1800 Tax List. The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Apr.-Jun. 1970):82-87; Vol. 14, No. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 1970):112-116; Vol. 14, No. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1970):155-159. Online at: American Ancestors by NEHGS ($). FHL.
  • 1815 1815 Directory of Virginia Landowners (and Gazetteer). 1997-2000. By Roger D. Ward. Athens, Georgia : Iberian Pub. Co. 6 vols. FHL 975 E4w v. 2. The source for this publication is the 1815 land tax. Caroline County is included in Vol. 3.

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

For additional indexes, databases, and details, see Virginia Vital Records.

Birth[edit | edit source]

Beth Fridley has published the following indexes online at Ancestry:

Marriage[edit | edit source]

Death[edit | edit source]

Divorce[edit | edit source]

Research Facilities[edit | edit source]

Archives[edit | edit source]

Listed below are archives in Caroline County. For state-wide facilities, see Virginia Archives and Libraries.

Family History Centers[edit | edit source]

Family History Center and Affiliate Library Locator map - search for local Family History Centers or Affiliate Libraries

  • Family History Centers provide one-on-one assistance, free access to center-only databases, and to premium genealogical websites.
  • FamilySearch Affiliate Libraries have access to most center-only databases, but may not always have full services normally provided by a family history center.

Local Centers and Affiliate Libraries

Libraries[edit | edit source]

Listed below are libraries in Caroline County. For state-wide library facilities, see Virginia Archives and Libraries.

  • Caroline County Genealogical Society, P.O. Box 9, Bowling Green, VA 22427
  • Caroline Historical Society, P.O. 324, Bowling Green, VA 22427

Museums[edit | edit source]

Societies[edit | edit source]

Listed below are societies in Caroline County. For state-wide genealogical and historical societies, see Virginia Societies.
Caroline Library, 17202 Richmond Turnpike, Bowling Green, VA 22427Website

Historic Port Royal (historical society)Website

Websites[edit | edit source]

  • FamilySearch Catalog – The FamilySearch catalog contains descriptions and access information for all genealogical materials (including books, online materials, microfilm, microfiche, and publications) in their collection.  Use Historical Records to search for specific individuals in genealogical records.

Research Guides[edit | edit source]

Compiled genealogies are a good place to start research for this area, see Caroline County, Virginia Genealogy. If you are researching families who lived in Caroline County, Virginia between the 1760s and 1790s, the Sparacios' books are a great time saver. They comprehensively index several publications covering that period:

  • Surname Index of Antient Press Publications. 1993. By Ruth Trickey Sparacio and Sam Sparacio. McLean, VA : R. S. Sparacio, Antient Press. 14+ vols. FHL Collection 975.5 P22s v. 1-2; publisher's website: Antient Press.
  • Records of Tidewater Virginia Counties. By Virginia Lee Hutcheson Davis. Tidewater Virginia Families: A Magazine of History and Genealogy, Vol. 1, No. 2 (May-June 1992):53-66. FHL Collection 975.51 D25t. For Caroline County, see p. 55.
  • Research Opportunities in Caroline County. By Virginia Lee Hutcheson Davis. The Virginia Genealogical Society Newsletter, Vol. 18, No. 3 (May-June 1992):1-3. FHL Collection. Online at: Virginia Genealogical Society ($).
  • A Guide to the Counties of Virginia: Caroline County. By John Frederick Dorman. The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1963):30-33. FHL Collection. Online at: American Ancestors ($).

References[edit | edit source]

  2. .Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Iowa.At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  3. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Iowa.At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  4. Lost Records Localities: Counties and Cities with Missing Records, 2, in Library of Virginia (accessed 4 April 2014).
  5. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Iowa.At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  6. Wikipedia contributors, "Caroline_ County,_Virginia," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia,,_Virginia accessed 19 Decamber 2019.
  7. Wikipedia Contributors, "Caroline of Ansbach," in Wikipedia: The Free Online Encyclopedia,, accessed 13 January 2012.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Robert Baylor Semple and George William Beale, A History of the Rise and Progress of the Baptists in Virginia (Pitt and Dickinson, 1894), 118-119, 186. Digital version at Google Books.
  9. Ralph Emmett Fall, Hidden Village, Port Royal, Virginia, 1744-1981 (Port Royal, Va.: R.E. Fall, 1982), 281. FHL Book 975.5362/P1 H2f.
  10. "Virginia Memory: Chancery Records Index Availability," Library of Virginia (accessed 26 January 2010).
  11. Wikipedia contributors, "Port Royal, Virginia," in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia,,_Virginia, accessed 30 May 2012.
  12. Ralph Emmett Fall, Hidden Village: Port Royal, Virginia, 1744-1981 (Verona, Va.: McClure Printing Company, Inc., 1982), 195-219.
  13. Ninth Census of the United States: Statistics of Population, Tables I to VIII Inclusive (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1872), 70. Digital version at Internet Archive; FHL Book 973 X2pcu.
  14. Stuart Lee Butler, A Guide to Virginia Militia Units in the War of 1812 (Athens, Ga.: Iberian Pub. Co., 1988), 64, 79. FHL Book 975.5 M2bs.
  15. Robert K. Krick, 9th Virginia Cavalry (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, c1982). FHL Book 975.5 M2vr v. 2.
  16. Darryl Holland, 24th Virginia Cavalry (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, 1997). FHL Book 975.5 M2vr v. 128.
  17. Robert K. Krick, 30th Virginia Infantry (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, 1983). FHL Book 975.5 M2vr v. 4.
  18. Homer D. Musselman, 47th Virginia Infantry (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, 1991). FHL Book 975.5 M2vr v. 73.
  19. Heritage Preservation Services, Civil War Battle Summaries by State, (accessed 2 August 2012).
  20. Genealogical Society of Utah, Parish and Vital Records List (July 1998). Microfiche. Digital version at