Until recently, my knowledge of the westward expansion, the Western frontier, and pioneers mainly came from the popular Little House on the Prairie books and the pioneer computer game Oregon Trail. (I naively thought all pioneers died from dysentery out on the plains!) Being familiar with United States history can actually help in your family history work if you have pioneer ancestors. By looking at when your ancestors were born, if they moved, and where they moved, you can easily see if your family had any pioneers involved in settling the great Western frontier.
Westward expansion picked up speed in 1803 with President Thomas Jefferson and the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France. With $15 million, Jefferson doubled the amount of land in the United States. He then commissioned Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to map the newly purchased land and find a way to the Pacific Ocean.
Extensive expansion into the Western frontier did not get far, however, until around the 1840s when the idea of Manifest Destiny took a strong hold on the American psyche. The Homestead Act also played a large role in later years.
The term Manifest Destiny was first coined by newspaper editor John L. O’Sullivan, although the attitude had already been present in the American mind. Manifest Destiny is the idea that it was the destiny of the United States to spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. United States lawmakers, enamored with this idea, helped extend the railroad and created incentives to send people west.
In 1846, President James K. Polk, a supporter of Manifest Destiny, reached a compromise with Britain on the Oregon Territory, making the 49th parallel the boundary between Canada and the United States.
Shortly afterward, at the end of the Mexican–American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe, the States gained more than 525,000 square miles of land that would later become Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.
Westward expansion would ultimately involve more than 7 million pioneers living in the Trans-Appalachian West and the addition of 22 new states. A timeline of the early history of the United States can help you understand what events your ancestors might have been part of in early and late westward expansion.
Why Did the Pioneers Move West?
The news of open land reached the ears of immigrants, freed slaves, farmers, single women, and others. For many, life in the eastern states had lost its appeal. Some had trouble finding a job, overcrowding started being an issue in certain areas, and farmers wanted more land to farm. Others just didn’t like living in what was becoming an industry-driven country with large cities. Still others moved west to escape persecution. Many people living in modern-day Utah and surrounding areas had pioneers in their family move west with Brigham Young and the Mormon pioneers starting in 1846.
In 1848, the California Gold Rush began. The gold rush attracted opportunists, miners, and businessmen. It also brought much needed goods to the West and created small mining towns. Pioneers came on several routes, the most common being the California and Oregon Trails.
Texas ranches provided work for cowboys and ranchers. In later years, free-range cattle would be rounded up and fenced in. With less cattle roaming the open land, space was made for even more pioneers to settle on.
The government also provided incentives such as the Homestead Act for people to move west into the newly acquired territory.
The Homestead Act of 1862
In 1862, the Homestead Act was created. It allowed pioneers to claim 160 acres of free land. This offer went to anyone who was listed as head of the household or who was at least 21 years of age. This act provided a great opportunity for people who looked to build a new life. The main requirement for making a claim was that claimants stayed on the land for five years and made various improvements, such as building a house. The only money spent was an $18 filing fee.
To file for a claim, a homesteader would take the survey coordinates to the nearest land office. Checks would be made to ensure that the land was not already claimed, and the homesteader would agree to build a house and farm, which were required for ownership to be finalized. Later, two neighbors would sign statements saying the requirements had been met. The landowner would then get a patent for the land signed by the president of the United States.
Homestead records are a great way to find information about where your ancestors lived and when they lived there. FamilySearch has a large database for finding patents and deeds.
Finding Pioneers in Your Family
With the thousands of pioneers who settled the Western frontier, it is very likely that you had an ancestor involved. Pioneer record collections that are freely available on FamilySearch are a great place to begin exploring your pioneer heritage:
Pioneer records can be hard to track down, as there weren’t “pioneer registers” persay that existed during the western expansion. These wiki pages can point you to other significant pioneer record collections (though not all of them are freely accessible):
- Oregon Trail Settlers and Records
- California Trail Settlers and Records
- Mormon Trail Settlers and Records