Cousin Chart—Family Relationships Explained

July 23, 2019  - by 
In the summer, a family of three generations having fun around a table in the garden sharing a meal. A teenager does a selfie with all the guests

Ever found yourself asking “So what exactly is a second cousin?” or debating with your family and friends about what it means to be a “first cousin once removed”? Use our cousin chart to settle the debate once and for all!

What Is a Cousin?

Cousins are people who share a common ancestor that is at least 2 generations away, such as a grandparent or great-grandparent. You and your siblings are not cousins because your parents are only 1 generation away from you.

Simple enough, right? But what does it mean to have a second or third or fourth cousin?

Cousin Chart. Cousins explained

What Is a Second Cousin?

The number associated with your cousin has to do with how many generations away your common ancestor is. For example:

  • First cousins share a grandparent (2 generations)
  • Second cousins share a great-grandparent (3 generations)
  • Third cousins share a great-great-grandparent (4 generations)
  • Fourth cousins share a 3rd-great grandparent (5 generations)

Quick Tip: Count how many “greats” are in your common ancestor’s title and add 1 to find out what number cousin your relative is. Note that grandparents have no “greats” in their titles, so cousins who share grandparents are first cousins because 0 + 1 = 1. However, keep in mind that this trick only works if you are both the same number of generations removed from the common ancestor.

Sometimes you and your cousin may share a common ancestor, but you each call this ancestor something different. For example, the common ancestor may be your great-grandparent, but your cousin’s great-great grandparent.

This is where the phrase “once removed” comes in handy.

What Does it Mean to be a Cousin “Once Removed”?

To be “once removed” from a cousin means you are separated by one generation. The number before “removed” will always represent the number of generations you are separated (“removed”) from the cousin.

If you look at the cousin chart above, you’ll see that each row is color-coded by generation. You, your siblings, and your first, second, and third cousins are all of the same generation.

You may have noticed that the boxes labeled “cousin once removed” are either from one generation above or below you. You are “once removed” if you are separated by 1 generation and “twice removed” if you are separated by 2 generations, and so on.

Quick Tip: Your parent’s first, second, and third cousins are also your first, second, and third cousins—but once removed. This is because your parents and their generation are 1 above yours. Likewise, your grandparents’ first, second, and third cousins are also your first, second, and third cousins, this time twice removed. This pattern continues throughout each generation. So, for example, a first cousin once removed is either the child of your first cousin or the parent of your second cousin.

Now that you know what to call your distant cousins, use the chart below (click to enlarge) to calculate your cousinship! You can also check out these other ways to calculate cousins.

cousin calculator, relationship chart, cousin chart

Note: These cousin naming-conventions are primarily used in English-speaking societies and may be different in other languages and cultures.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


  1. so if my mom is married to my stepdad, would it be legal to marry his nephew because we’re technically cousins by we’re only related by marriage not blood.

    1. Yes, it would be legal because, as you’ve pointed out, there is no blood relationship between you and the nephew.

  2. I’m trying to find my cousin William Allstaedt and James Allstaedt, I haven’t seen them in a long time and miss them very much, William and I were close when we were little. I still love them and want to know how they are.

    1. I pray that you get reunited with them soon. I also feel sad separated from relatives sometimes you know where they are but you just cant get across to them. That’s most depressing for me.

  3. I have had a possible match from My Heritage for my grandson. ‘What does 1st cousin once removed-second cousin’ mean. Do they have grandparent siblings in common or Great Granparents

  4. Question: When parents are 1st cousins. Say dad’s brother is both an uncle and a cousin once removed, correct? When ask how related, what do you put?

  5. can i have a relationship with my dad’s first cousin? like he’s the first cousin once removed because his mother is my grand aunt or my grandma’s sister

    1. It isn’t actually illegal, at least, not in the UK, but it still might not be advisable to have children for medical reasons. I am not sure about the legality in other countries, so you would need to check.

  6. If my grandfather has a half sister then how does the family tree start there? My dad and my grandfathers half sister’s children would be cousins how? And where does it go from there?