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Timeline of Important Events
1670 The Hudson’s Bay Company is founded.
1670 Hudson's Bay Company granted charter for “Rupert’s Land” – the entire drainage system of Hudson Bay: including northern Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, a large part of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta and some of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
1684 York Factory (trading post) established on southwest Hudson Bay.
1691 Henry Kelsey, a young employee of the Hudson's Bay Company, travels to the future Saskatchewan in search of First Nations trading partners.
1740s Guns and horses reach the plains of Saskatchewan.
1763 The Royal Proclamation of October 7 recognizes that the Indian Nations on land west of the established colonies should not be disturbed by settlement.
1774 The first trading post is established in Saskatchewan at Cumberland House, a central location for a transportation and supply post. Several waterways led north and northwest to the Churchill and Athabasca regions as well as eastward to Hudson Bay, and southwest to the Great Plains.
1776-77 Plains Cree suffer a smallpox epidemic.
1781 Chippewyan suffer a smallpox epidemic which almost destroyed them as a tribe.
1781-1782 Cree suffer a smallpox epidemic.
1820 Sir Peregrine Maitland advocates the concept of residential schools for Indian children.
1830 Assiniboine suffer extensive smallpox epidemic.
1840 The first school in Saskatchewan is established at Cumberland House.
1871 August 21,Signing of Treaty 2; it covers a small portion of southeastern Saskatchewan.
1867 Confederation of Canada
1870 North Western Territory and Rupert’s Land transferred from control of Hudson’s Bay Company to the Dominion of Canada.
1870s The bison are quickly disappearing from the plains due to massive slaughter for hides and to eliminate the subsistence for plains tribes, to force them onto reserves. Plains tribes were faced with extreme hardship and starvation. By 1880, the bison were gone.
1870 A large number of Metis leave Manitoba and settle in the provisional North West territory of Saskatchewan
1874 September 15, Treaty 4 is signed, covering Saskatchewan south of the South Saskatchewan River. The federal government agrees to provide schools on reserves.
1876 September 9, Treaty 6 is signed, covering a large part of Saskatchewan north of the South Saskatchewan River.
1880s Nearly 50% of the population on Reserves perish due to diseases such as tuberculosis, whooping cough, measles, and diphtheria.
1885 Metis uprising – North West Rebellion at Batoche
1899 June 21, Treat 8 is signed. Parts of northern Saskatchewan.
1906 August 28, Treaty 10 is signed. What is left of northern Saskatchewan.
Tribes and Bands (First Nations) of Saskatchewan
- A list of tribes and contact information in is found at Native American Nations
- A list of bands is found at First Nations Bands of Saskatchewan
- Map and contact information on First Nations bands, tribal councils, and other information in Saskatchewan. First Nations in Saskatchewan (pdf file)
- "Indian genealogy records : records of births, marriages and deaths of the members of the Indian bands of Wollaston Lake Post including Lac La Hache band and Brochet or Barren Lands band": by Maigret, Father: FHL 1013608
- Indian Registers, 1951-1984 , Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, are maintained at the Library and Archives in Ottawa. Access to these records is restricted. Inquiries must be directed to the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada regional offices.
Important Web Sites
Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs. Annual report of the Department of Indian Affairs 1886 Department of Indian Affairs, 1886. Original from the New York Public Library. Digitized 27 Nov 2007. Reports of the Indian Commissioner for Manitoba, Keewatin and the North West Terriotires, the various Indian Agents, Inspectors of Agencies and Farms, and the Principals of Industrial Schools &c Qu'Appelle Industrial School Treaty 4 Report on Rev. Father Hugonnard, Principal.
Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs. Annual report of the Department of Indian Affairs. 1891. Department of Indian Affairs, 1891. Original from the University of California. Digitized 8 Oct 2010. Reports of the Indian Commissioner for Manitoba, Keewatin and the North West Terriotires, the various Indian Agents, Inspectors of Agencies and Reserves, Inspectors of Industrial Schools and the Principals of Industrial Schools &c Qu'Appelle Industrial School Treaty 4 Report on Rev. Father Hugonnard, Principal. Battleford Industrial School Treaty NO. 6 Report on Rev. Thos. Clarke, Principal St. Josephs Industrial School Treay No. 7 Report on Rev. E. Claude, Principal Rupert's Land Industrial School Manitoba Report on Rev. W.A. Burman, Principal.
Dyck, Noel. Differing Visions: Administering Indian Residential Schooling in Prince Albert, 1867-1995, Halifax: Fernwood Publishing: Prince Albert: The Prince Albert Grand Council, 1997. Review by Adrian Tanner Memorial University as published in Anthropologica Vol. 40, No. 2 Published by Canadian Anthropology Society, 1998.
" First Nations History - First Nations and Metis Relations - Government of Saskatchewan." First Nations and Metis Relations - Government of Saskatchewan. Government of Saskatchewan, n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <http://www.fnmr.gov.sk.ca/community/fn-history/> . Jenness, Diamond. The Indians of Canada. 6th ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963. Print.
Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer On the Ethnography and Philology of the Indian Tribes of the Missouri Valley: With a Map and Plates Volume 12, Part 2 of Transactions of the American Philosophical Society The Society, 1862. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized 12 Jun 2012. Length 461 pages. Subjects Indians of North America.Note even though the title says "Missouri" the book was written before the U.S. Canada boundary survey, and the people resident on the lands of the Saskatchewan Rivers were mentioned.
Henry, Alexander. Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories Between the Years 1760 and 1776 Native American Series. Applewood Books, 2009. ISBN 1429022442, 9781429022446. Length 399 pages.
Malinowski, Sharon. The Gale encyclopedia of Native American tribes. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Print.
Olsen, Brad. Sacred Places North America: 108 Destinations Sacred Places: 108 Destinations Series. Sacred places 108 series. Illustrated by Brad Olsen. Edition 2, revised. Publisher CCC Publishing, 2008. ISBN 1888729198, 9781888729191.
Smith, Derek G. Anthropologica Chapter: The "Policy of Aggressive Civilization" and Projects of Governance in Roman Catholic Industrial Schools for Native Peoples in Canada 1870-1895 complete with Bibliography 2001. 164 pages. Vol. 43, No. 2. Published by Canadian Anthropology Society.
Swanton, John Reed. The Indian tribes of North America. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 1952. Print.
"The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan | Details." The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan | Home. Canadian Plains Research Centre, University of Regina, n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html>.