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Grundherrschaft and Gutsherrschaft in Germany
Through the centuries most of our ancestors lived in rural areas and came under the auspices of a Grund- or Gutsherr (landowner). Most cultivable land was owned by them – less by small farmers, although it was possible for a Grundherr to lease land to more or less independent farmers. A Grundherr can be lord over a small area, does not have to be a nobleman and can also be a monastery. A manorial system was complex and embraced all aspects of life. A Gutsherr, also a manor lord, owned land and managed it through workers. The farmers of the surrounding area were his subordinates and their affairs were regulated by him or his administrator.
There were three forms of manorial systems:
2. Interest or annuity based
3. Manorial or patrimonial based
This system consisted of a manor and a couple of dependent farms. The manor lord owned acreage, meadows, gardens, woods, lakes, rivers, canals, vineyards and mills. The manor lord lived either at the manor house or had his administrator (Villikus) conduct the business. This man was responsible to collect contributions from the farmers, also called Grundholden. He had the power to hold court. Even if some farmers were independent, somehow they became part of the multifaceted enterprise of the manor.
• The interest or annuity based system
This system very much functioned as villication did, only there did not exist the right to ownership. The manor lord leased the land and collected interest or annuities. This form of manorial system was prevalent in areas of clearing or colonization.
• The manorial or patrimonial system
East of the Elbe River in Brandenburg, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, East/West Prussia, Silesia (Ober-/Niederlausitz) the Gutsherrschaft was prominent. A Gut consisted of a castle like manor house to which was attached a large farming area and smaller farming units (Vorwerk). A Gutsherr was interested in expansion by re-cultivating waste lands and annexing or buying farmlands. In this wise an entire village could become part of the Gutsherrschaft and economic growth be ensured. The entire area was cultivated by farm hands, subordinate farmers and squatters (Gärtner, Häusler). The members of a Gut were part of a more or less crushing personal dependence. Dependents had to observe Erbuntertänigkeit (subservience which was inheritable) Schollenpflicht (tied to the area) and Gesindedienstzwang (had to provide services by waiting in the wings). Gutsherrschaft was spreading because authoritative laws were transferred to the Gutsherrr of noble descent. He exercised police powers and patrimonial jurisprudence.
With all these regulations, obligations, stipulations etc. there are numerous records re. land transactions, regulative and obligatory actions involving our ancestors who dwelled in rural Germany.
Land surveys and their genealogical value
On February 24, 1836 the Grand duchy of Oldenburg announced that the former Munster territories were to be surveyed. This act launched the systematic and complete land survey of the Grand Duchy Oldenburg. This was put in place to determine more correct property taxes. Up to this point taxes were based on voluntary information about properties. Often large portions of land were not reported. From 1836 on a more just property tax was to be calculated based on lot cadastres re. the new administrations in Vechta and Cloppenburg. After it was recognized that only correct surface details could lead to just taxes, the whole of Oldenburg was surveyed. As measuring norms were used the Oldenburg Katasterrute (1 Rute = 2,96 Meter) and the Kastasterjück (1 Jück = 0,5603 Hektar). The survey ranged from 1836-1855. 3,100 maps were drafted at a scale of 1:3000, then followed the official estimates for all taxable property (land and houses). The results were entered in books (Flurbücher or Mutterrollen). The new taxes were levied in 1866.
From the cadastral calculations emerged the parish maps and the topographical maps of the Grand duchy Oldenburg at a scale of 1:50.000 on 14 sheets.
The land surveys of 1836 are still relevant today when it comes to measurements, borders and distribution of property.
Source: Vermesser sorgten für Steuergerechtigkeit
Taxes recorded in Mutterrollen can be accessed through archives. An example is the file Best.76-25 Akz 309 Nr. 1099 “Katasterweden im Amt Damme, Kirchspiel Damme, Bauernschaft Tottinghausen – Mutterrolle 1838. This file contains the inhabitants of Rottinghausen such as Vollerben, Halberben, Markkötter, Brinksitzer, and Heuermann (a cross section of the population) giving the following information:
Name of property
What it is (field, meadow, etc.)
Taxes in grain or hay
Taxes to be paid in Rthl., Gro. Pf.
Indication of property succession with names of former owner and new buyer with reference to cadastral page
- This page was last modified on 21 August 2012, at 14:47.
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